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The Report of the National Consultation Workshop to Review by tyndale

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									           The Report of the National
Consultation Workshop to Review the
               Draft NSDS Report &
                  NCSD Guidelines

                                      9th & 10th June 2006,
                     Induruwa Beach Resort Hotel, Kaikawala




                                              Organized by
                               The Ministry of Environment
                                                       and
            The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Sri Lanka
                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS



1.      INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1

             A. Background......................................................................................1

             B.    Objectives of the workshop .................................................................... 1

             C. Participants ............................................................................................. 2

2.      THE WORKSHOP PROGRAMME ............................................................................ 3

             A. Inauguration Session ............................................................................... 3

             B. Presentations ........................................................................................... 3
                i    Global Perspective ......................................................................... 3
                  ii      Initiatives at the Country-Level ...........................................................3
                  iii     Introduction to the Agreed Thrust Areas .......................................... 4

             C. Introduction to the NSDS Matrix and Sector Clusters ............................... 4

             D. Proceedings of the Workshop .................................................................. 4
                i.   Breakout groups .............................................................................. 4
                       NSDS Strategic Thrusts: .............................................................. 4
                       NSDS Sectors: ............................................................................. 5
                ii.  Plenary Sessions ............................................................................ 5
                       NSDS Strategic Thrusts: .............................................................. 5
                       Vision and Mission of NSDS: ........................................................ 5
                       NSDS Sectors: ............................................................................. 6
                       Key Sectors for receiving sector inputs for NSDS: ........................ 6
                       NSDS sector report format: .......................................................... 8
                       Modalities of NCSD: ..................................................................... 9

3.      RECOMMENDATIONS AND WAY FORWARD:............................................................ 11


ANNEXES:

     Annex I:       List of participants ............................................................................... 12

     Annex II:      Presentation on NSDS-Global perspectives ........................................ 15

     Annex III:     Presentation on NSDS and NCSD process in Sri Lanka...................... 18

     Annex IV:      Agenda of the workshop...................................................................... 21

     Annex V:       NSDS Strategic Thrusts and Matrix Analysis ....................................... 22




                                                               i
                                   1.       INTRODUCTION


A.       Background

The National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS) provides a long-term vision of
sustainable development with clear goals and objectives. The Agenda 21 of the 1992 Earth
Summit in Rio emphasized the need for every country to set up a national coordinating
structure to translate their aspirations for sustainable development. By 2002, when the World
Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) met in Johannesburg, very few countries in
the region had established these coordinating mechanisms to pursue integrated
development policies. At the WSSD, the countries were called upon to achieve the needed
integration by formulating the National Sustainable Development Strategies (NSDS) by
2005, and establishing the National Councils for Sustainable Development (NCSD) to help
implement these strategies. Accordingly, each country is required to develop the NSDS
involving stakeholders and adopting a participatory process.

In Sri Lanka, the Ministry of Environment (MoE) has appointed The World Conservation
Union (IUCN) as the Local Collaborating Center to undertake the task of preparing (i)
country-specific guidelines for the NSDS, and (ii) guidelines for the NCSD. Financial support
for this process has been provided by UNEP.

The Ministry of Environment held the Inception workshop for the preparatory process in
March 2005, at which the participants identified strategic thrusts (priority areas) for NSDS.

Based on the identified thrust areas, IUCN together with the members of the National
Steering Committee appointed for this purpose prepared the initial draft documents for the
NSDS and NCSD.

B.       Objectives of the workshop

The First stakeholder workshop, jointly organized by the Ministry of Environment and The
World Conservation Union (IUCN) was held from 9th-10th June 2006, at the Induruwa Beach
Hotel. The aims and objectives of the workshop were as follows:


        Obtain wider consensus on the identified strategic thrust areas
        Obtain stakeholder inputs on the NSDS Thrust Analysis Matrix
        Establish vision, mission and objectives of NSDS
        Agree on sectors and sub-sectors
        Obtain inputs for developing modalities of the National Council on Sustainable
         Development (NCSD)
        Identify information sources, key stakeholders and experts for further consultation in
         the preparation of the NSDS and the NCSD




                                               1
C.    Participants

In all, 47 participants attended the workshop representing government ministries,
departments, NGOs and representatives from the private sector. The detailed list of
participants is provided in Annex I of this report.




                                        2
                              2.       WORKSHOP PROGRAMME

The workshop was organized as a two-day event, from 9th –10th of June 2006 and was held in
the Induruwa Beach Resort, Kaikawala.

A.      Inaugural Session

Mr W R M S Wickremasinghe, Additional Secretary of the Ministry of Environment,
inaugurated the workshop. Mr. Wickremasinghe welcomed the participants to the workshop
and expressed his appreciation to IUCN and the members of the Steering Committee for its
efforts in drafting the background documentation for the workshop. He stated that Sri Lanka
was one of the first countries in the Asian region to take on the obligation of the preparation
of the NSDS and the NCSD and this effort was therefore being seen as a pioneering one. He
sought the active participation of all identified stakeholders present, to contribute towards
this nationally significant process and was optimistic that the workshop would be successful
in shaping the NSDS and NCSD preparatory process.

Mrs Shiranee Yasaratne., Country Representative of The World Conservation Union (IUCN),
Sri Lanka thanked the Ministry of Environment for having entrusted this task to the Union and
said that every effort is being made to making this nationally significant process a success.
She pointed out that for Sri Lanka, the need to ensure sustainable development was not just
a fulfillment of an international obligation. It is in fact, of serious national concern. The quest
for rapid economic growth in view of rising expectations of a largely poor population is a very
complex task. With the current political initiatives for accelerated development and diffused
institutional arrangements, the need for the NSDS and the NCSD has become even more
important. She urged all participants to give their utmost co-operation to the preparatory
process and wished the deliberations of the meeting all success.

B.      Presentations

i. Global Perspective

Mr. Bhujang Rao Dharmaji, Senior Programme Officer, IUCN Asia, made a presentation on
the overall NSDS process, its synergies with other sustainable development processes
including NCSA, NCSP, NBSAP and the relationships of NSDS to PRSPs and country-level
MDG’s. The presentation highlighted the various NSDS approaches, key elements and
processes, NSDS reporting format and other country experiences with the NSDS process. It
was also mentioned that there is no single type of approach or method that can be applied
and there is built-in flexibility for every country to define an appropriate methodology. The
presentation emphasized the importance of considering the resource mobilization process as
early as possible during the preparation of the NSDS. The power-point presentation made by
Mr Rao is provided in Annex II of this document.

ii. Initiatives at the Country-Level

Mr. Anura Jayatilleke, Director Environmental Economics & Global Affairs Division, Ministry
of Environment outlined several milestones that have been achieved in the context of
sustainable development priorities at the country-level. An inception workshop was
conducted in 2005 with a view to build capacity on NSDS and to define the role of the local
collaborating center for the preparation of the NCSD and NSDS. Participants were also

                                                3
briefed on the national initiatives towards achieving sustainable development. Mr Jayatilleke
informed participants of the National Environmental Action Plans made by the Ministry of
Environment at 3-4 year intervals since 1992 and of the current action plan titled “Caring for
Environment 2003-2007”. It was also highlighted that sustainable development issues have
been addressed and elucidated in processes including the Rio Report prepared in 1992, the
national report for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), global
sustainable development forums and national communications to environmental conventions
such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations Convention on
Combating Desertification (UNCCD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC). Mr Jayatilleke urged IUCN to develop synergies and
complementarities with other sustainable development initiatives including the ongoing
National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA) process during the preparation of the NSDS and
the NCSD.

iii. Introduction to the Agreed Thrust Areas

Participants were then briefed on the processes for articulating the NSDS and NCSD and the
purpose of the NSDS and the role of NCSD were described referring to the UNEP guidelines.
The process of the consultation was explained and also the expected outputs of the
workshop. The principles for the NSDS and NCSD preparation were then introduced to the
participants (Annex III).

C.       Introduction to the NSDS Matrix and Sector Clusters

The participants were then presented with the NSDS matrix, which has identified key sectors
to be covered under the agreed thrust areas, linkages with the Sri Lanka MDG targets and
identified sub-sector policies, strategies and legislation relating to each of the strategic
thrusts.

The sector clusters already identified by the Steering Committee for mainstreaming
sustainable development priorities were then presented and approaches for facilitating
integration amongst sectors.

The draft format for sector papers was also introduced. Identified sector experts would
prepare the sector papers as per the identified clusters as inputs into the NSDS.

D.       Proceedings of the Workshop

The workshop was spread over the course of two days. The detailed agenda of the workshop
is provided in Annex IV.

i.       Breakout groups

NSDS Strategic Thrusts:
The participants were structured into three groups that reviewed and discussed the NSDS
draft documents and provided their inputs. The groups were structured in the following
manner:
        Group 1: Reviewing the matrix and addressing gaps
        Group 2: Developing vision and mission for the NSDS
        Group 3: Reviewing the NSDS strategic thrusts identified at the inception workshop
                                               4
NSDS Sectors:
On the second day the participants were grouped into three groups viz., social, environment
& economic based on their respective expertise. Each group discussed the list of key sectors
for mainstreaming sustainable development priorities and developing sustainable
development strategies for each of the sectors. The groups also deliberated upon the draft
format for the sector report. The groups also discussed the development of modalities for
the implementation of NCSD.

ii.       Plenary Sessions

Group outcomes were presented by group leaders during the plenary after each session and
shared widely amongst participants and were subject to detailed discussions. Consensus
among all participants on group outcomes was obtained.

NSDS Strategic Thrusts:
The stakeholders agreed to the thrust areas under which the NSDS goals and targets are to
be determined. The agreed NSDS thrust areas are: (1) Eradicate poverty, (2) Sound
Ecosystem Management, (3) Energy security and management, (4) Food security, (5) Clean
and pleasant environment (air, land and water), (6) Sustainable urbanization (Rural
economic development and zoning), (7) Good governance, (8) Social security, (9)
Knowledge-based society, (10) Protection of heritage and culture

The groups subsequent to the review of the matrix, provided inputs on the strategic thrusts
that were further deliberated upon by the plenary. Consensus was reached on inputs
received in respect of each strategic thrust area, sectors to be covered in the NSDS, relevant
sectoral policies, strategies available relating to each thrust area, current initiatives, the gaps
in the sub sectors that should be addressed in the NSDS and the relevant stakeholders
under each thrust. The updated matrix is given in Annex V.

Vision and Mission of NSDS:
The workshop came up with a vision and mission statement for the NSDS that would be
deliberated upon further. The participants identified “Sustained economic growth that is
socially equitable and ecologically sound, with peace and stability” as the vision for the
NSDS. The mission of the NSDS process for the next 30-50 years was identified to address
the ten strategic thrust areas in a multi stakeholder consultation process by:


         Developing cross thematic linkages and synergies;
         Developing complementarities with the MDGs and the PRSP processes;
         Developing country specific and multi-sectoral approaches encompassing political,
          cultural, historical and ecological considerations;
         Poverty, development and environmental issues;
         Developing innovative financial mechanisms; and
         Vehicle to carry forward MDGs beyond 2015


It was also agreed that the NSDS action plan would be prioritized for implementation in the
short, medium and long term.



                                                5
NSDS Sectors:
The most important activity of the workshop was to agree on the sectors for the preparation
of sector strategies. A list was prepared beforehand indicating the most important
development sectors and sub sectors.

A number of different sets of sectoral clusters have been identified for different purposes.
The Ministry of Environment has formed eight Committees on Environmental Policy
Management (CEPOMs) to coordinate environmental issues with sectoral ministries. The
National Council for Economic Development (NCED) uses 24 cluster committees engaging
over 400 private and public sector domain experts and citizen volunteers. Meanwhile, the
Ministry of Plan Implementation has also identified 22 sector groups. Traditionally, the
economy has been divided into three main sectors: Agriculture, Industries and Services. To
date, at least the first two remain as key sectors of development planning.

Considering the broad definition of sustainable development in the present exercise, a
tentative list of sector clusters was identified under three broader clusters i.e. economic,
social and environment and the list presented at the workshop for review.

The list was further reviewed and a list arrived at of sectors and sub sectors through wider
consensus among participants. The list of sector clusters were adjusted based on the
comments received and consensus was reached amongst the participants. With the
incorporation of the above suggestions, the agreed list of clusters is given below.

Key Sectors for receiving sector inputs for NSDS:
SD Component                   Sectoral Cluster               Sectors
Economic
                               1. Financial Services          Finance and Planning
                                                              Banking
                                                              Trade and Commerce
                                                              Enterprise Development and
                                                              Investment Promotion
                                                              Insurance
                               2.Infrastructure               Roads and Highways
                                                              Railways
                                                              Ports and Airports
                                                              Electricity
                                                              Posts and telecommunication
                                                              Urban Development and Water
                                                              Supply
                                                              Housing and Construction
                                                              Energy
                                                              Environment        infrastructure
                                                              (Waste Management)

                               3. Agriculture                 Agriculture Development
                                                              Irrigation
                                                              Agrarian Services and
                                                              Farmer Organizations
                                                              Plantation Industries
                                                              Fisheries
                                                              Livestock
                                                  6
                4. Industries                 Industrial Development
                                              Tourism
                                              SMEs
                5.Trade & Commerce

                6. Science & technology       Information technology
                                              Indigenous knowledge

                7. Rural Economy              Rural Industries and Self
                                              Employment Promotion
                                              Regional Development
                                              Cooperatives
                                              Estate Infrastructure
SOCIAL
                8.Human Resources Devt        Education
                                              Vocational     and     Technical
                                              Training, and Skill Development
                                              Labour and Employment
                                              Sports and Youth Affairs
                                              Child      Development      and
                                              Women’s Empowerment

                9. Social Welfare             Health Care
                                              Social Services
                                              Poverty Alleviation
                                              Rehabilitation and Resettlement
                                              Disaster Management

                10. Governance                Public Administration
                                              Public Sector Reforms
                                              Home Affairs
                                              Local      Government       and
                                              Provincial Councils
                                              Justice and Law Reforms
                                              Constitutional     Affairs  and
                                              National Integration
                                              Parliamentary Affairs
                                              Plan Implementation
                                              Media
                                              Law & order
                                              Constitutional affairs
                11. Culture                   Culture and National Heritage
                                              Religious Affairs

ENVIRONMENTAL
                12. Environment           &   Environmental Protection
                Natural Resources             Biodiversity
                                              Environmental Impact
                                              Marine & Coastal resources
                                              Land

                                7
                                                                  Water
                                                                  Forestry
                                                                  Wildlife
                                                                  Fisheries
                                                                  Air



NSDS sector report format:
The format for compiling the sector strategy was finalized at the workshop. Three groups
separately reviewed the draft format given to them and at the plenary, agreed on the
following amendments.
      Include a preamble in each sector paper. In the preamble brief the sustainable
       development approach within the sector and the role and the position of the sector
       with regard to NSDS vision, mission and objectives.
      The first three sections should follow the order 1.1 policy, 1.2 legal, and 1.3
       institutional.
      There could be gaps in the institutional framework due to devolution etc. evaluate
       effectiveness of institutional framework and identify the gaps in the institutional
       framework.
      In sector analysis, consider implementation as the most important aspect and look at
       the implementation aspect of policies and legislations.
      Under strategic recommendations, consider the need for sound financial resources
       mobilization strategies (ex. Use of market based instruments)
      The sector papers will be produced to get the NSDS Vision into Action. Linking the
       conceptual framework of NSDS to the selected set of development goals, targets and
       to the actions will form the focus of the sector paper.
      Ten sector papers will be produced for financial services, infrastructure, utilities,
       agriculture, industries, rural economy, human resource development, social welfare,
       governance and culture & environment covering all the identified sub sectors.


The participants agreed upon the following format for the chapter papers.

Section 1 will consist of the Preamble.

Section 2 will provide an Overview of the sector.

The sub section 2.1 provides the Policy framework. In this a brief description of the sector
policy framework in relation to national policy framework will be provided and subordinate
sector/ sub sector specific policies and target levels by 2010 or 2015 or more will also be
described. Where possible the trends over the past 3 years and government aspirations over
the next 5-10 years will be given.

The sub sector 2.2 describes the Legal & regulatory framework. It will provide brief summary
of the primary and secondary legislations affecting the sector, identifying the instruments that
are ineffective, partly effective and fully effective with justification. Also summarize the
principal requirements and approaches and efforts within the sector to develop more
systematic and effective regulation towards the sustainable development goals and targets.

                                               8
Sub section 2.3 describes the Institutional framework. This section provides a brief
description of the institutional framework governing the sector, with commentary on levels of
autonomy, areas of responsibility, decision making, and relationships with sub national
authorities, a summary of reform trends-decentralization, corporatization, regionalization etc
and process, regulation and effectiveness of legislations towards sustainable development
goals and targets.

Section 3 relates to the sector analysis. The sector analysis should:
      provide brief assessment, of level of achievement/implementation of policies,
       strategies, programmes and initiatives compared to set targets.
      identify reform initiatives, key performance problems and new institutions or
       mechanisms that are being considered or established.
      identify provisions for incorporation of NSDS, planning directions and trends, gaps
       and deficiencies in achieving each identified NSDS strategic thrusts and targets. The
       ten identified strategic thrusts i.e; Eradicate poverty, Sound Ecosystem Management,
       Energy security and management, Food security, clean and pleasant environment
       (air, land and water), Sustainable urbanization (Rural economic development and
       zoning), Good governance, Social security, Knowledge-based society and Protection
       of heritage and culture will be considered.
      acknowledge current targets.


Section 4 will be related to the strategic recommendation & action plan. This section would
specifically include:
      a summary matrix of recommended interventions and actions for each strategic
       thrusts and targets.
      clearly in a matrix, actions that are required to achieve set targets,
       actors/stakeholders capacity needs for the action implementation.


Section 5 is the Way Forward:
      Describe the enabling frameworks and mechanisms for implementation of the sector
       action plan and,
      suggest appropriate operational modalities for overall NSDS implementation.


Modalities of NCSD:
The participants identified their own versions of appropriate modalities for the NCSD. The
groups presented their views at the plenary. Three models were proposed for further
discussions. One model was to develop a structure for NCSD considering the structure and
modalities of the Committee on Environment & Policy Management (CEPOM) established in
the Ministry of Environment, aiming at integrating environmental policies and action plans in
other sectors. The second suggestion was to study and align the NCSD with the National
Council for Economic Development (NCED) that had been established under the Ministry of
Finance as a body comprising of private and government sectors to provide advice on
development of economic policies and programmes. The final suggestion was to establish
the NCSD as a policy making, approving and implementation monitoring body under the
leadership of H E the President. The decisions of the three groups are provided below:

                                               9
Group1: Environmental cluster
       Suggested to develop a structure for NCSD considering structure and modalities of
        to the committee on Environment & Policy Management (CEPOM) established in the
        Ministry of Environment.
       NCSD should be headed by the President
       The members should include the secretaries of relevant Ministries, chambers/private
        sector, and Provincial & Local Authorities and NGO representation.
       Legislation: give authority to the President


Group 2: Social
       Role of NCSD should be policy making, approving and implementation monitoring.
       The President should head NCSD, and the secretary to the Treasury should convene
        the council/should be the Secretary to the council.
       Relevant Cabinet Ministers, Chief Ministers of provincial councils and secretaries of
        key Ministries should be the members.
       An advisory council should be appointed for implementation monitoring and also play
        advisory role.
       Establish through a parliamentary bill.


Group 3: Economic
       In the development of appropriate modality for NCSD, learn from the existing National
        Council for Economic Development structure and the Advisory Council for
        Sustainable Development appointed few years ago to advice the Prime Minister. This
        is not functioning at present.
       Establish NCSD and align with the existing National Council for Economic
        Development (NCED). Expand the NCED to represent all stakeholders within the
        NCED structure. Include pressure groups in NCED. The new entity could be
        rechristened as the National Council for Sustainable Economic Development
        (NCSED).
       NCSED should be under the Ministry of Finance.




                                              10
                  3.      Recommendations and Way Forward:

The stakeholders following a successful workshop provided specific recommendations. The
participants identified the following steps that need to be adhered to in the process of
preparation of the NSDS and the NCSD:


      Ten sector papers will be produced covering all the sectoral clusters identified at the
       workshop. All stakeholders will provide assistance to the selected sector cluster
       writers.
      The sector cluster writers and sector experts will meet regularly and deliberate on
       issues to be covered in the sector report.
      Establishing links with the conceptual framework of NSDS to selected thrust areas,
       development goals, targets and corresponding actions will form the focus of each
       sector paper.
      With reference to sector analyses, implementation aspect of policies, strategies and
       action plans would be most important.
      In the context of strategic recommendations, the need for sound financial resources
       mobilization strategies was emphasized.


Subsequent to the deliberations, participants, reached consensus on the way forward, for
implementation of the NSDS and NCSD. The following were identified as the tasks to be
completed on a sequential basis:


      Finalization of sector writers; Provision of technical support to sector writers;
          Provision of the Workshop outcome to writers, Regular meetings of sector writers
           to review progress;
      Preparation of first draft (end of July, 2006);
      Presentation of the first draft to stakeholders including private sector (15th August,
       2006);
      Revision of drafts incorporating comments;
      Preparation of final draft (15th September, 2006);
      Preparation of the final Report;
      Briefing meeting with Cabinet Secretaries (Chaired by Secretary to the President);
      Obtain Cabinet endorsement for NSDS and NCSD; and
      Presentation of the NSDS to the Nation in December 2006




                                               11
                                                  Annex I
              List of Participants, Stakeholder Consultative Workshop (9th -10th June 2006)
                                At Induruwa Beach Resort Hotel, Kaikawala

No   Name                             Designation                    Institution               Contact Numbers
  1. Mr. W.R.M.S Wickremasinghe       Additional Secretary           Ministry of Environment
                                                                     87, Rajamalwatte Rd.
                                                                     Battaramulla
  2. Mr. M.P.A.U.S Fernando           Conservator General of         Forest Department         2866616
                                      Forests                                                  2866633
  3. Ms. S.K. Weerathunga             Additional Secretary           Ministry of Public
                                                                     Administration & Home
                                                                     Affairs
  4. Mr. K.B.H. Perera                Senior             Assistant   Ministry of Sports &      2669238,
                                      Secretary                      Youth Affairs             2697619
                                                                     420, Bauddaloka Mw,       Mobile-
                                                                     Colombo 7                 0779695774
  5. Dr. S.L.A. Daniel.               Additional Secretary           Ministry of Estate        2431517
                                                                     Infrastructure &
                                                                     Livestock Development
                                                                     P O Box 562, No. 45,
                                                                     St. Michael’s Rd,
                                                                     Colombo 3
  6. Mr. K.D.S. Ruwanchandra.         Senior Assistant               Ministry of Plantation    2436868
                                      Secretary                      Industries
                                                                     55/75, Vauxhall Lane,
                                                                     Coombo02
  7. Mr. Laxman Perera.               Additional Secretary           Ministry of Urban         2862394
                                                                     Development & Water
                                                                     Supply
                                                                     3rd Floor, Sethsiripaya
                                                                     Battaramulla
  8. Mr. Upul Ratnayake.              IT Manager.                    The National Chamber      5374801
                                                                     of Commerce of Sri
                                                                                         st
                                                                     Lanka (NCCSL), 1
                                                                     Floor, NCCSL Building
                                                                     450, D.R Wijewardana
                                                                     Mw, Colombo 10

  9. Mr. Tissa Fernando.              Director/ Environment          Reconstruction and        2496800
                                      Protection and                 Development Authority
                                      Management                     (RADA), No: 41,
                                                                     President Mw, Col. 01
  10.   Mrs. S E Yasaratne            Country Representative         IUCN                      2682416
  11.   Mr. L P D. Dayananda          Facilitator
  12.   Mr. A Kulathunga              Director/ Planning             Ministry of Environment
  13.   Ms. Diana de Alwis            Senior Programme               IUCN                      2694094
                                      Officer
  14. Mr. Bhujang Rao Dharmaji        Senior Programme               IUCN                      2682418
                                      Officer
  15. Mr. N Abeywickrama              Director / Planning &          Ministry of Fisheries &   2327060
                                      Monitoring                     Aquatic Resources         2541184
  16. Mr. M. Watson                   Project Manager                NCSA
  17. Mr. Nihal Rodrigo               Senior Economist               Central Bank of Sri       2477182,
                                                                     Lanka,                    2477173
                                                                     No. 30, Janadhipathi
                                                                     Mw, Colombo 01




                                                    12
No    Name                          Designation               Institution                Contact Numbers
  18. Dr. P. A. Samaratunga         Economist                 Institute of Policy        2431368,
                                                              Studies                    2431378
                                                              99, St. Michel’s road,
                                                              Colombo 03.
  19. Mr. Asitha Seneviratne        Director                  Ministry of Industrial     2323293
                                                              Development



  20. Dr. A. M. U. Tennakoon        Economist                                            2784320




  21. Mr. Wasantha Ekanayake.       Director/ Development     Ministry of Agriculture,   2687381
                                                              Irrigation & Mahaweli      2687386
                                                              Development
                                                              500, T B Jaya Mw,
                                                              Colombo 10
  22. Mr. J.A.S.A. Jayasinghe.      Deputy Director           Mahaweli Authority of      2685936
                                                              Sri Lanka (MASL)           2687240
                                                              500, T B Jaya Mw,
                                                              Colombo 10
  23. Mrs. Chandima Karunarathna.   Assistant Director        Institute for              2686089
                                                              Construction, Training
                                                              & Development
                                                              (ICTAD)
                                                              Savsiripaya, 123
                                                              Wijerama Mw, Col 07
  24. Mr. S.R.K. Gamage.            Chief Engineer            Ceylon Electricity Board   2430473
                                    (Dist. Planning)          50, Sir Chittampalam A
                                                              Gardiner Mw, P.O Box
                                                              540, Col 02
  25. Mr. Asoka Abeygunawardane     Chairman                  Energy Forum               5524613
                                                              245, Polhengoda Rd,
                                                              245 Kirulapana

  26. Mr. Sampath Manthrinayake     Assistant Director /      Ministry of Power &        2681277
                                    Planning and Monitoring   Energy                     2688771
                                                              493/1, T B Jaya Mw,
                                                              Colombo 10

  27. Mr. Parakrama Jayasinghe.     President                 Bio Energy Association     2502609
                                                              of Sri Lanka,
                                                              996A,Maradana Rd
                                                              Colombo 08
  28. Mr. Malaka Dasanayaka.        Environment Scientist.    Environment                2875905
                                                              Landscape Division.

  29. Mr. N.D. Wilfred.             Assistant Director        Ministry of Regional       2303774
                                                              Development
                                                              No.29, Galle Face
                                                              Terrace, Colombo 03
  30. Mr. P. Shivananda.            Assistant Director.       Ministry of Vocational     2596900.
                                    (Planning)                and Technical Training
                                                              “Nipunatha Piayasa”
                                                              354/2 , Elwitigala Mw ,
                                                              Narahenpita Col 05

  31. Ms. Sujini Gamage.            Scientific Officer        National Science           2696772
                                                              Foundation                 2694754
                                                              47/5, Maitland Pl, Col
                                                   13
No    Name                          Designation                  Institution               Contact Numbers
  32. Mr. P.P.S. Rohana De Silva.   Assistant Secretary          Ministry of Labor         2368938.
                                                                 Relations and Foreign
                                                                 Employment,
                                                                 Labour Secretariat,
                                                                 Col 5

  33. Mr. Hemachandra Ranathunga    Additional Secretary         Ministry of Samurdhi &    2689635
                                                                 Poverty alleviation
                                                                 7A, Reid Av. Colombo
  34. Mr. P. P. Noordeen.           Deputy Director              Ministry of Local
                                                                 Government and
                                                                 Provincial Councils,
                                                                 330, Union Place
                                                                 Colombo 02
  35. Mr. S.M.I.B Dedunupitiya      Assistant Director           Wayamba Environment       037-2229688
                                                                 Authority, “Maligawa”,
                                                                 Kurunegala.
  36. Ms. Manishka de Mel           Programme Officer            Environmental             4528483
                                                                 Foundation Limited
                                                                 (EFL), 148/36,
                                                                 Havelock Rd, Col.05
  37. Ms. L. Ruhunuge.              Area Engineer (Galle)        Coast Conservation        0912234832
                                                                 Department
                                                                  th
                                                                 4 Floor, New
                                                                 Secretariat, Col.10
  38. Mr. Ajith Wijesundara         Assistant Director           Central Environmental
                                                                 Authority,
  39. Mr. Jagath Sawanadasa         Senior Consultant,           Federation of
                                    Economic Affairs             Chambers of
                                                                 Commerce and
                                                                 Industry of Sri Lanka
                                                                 (FCCISL)
  40. Mr. P.G. Joseph               Director                     Ministry of Sciences &    2554845
                                                                 Technology, 561/3,
                                                                 Elvitigala Mw, Colombo
                                                                 05.
  41. Mr. M.C.I. Abeysinghe         Environment                  Ministry of Transport     0777810155
                                    Management Officer
  42. Mr. K.M Akram                 Administrative Officer       Ministry of Transport     do

  43. Mr. K.P.N.S Karunarathne      Deputy Director              Central Bank of Sri
                                                                 Lanka
  44. MS. Batuwitage                Director, Environment        Ministry of Environment   2887453
                                    Pollution control Division
  45. Mr. Anura Jayatilleke         Director, EE & GA            Ministry of Environment   2887452
                                    Division
  46. Mr. Mahinda Werahara          Environmental Assistant      Ministry of Environment   2887452

  47. Mr. S.D. Mahinda              Finance Manager              NCSA Project, Ministry    2887452
                                                                 of Environment




                                                  14
               Annex II
Presentation on NSDS-Global perspectives




                  15
16
17
                   Annex III
Presentation on NSD and NCSD process in Sri Lanka




                       18
19
20
                                            Annex IV
           The Consultation Workshop to Review the Draft NSDS & NCSD Guidelines
                       Venue: Induruwa Beach Resort Hotel, Kaikawala
                                  Date: 9th -10th June 2006

                                            Agenda
           th
DAY 01: 9 June, 2006         UNDERSTANDING BACKGROUND & GAP ANALYSIS

8.30 a.m – 9.00 a.m          Registration

9.00 a.m – 9.15 a.m          Welcome Speech - Secretary Ministry of Environment

9.15 a.m. –9.30 a. m.        Objectives of the Workshop-Country Representative, IUCN

9.30 a.m – 10.45 a.m         Road to NSDS by Facilitators

                                    Global Perspective (Milestones)
                                         Mr. Bhujang Rao Dharmaji, IUCN
                                    Sri Lanka Initiatives & key documents Caring for Environment,
                                     NEAP, MDGs Sri Lanka report to WSSDS
                                         Mr. Anura Jayatilleke, Ministry of Environment
                                    Introduction to the Agreed Thrust areas (Briefing note)\
                                         Mr. L.P.D Dayananda, IUCN
                                    Introduction to the Matrix – Mr. L.P.D Dayananda, IUCN
                                     The way forward – Dr. Shantha Hennayake, IUCN

10.45 a.m - 11.00 p.m                                           Tea
11.00 a.m – 1.00 p.m         Reviewing the Matrix by groups - (group work)

1.00 p.m - 2.00 p.m                                            Lunch
2.00 p.m - 4.00 p.m          Presenting the observations of the Groups
                                 NSDS thrust Areas
                                 NSDS Vision and Mission
                                 Policies and development targets
4.00 p.m – 4.15 p.m                                            Tea
4.15 pm - 5.15 p.m           Consensus building on sectors (Plenary Discussion)

5.15 pm                      Wrapping up first day Discussion - Facilitator
                th
  DAY 02: 10 June 2006       SECTOR INPUTS TO THE NSDS

8.30 a.m – 9.30 a.m          Introduction to objectives of Day (2) - By Facilitator
                                  Agreeing on key sectors
                                  Agreeing on a format for sector inputs including the action plan
                                  Introduction of the roles and responsibilities of writers
                                  Introduction to the group work
9.30 a.m – 10.30 a.m         Group work (Maximum 09 groups)

                             Financial Services, Infrastructure, Utilities, Agriculture, Industry, Culture &
                             Heritage, Human Resource Development , Social Welfare Governance &
                             Environment
10.30 a.m – 10.45 a.m        Tea
10.45 a.m – 12.30 p.m        Group Work Continued…

    12.30 p.m – 1.30 p.m     Lunch
1.30 p.m – 3.30 p.m          Presentations by groups followed by discussion
                             (20 minutes for each group)
3.30 p.m                     Wrap up and the way forward


                                                21
                                                     Annex V:
                                 NSDS Strategic Thrusts and Matrix Analysis

Strategic Thrust 1: Eradicate poverty

Sri Lanka claims to have poverty alleviation as a primary development goal. Essentially, therefore, the
overall development strategy of the country should be pro-poor in character, and should also have
development programs specially targeted to benefit the poor.

                                                                 1
World Bank’s Development Policy Review for Sri Lanka expressed the concern that poverty reduction
has been slow while income inequality has in fact increased in recent years. Between 1990-91 and
2002, poverty headcount ratio fell by only 3 percentage points. Regional disparities compounded this
situation, in that poverty in urban areas was halved while rural poverty ratios declined by 5 percentage
points and poverty in the estate sector increased by 50 percent. Poverty headcount ratio in the
Western Province was one-third of that in Sabaragamuwa and Uva.

                                                                       2
A recent policy statement by the government of Sri Lanka assessed that “absolute poverty in the
country increased significantly between 1990/91 and 1995/96, i.e., from 33 to 39 percent according to
the higher poverty line, and from 20 to 25 percent, according to the lower poverty line”.

These assessments are based on two household consumption surveys conducted by the Department
of Census and Statistics (DCS), covering the country except the North and East. The two surveys
defined the poverty line in terms of the estimated cost (per capita) of a minimum food and non-food
consumption bundle. There is evidence from small-scale surveys and local government studies in
recent years that poverty affects nearly half of the population of the North and East. The policy
document concluded: “chronic poverty affects around 25 percent of the population and that chronic
and transitory poverty combined affects around 40 percent of the population”.

Poverty is a key reason for non-sustainable development. Poverty has linkages to environment where
poor dependent more on fragile ecosystems. The poor due to lack of incentives and delineation of
property rights are exerting pressure on the natural resource base. Therefore, there is a need to
integrate environmental concerns into policy planning for all development activities and to ensure
safety mechanisms, awareness programs, and linkages between poverty reduction action programs
and other overall development plans. The poverty reduction strategy (PRSP) and reconstruction,
rehabilitation and resettlement (RRR) programme, provide key guidance. Three major components
constitute the strategic foundation for poverty reduction Viz. (a) creating opportunities for the poor to
participate in economic growth; (b) strengthening the social protection system; (c) empowering the
poor and strengthening governance.

COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

Sectors:
    Industrial Sector and Services Sector are other two important sectors

Policies & initiatives:
     Review the poverty reduction strategy paper and identify what are the relevant components to
        poverty reduction.
     Clarity on whether RRR has a policy.
     Is the welfare benefit act in place


1
    Sri Lanka Development Policy Review, World Bank Colombo Office, December 2004
2
    New Development Strategy, Ministry of Finance and Planning, May 2005 (p.E1).
                                                           22
      Refer to the new Agricultural policy with amendments. Revisions have been made to the
       agriculture policy to accrue unutilised agricultural lands for development.
      Clarity on the policy on fertilizer subsidies
      In industrial sector, there are policies in place for small and medium industries. 70% of
       industries are SMIS.

Gaps
      No specific fisheries policy after tsunami to deal with post tsunami fisheries issues
      In agriculture and fisheries sectors, no safeguards for the producers (transport, reduce post
       harvest losses, storage)
      Lack of policy framework for the fisheries sector programmes such as fisheries villages,
       housing, post tsunami rehabilitation.
      In plantation sector – no policy to upgrade living conditions of the poor in the estate sector
      Gaps in the current industrial policy to improve the quality of the life of the workers
      Lack of policy on investments in the infrastructure sector (roads, power in the regions) and
       regional division. SMI growth is affected by lack of service sector growth in the regions




                                                 23
Strategic        Sri Lanka       Relevant     policies/strategies/Legi         Current                Gaps/issues            Actors/stakeholders
 thrusts        Millennium       Sectors              slations                Initiatives
              Development
                  Targets
               relevance to
              each strategic
                   thrust
Eradicate   Halve between       Agriculture   Poverty reduction           Social security       Definition of poverty:       Ministry of   Urban
poverty     1990and 2015,                     Strategy Paper              schemes:              There are many. What is      development & Water
            the proportion of   Plantations   prepared by External        Employee’s            the appropriate one ?        Supply
            people      whose                 Resources Department        welfare, ETF,         -consumption poverty
            income is less      Fisheries     (March 2003)                EPF, Pension          -human poverty
            than one dollar a                                             scheme                -income poverty              Ministry of Samurdhi &
            day                               The     Reconstruction,     Payments to                                        Poverty
                                              Rehabilitation     and      disabled soldiers     Address specific poverty
                                              Resettlement    (RRR)       Payments to           profiles  :    disparities   Department            of
            Halve between                     programme                   internally            between districts, more      National Planning
            1990        and                                               displaced             of the poor in rural
            2015,the                          Welfare benefit Act         persons               sector, highly skewed        Ministry of small &
            proportion    of                                                                    income distribution          medium            scale
            people      who                   Agriculture:                Government                                         plantation    industries
            suffer     from                   Agriculture       policy    transfers :           Ecological poverty (link     and     rural    human
            hunger                            (2003)                      Samurdhi              between poverty and          resources
                                              Land alienation             Scheme and            environment) has not         development
            Halve by 2015                     programme                   Institutional         been addressed in main
            the proportion of                                             mechanism to          poverty alleviation
            people without                    Fisheries:                  deal with             programmes                   Ministry  of  social
            sustainable                       Fisheries & Aquatic         poverty is in         (deforestation, sand         welfare and women’s
            access to safe                    Resources      Act   &      place                 mining & land                empowerment
            drinking    water                 amendments                  (4% of GDP on         degradation).
            and         basic                 Fisheries        sector     subsidies and                                      External Resources
            sanitation                        strategy (2005)             transfers)            Seasonal dimension of        Department (ERD)
                                                                          School uniforms       poverty among rural
            By 2020, to have                  Current policy: (New Sri    and mid-day           communities :Agriculture     Ministry of Finance
            a significant                     Lanka/          Mahinda     meal                  sector
            improvement in                    Chinthanaya)                programme                                          Ministry of Plan
            the lives of at                                                                     Politicization of poverty    Implementation
            least 100 Million                                             Agriculture           alleviation programmes
            slum dwellers                         -Senior citizens        sector initiatives:   and           Dependency     Department of



                                                                     24
Strategic      Sri Lanka     Relevant   policies/strategies/Legi        Current              Gaps/issues        Actors/stakeholders
 thrusts      Millennium     Sectors            slations               Initiatives
            Development
                Targets
             relevance to
            each strategic
                 thrust
                                             programme              Fertilizer          syndrome                Planning
                                           -Samurdhi                subsidy
                                             programme              Guaranteed          Lack of mainstreaming
                                           -Janasevana              price for paddy     poverty reduction
                                            Programme               Village tank        objectives into
                                           -Agricultural            rehabilitation      government policies
                                            renaissance             programme

                                                                    Fisheries sector:
                                                                    Fisheries village
                                                                    programme
                                                                    Fisheries
                                                                    housing
                                                                    programme
                                                                    Fisheries
                                                                    community
                                                                    banks
                                                                    programme
                                                                    Fuel subsidy
                                                                    programme
                                                                    Post Tsunami
                                                                    rehabilitation
                                                                    Fisheries
                                                                    Pension
                                                                    Scheme




                                                               25
Strategic Thrust 2: Sound Ecosystem Management

The high proportion of the poor with a relentlessly burgeoning population, combined with unequal
distribution of benefits from natural resources tend to make sustainable development in a developing
country such as Sri Lanka a very challenging task. To address this dilemma, attempts are being made
to synthesize the ideas of sustainable development with those concerned with sustainable use of
natural resources. Maintaining some form of “ecosystem health”, the strategy would be to maintain the
elements of ecosystems (species, populations, and their physical environment), and adopt the “
                          3
precautionary principle” . Sustainable use is defined as the “use that does not reduce the future use
potential, or impair the long-term viability of either the species being used or other species, and is
                                                                                                     4
compatible with maintenance of the long-term viability of supporting and dependent ecosystems”.
These principles apply to protected areas, wetlands, mangroves, forests, coastal ecosystems, eco-
tourism, and marine ecosystems.

COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

Policies:
     Refer to the draft water policy, river basin management policy, irrigation act
     Refer to the national cleaner production strategy & policy

Gaps:
         Lack of intellectual property rights
         Who is responsible for water is not clear
         Lack of information base to support decision making for sound ecosystem management
         No policy coverage for exploration of natural resources e.g. Petroleum Sector




3
  “Assessing biodiversity status and sustainability”, WCBC Biodiversity Series No. 5, 1996. World Conservation Monitoring
Centre, Cambridge, UK. P.6-7.
4
  Ibid, p.5
                                                             26
  Strategic         Sri Lanka         Relevant       policies/strategies/Legislations         Current           Gaps/issues         Actors/stakeholders
   thrusts         Millennium         Sectors                                                Initiatives
                 Development
                     Targets
                  relevance to
                 each strategic
                      thrust
Sound          Integrate      the    Land           Land:                                Land:               Addressing             Ministry     of        of
Ecosystem      principles       of   Coastal,       Soil Conservation Act (1951) and     Establishment of    conservation           Environment,          FD,
Management     sustainable           Forestry       amendments                           geological and      issues with respect    DWLC, CEA
(protected     development           Biodiversity   Regulations under Mines &            mines Bureau        to poverty and
areas,         into       country    Wildlife       Minerals act (1992)                  Establishment of                           Ministry of Lands and
wetland,       policies       and    fisheries      National Land use policy             Land Use Policy     Financing        for   agriculture, Min of
mangroves,     programmes and        Coastal &      National involuntary resettlement    Planning            conservation:          Tourism,
forests,       reverse loss of       marine         policy                               Division            environmental
coastal        environmental         Water          National Land use policy (draft)                         stewardship            Ministry of Fisheries &
ecosystem,     resources.            Agriculture                                         Forestry:                                  aquatic      resources,
eco-tourism,   (MDG Target 9).       &              Forestry:                            Forest resources    Lack              of   Fisheries department,
marine)                              Plantations    Forest Ordinance (Amended            management          Enforcement       of   Min of Agriculture,
               Sub targets:          Tourism        1988)                                Project (2001-      regulations            Department            of
                                                    National forest policy (1995)        2007)                                      Agriculture
               Proper    waste                      Forestry sector master plan                              Integration      of
               management set                       (1995)                               Biodiversity:       environmental          Tourist Board
               in place by 100                                                           Implementation      concerns          in
               % by 2015                            Biodiversity:                        of Biodiversity     Sectoral decision-
                                                    Biodiversity action plan             conservation        making: ineffective    Ministry of   Urban
               Reduce                               Amendment to Action Plan (Draft      action plan         functioning of co-     development & Water
               diseases                             Addendum)                            Alien    Invasive   ordination             Supply
               occurring due to                     National Bio safety Guidelines       Plants project      mechanisms such
               unhealthy                            (draft stage)                                            as CEPOMs and          Ministry of small and
               environment by                       Biodiversity Legislation (draft      Wildlife:           CIEDP.                 rural industries
               2015.                                stage)                               Protected area
                                                    Invasive Plants Action Plan (draft   management          Post       Tsunami     Coast   conservation
                                                    stage)                               (PAM) project       impacts on coastal     Department
               forests cover-                                                            Implementation      ecosystems: lack
               2000 level                           Wild Life:                           of     Protected    of integration of      Ministry of Finance
                                                    National wild life policy (2000)     area                environmental
               Tree cover                           Protected area management            management          considerations in      Ministry of Plan



                                                                            27
Strategic        Sri Lanka     Relevant    policies/strategies/Legislations        Current                Gaps/issues          Actors/stakeholders
 thrusts        Millennium     Sectors                                            Initiatives
              Development
                  Targets
               relevance to
              each strategic
                   thrust
            increase by 10%               plans                               plans by          the   constructions            Implementation
                                                                              DWLC                    related activities.
            12% protected                 Fisheries:                                                                           Department of
            area – current                The Fisheries and Aquatic           Fisheries:              Increase            of   Planning
            level                         Resource Act & amendments           Strategy and            population        and
                                          National Aquaculture                programme for           development
            Restoration of                Development Authority of Sri        reconstruction &        activities in coastal
            vulnerable areas              Lanka Act                           development of          region:       Coastal
                                          Regulations declaring inland        the marine              erosion,        coral
                                          reservoirs as fishery               fisheries sector        mining,
                                          management zones                    (2005)                  unregulated waste
                                          Regulations declaring the           FAO Code of             sewage disposal,
                                          Negombo lagoon as a fishery         conduct for             over harvesting of
                                          management zone with                Responsible             fish, shrimp culture
                                          demarcated lagoon boundaries        Fisheries               and           wetland
                                          Fishery operation regulations       Fishing vessels         degradation,
                                          (1996 amendment)                    manufacturing           ornamental        fish
                                          Monofilament prohibition            standard                trade        resulting
                                          regulations                         regulations 2005        habitat destruction
                                          Fishing vessels manufacturing       (FAO fisheries
                                          standard regulations 2005           programme for
                                                                              post tsunami
                                          Marine and Coastal:                 relief,                 Deforestation and
                                          Coast conservation Act (1988)       rehabilitation and      loss of biodiversity:
                                          Coastal 2000 Action Plan,           reconstruction, A       recognize role of
                                          National Action Plan for the        FAO project )           communities       as
                                          protection of Coastal and marine                            stakeholders
                                          Resources from Land based           Marine and
                                          Pollution (2003)                    Coastal:                Potential for nature
                                          Integrated      Coastal    Zone     Re-greening the         and culture based
                                          Management Plan (ICZM) (2004        coast                   tourism:        Eco
                                          ?)                                  programmes              tourism



                                                                  28
Strategic      Sri Lanka     Relevant    policies/strategies/Legislations         Current         Gaps/issues   Actors/stakeholders
 thrusts      Millennium     Sectors                                             Initiatives
            Development
                Targets
             relevance to
            each strategic
                 thrust
                                        Special area management plans        after Tsunami
                                        of CCD                               Special area
                                                                             management
                                        Water:                               plans
                                        Water Resources Policy and           (ICZM)
                                        institutional arrangements (2000):
                                        Drafty
                                        River basin Management: pilot        Water:
                                        basin management plan                Integrated Water
                                        Watershed Management Policy          Resource
                                                                             Management:
                                        Agriculture:                         Pilot River Basin
                                        Agriculture policy (2003)            Management
                                                                             planning-Kala
                                        Integrate ecosystems in other        Oya Basin
                                        sectors:                             Tank
                                        1978 Constitution                    rehabilitation
                                        National Environment Act (1980)      programme
                                        and amendments                       Water Resource
                                        National Environment Policy          Council (1995)
                                        Caring for Environment : National    Water Resource
                                        Environmental Action Plan (2003-     Secretariat
                                        2007)                                (1996).
                                                                             National Water
                                        Regulations for hazardous waste      Supply         and
                                        management were gazetted (on         Drainage Board
                                           rd
                                        23 of may 1996, amendment to         Pollution Control
                                        the     gazette    notice      on    Abatement Fund
                                        Environmental          protection    Proposed water
                                        Licensing Scheme published in        resources
                                        1990)                                Authority
                                        Wetlands policy                      “Pavithra Ganga”



                                                                29
Strategic      Sri Lanka     Relevant    policies/strategies/Legislations        Current       Gaps/issues   Actors/stakeholders
 thrusts      Millennium     Sectors                                            Initiatives
            Development
                Targets
             relevance to
            each strategic
                 thrust
                                                                            Cleaner   rivers
                                        Current policy: (New Sri Lanka/     programme
                                        Mahinda Chinthanaya)
                                        : A sustainable policy for          Agriculture:
                                        environmental       conservation,   Integrated Pest
                                        section on “Land in harmony with    Management
                                        nature”                             Organic
                                                                            Agriculture   ,
                                                                            standards,
                                                                            certification

                                                                                Tourism:
                                                                            Potential for
                                                                            making
                                                                            considerable
                                                                            progress in
                                                                            nature and
                                                                            culture based
                                                                            tourism

                                                                            Integrate
                                                                            ecosystems in
                                                                            other sectors:
                                                                            Environmental
                                                                            policy co-
                                                                            ordination
                                                                            mechanisms:
                                                                            CEPOMs,
                                                                            CIEDP




                                                                30
Strategic Thrust 3: Energy security

Energy has become a key resource that affects all three dimensions of sustainable development:
economic, social and environmental. In economic terms, energy is considered a major driving force
behind overall national development. Energy production and use are strongly related to their impact
on the environment. Energy is also a basic human need, which helps human development, improves
quality of life and promotes technological advance. Energy supply in Sri Lanka is mainly based on
three primary sources, namely hydroelectricity, biomass and petroleum. The government is exploring
the possibility of using alternate sources of energy, such as coal and renewable energy sources.

Rapidly increasing energy demand is often linked with global climate change, which poses an
unprecedented challenge to humanity and local air pollution. The potential impacts of energy
production and consumption on sustainable development are diverse and numerous and therefore
their linkages need to be carefully analyzed.

For Sri Lanka, the major energy issues that impinge on the country’s efforts on sustainable
development are basically two-fold: inequitable access to the resources, and the environmental
implications of shifting to alternate sources for ensuring wider availability of energy supplies .

The electricity supply industry is largely controlled by the government sector apart from a few private
thermal power generation plans and private sector driven grid connected mini hydro plants. The
                                                                1
overall annual electricity demand in Sri Lanka grew by 7.5 % over the last three decades and
                        2
expected to grow at 8-9% in the future. Already, 65% of the total number of families are covered by
the rural electrification project and it is planned to enhance this figure upto 80%.

COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

Make Corrections to narrative part:
    75% families covered by electrification programme (not 65%)
    Target 6% peak demand with renewable energy
    Target 10% of peak demand with total energy sources by 2015
    There is an increased focus on coal power considering cost factor
    Increase focus on dendro thermal plants as renewable energy sources

Policies:
     The draft Energy policy (2005) has been prepared

Current initiatives:
     Current target is to provide electricity for 80% households by 2010
     There are studies on going to assess feasibility of achieving 90% households beyond 2010
     It has been proposed to establish a renewable energy authority

Gaps
       Apply Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) in the power sector policies




                                                 31
           Strategic                 Sri Lanka     Relevant   Policies/strategies/Legislations    Current Initiatives        Gaps/issues          Actors/stakeholders
            thrusts                 Millennium     Sectors
                                  Development
                                      Targets
                                   relevance to
                                 each strategic
                                       thrust
        Energy                  Provide            Energy     Policy document on energy          Rural electrification   Main sources:            Ceylon electricity
        security                electricity for               (1997)                             programme               hydropower, biomass      Board
                                80% of the         Power                                                                 and petroleum has
                                household by                  CEB Act                            Renewable energy:       environmental            Ministry of Power &
                                2010                                                             Biomass, biogas,        impacts.                 Energy
                                                                                                 dendrothermal,
                                Access at                                                        hydro                   Need to consider
                                affordable price                                                                         renewable energy
                                                                                                 Energy Services         sources such as
                                                                                                 delivery project and    Dendro thermal, solar
                                                                                                 Renewable Energy        power etc to
                                                                                                 for Rural Economic      supplement
                                                                                                 Development-WB          conventional sources.

                                                                                                 Tariff policy           Reduce         losses:
                                                                                                                         energy efficient and
                                                                                                 Energy                  environmentally
                                                                                                 Conservation Fund       friendly technologies,
                                                                                                                         transmission losses

                                                                                                                         Rural       household
                                                                                                                         energy: biomass is
                                                                                                                         used for cooking is
                                                                                                                         inefficient


__________________________
1&2 National Report of Sri Lanka to the WSSD




                                                                                         32
Strategic Thrust 4: Ensure food security

Rice is the staple food of the people of Sri Lanka. The current Per capita consumption ……Paddy
cultivation, which provides the staple diet of the population, has received the highest attention in the
agriculture sector to date. The extent of area under paddy cultivation has increased from 479,000ha in
1959 to 930,000 ha by year 1995, while the average annual yield of paddy has more than doubled
from 1500 kg/ha in 1950s to 3895 kg/ha in 2003. As a result dependence on rice imports has declined.
Sri Lanka now produces about 3071 thousand metric tons of rough rice per year, which meets 98
percent (2003) of the country’s domestic requirement. Improvement of paddy productivity has been
attributed to more intensive cultivation practices, use of high yielding varieties and new recommended
inorganic fertilizers and agrochemicals.

128,000 ha of land is under cultivation of other field crops including over 100 species such as cereals,
grain legumes, condiments and oilseeds consumed as food also plays a vital role in nation’s food
security. Home gardens are also sources of food such as vegetables, spices and fruits to a larger
number of households significantly contributing to the households food security. There are around
1.33 million home-gardens in Sri Lanka, accounting for about 367,800 ha of cultivated land. The
current per capita availability of fruits and vegetables is estimated to be about 8 Kg/year and 38
Kg/year respectively, although the recommended rates are 40 Kg/year and 75 Kg/yr respectively.
Home gardens are however dwindling rapidly due to land fragmentation caused by the changing
socio-economic scenarios in the country (Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual report (2003), Status of
Environment Report).

COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

Sectors
    Include local government and health sector (relevance because food quality and GMO foods
        etc.)

Policies:
     Draft policy on GM foods, SLSI standards

Gaps:
    ISO standards
    SLSI standards on GM foods are still not mandatory

Stakeholders
     Sri Lanka Standard Institute, Sri Lanka Customs




                                                  33
  Strategic    Sri Lanka Millennium      Relevant     policies/strategies/Legislations        Current            Gaps/issues          Actors/stakeholders
   thrusts         Development           Sectors                                             Initiatives
               Targets relevance to
                each strategic thrust
Ensure food    Halve between 1990       Agriculture   National Agriculture,     food   &   Fertilizer       Low productivity          Ministry of Agriculture,
security       and      2015,     the   Plantations   nutrition strategy                   subsidy                                    irrigation & Mahaweli
(efficient     proportion of people     Water &                                                             High food prices less
production,    who                      Irrigation    National Agricultural policy         Tank             affordability of poor     Department of Irrigation
stock,         suffer from hunger                     (2003.)                              Rehabilitation
distribution   (MDG Target 2).                                                             Programme        Food distribution and     Mahaweli Authority
system,                                               Agriculture Insurance Policy                          Post harvest losses
affordable)    Efficient production &                                                                                                 Department of
               stock, distribution                    Agrarian Services Act                                 High agrochemical use     Agriculture
               system                                                                                       resulting in pollution
                                                      Subsidies                                             and long term health      Ministry of Plantations
               Affordable prices for                                                                        effects
               food                                   Water Resources Policy (Draft)                                                  Ministry of Finance
                                                      and institutional arrangements                        Water use efficiency is
                                                                                                            less :high losses         Ministry of Plan
                                                                                                                                      Implementation
                                                                                                            Water allocation &
                                                                                                            value of water :          Department of Planning
                                                                                                            inadequate concerns
                                                                                                            on environmental flows
                                                                                                            etc.
                                                                                                            Agriculture and animal
                                                                                                            husbandry has major
                                                                                                            impact on biodiversity
                                                                                                            and also dependent on
                                                                                                            biodiversity. Need to
                                                                                                            consider
                                                                                                            environmental aspects
                                                                                                            of agriculture:
                                                                                                            agriculture pollution,
                                                                                                            invasive species and
                                                                                                            loss of biodiversity.




                                                                              34
Strategic Thrust 5: Clean environment (air, water)

Air pollution in Sri Lanka is currently primary an urban problem, and largely restricted to Colombo
where it has been established that vehicular emissions are the main source of pollutants. This
problem is aggravated by the current fuel pricing policy that promotes the use of diesel over petrol, the
inadequacy of road network for vehicular traffic and the high concentration of vehicles in Colombo
resulting in heavy traffic congestion. Although the power sector is not a major contributor to air
pollution in the country as yet, a higher emission rate is expected with the trend for increased reliance
on coal and oil based thermal power generation in the future.

Water pollution is becoming one of the major environmental problems in Sri Lanka. The main causes
are toxic chemical release by industries, non point source pollution sources such as fertilizer and
pesticide runoff from agricultural lands, inadequacy of existing sewage systems in urban areas (esp.
Colombo) and poor sanitation in urban slums and rural areas leading to feacal matter contamination of
inland waters.

COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

       There was a suggestion to amalgamate clean environment with sound ecosystem thrusts and
        show pollution and natural resources management separately
       Add land to the thrust focus

Sectors:
    Include agriculture, fisheries & tourism as relevant sectors

Policies:
     Clean air action plan (new one), cleaner production policy & specific policies on tourism and
        health sectors almost complete. Fisheries and agriculture-on going
     Transport policies on vehicular emission standards that are in the pilot phase of
        implementation

Stakeholders:
     Fisheries, Agriculture Ministry, private sector industries, banks, universities




                                                     35
  Strategic      Sri Lanka Millennium     Relevant    policies/strategies/Legislations    Current Initiatives       Gaps/issues         Actors/stakeholders
   thrusts      Development Targets       Sectors
                  relevance to each
                     strategic thrust
Clean          Integrate sustainable      Water       Water & air:                       Water & air:             Lack             of   Cleaner production
environment    development into                       Water Resources Policy and         Implementation of        efficiently    run    center (CPC)
(air, water)   country policies and       Industry    institutional arrangements         air quality standards    mass
               programmes and                         (2000): Draft                      and            vehicle   transportation        CEA
               reverse loss of            Transport                                      emission standards       system in cities
               environmental                          Clean Air 2000 action Plan                                                        National    Water
               resources (MDG             Energy      National policy on air quality     Establishment of air     Legally binding       Supply & Drainage
               Target 9)                              management (2000)                  quality monitoring       atmospheric           Board
                                                                                         programme at CEA         pollution
               Achieve national air                   Draft CDM policy                                            standards             Air         Quality
               quality standards and                                                     Indoor air     quality   enforce and           Management
               water            quality               Watershed          Management      guidelines               compliance by         center (AirMAC)
               standards,        POPs                 Policy                                                      energy, transport
               standards,     Industry                                                   “Pavithra Ganga”         and other             Ministry of transport
               Emission Standards                     River basin Management: pilot      Cleaner    rivers        sectors
                                                      basin management plan              programme                                      Ministry           of
                                                                                                                                        Industries
                                                      Solid waste        management      Establishment    of      Integrated
                                                      strategy                           AirMaC     for  co-      approach for          BOI
                                                                                         ordination of air        water
                                                      Water quality standards            quality improvement      management:           Ministry           of
                                                                                         programmes               watershed             Petroleum        and
                                                      Air quality standards                                       conservation,         Petroleum
                                                                                         Vehicle importation      water quality         resources
                                                                                         and fuel quality                               Development
                                                      Industry:
                                                      National industrial pollution      Industry:                Controlling           Petroleum
                                                      management policy (1996)           Pollution  Control       industrial            Corporation
                                                                                         Abatement Fund           pollution:
                                                      Transport:                                                  measures for
                                                      Fuel quality standards             Environmentally          small and
                                                      Vehicle importation standards      friendly loan            medium
                                                                                         schemes                  industries




                                                                          36
Strategic   Sri Lanka Millennium   Relevant   policies/strategies/Legislations    Current Initiatives   Gaps/issues   Actors/stakeholders
 thrusts    Development Targets    Sectors
             relevance to each
                strategic thrust
                                                                                 Load           based
                                                                                 licensing system

                                                                                 Establishment   of
                                                                                 Cleaner production
                                                                                 center




                                                                  37
      Strategic Thrust 6: Sustainable urbanization

      One prominent feature of Sri Lanka’s development process has been its slow rate of urbanization,
      compared to many other developing countries in the region. However, the country’s urban
      population has been steadily increasing over the past few years to make it over 30 percent of the
                           5
      present population. The rate of urbanization at 2-2.5 percent far exceeds the present overall
      annual population growth rate of 1.5 percent. The urban population is expected to increase up to
      45 percent by the year 2015. The ratio of urban to rural population varies in respect of the nine
      provinces of the country. The greatest urban population aggregation is in the Western Province,
      with 47%of the population living in urban areas. The northern and eastern provinces in next in
      line, respectively, 28% and 22.1% of the population is urban.

      Urban areas have specific problems associated with high population densities and inadequate per
      capita land availability, housing and sanitation facilities. Urbanization is mostly prevalent in
      Colombo metropolitan area. Air pollution due to vehicle emissions, noise pollution, proliferation of
      slums and shanties on state land due to high land prices, lack of water supply, sewage disposal,
      health and sanitation facilities, increased flooding due to wetland filling, lack of surface drainage,
      flood control, provision of recreation areas and solid waste disposal are the major urban issues.
      Urban population growth also has resulted in ecologically important areas (wetlands) being
      encroached upon or otherwise used for house construction. Urban planning and enhancing the
      present government policies of rural and regional development and planning for increased health,
      sanitation, housing and roads facilities are also essential to meet the challenge of urbanization.

      COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

      Sectors:
       Include water, public utilities, health & sanitation, infrastructure and ensure inclusion of road,
         electricity, education, health, telecommunication.

      Policies:
       Condomonium property act, local authority act, land reclamation act, town & country planning
          act, proposed new transport policy, vehicle emission standards, public security act, UDA
          policy on zoning

      Gaps:
       Need to have a policy for development of highways




5
    Caring for the Environment 2003-2007, MOER, p.71
                                                       38
   Strategic             Sri Lanka         Relevant     policies/strategies/Legislations      Current          Gaps/issues        Actors/stakeholders
    thrusts             Millennium         Sectors                                           Initiatives
                       Development
                          Targets
                    relevance to each
                      strategic thrust
Sustainable         By 2020, to have      Urban         Urban development & low            Mass/public      Un planned urban      Ministry  of     Urban
urbanization        achieved a            development   income housing project (1998)      transportation   population growth     Development        and
(Eco-housing,       significant                                                            improvements     has resulted in       Water Supply
green       city,   improvement in        Housing       Urban Development Authority                         ecologically
transportation);    the lives of at                     Act                                National         important areas
                    least 100 million     Transport                                        physical         being encroached      National     housing
                    slum dwellers                       Transport policy                   planning                               development authority
                    (MDG Target 11)                                                                         Other issues: Water
                                                        Vehicle emission targets                            supply and sewage     Urban Development
                     Sub targets:                                                                           disposal, waste       Authority
                    provide housing                                                                         management, flood
                    & sanitation                                                                            control, surface      Ministry of Transport
                    facilities to urban                                                                     drainage,
                    poor, waste                                                                             environmental
                    disposal                                                                                related health
                                                                                                            problems




                                                                            39
       Strategic Thrust 7: Good governance

       “The problems are not primarily scientific and technological, as in science we have knowledge,
                                                                                                   6
       and in technology, the tools. The problems are basically political, economic, and cultural”. As
       issues in sustainable development invariably demand a community’s capacity to trade off and
       negotiate, the success will depend on degree of participation, peace and security, prevailing
       political and administrative systems, and institutional arrangements. Basically, achieving
       sustainable development means securing good governance. Processes should be participatory,
       inclusive and transparent, accommodating women’s empowerment, care for children, poor and
       disabled persons.

       COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

       Sectors:
        Include constitutional reforms, administration, law & enforcement, human rights




6
    Per Lindblom at the WCED public hearing, quoted in Our Common Future, p. 342.


                                                             40
   Strategic       Sri Lanka Millennium    Relevant     policies/strategies/Legislations       Current         Gaps/issues        Actors/stakeholders
    thrusts       Development Targets      Sectors                                            Initiatives
                    relevance to each
                       strategic thrust
Good              Develop further an                  Policies:                             Devolution of   Transparency &        Ministry of Public
governance        open, rule based                    Government commitment for             power           corruption            Administrations
                                                                            th
(inclusive        predictable, non                    devolving power: 13 amendment
community,        discriminatory trading              to the constitution in 1987 devolve   Appointing      Public sector         Ministry of Justice &
peace and         and financial system                power at local levels                 independent     accountability:       Law reforms
harmony,          (MDG Target 12)                                                           commissions     effectiveness of
                                                        th
transparent,                                          17 amendment to the constitution                      the establishment     Ministry of child
participatory,    In cooperation with                 establishes five independent                          of independent        development
efficient         the private sector                  constitutional commissions                            commissions           &Women’s
administration,   make available the                                                                                              empowerment
legal system,     benefits of new                     Accomplishments:                                      Private sector
women             technologies                        Establishment of constitutional                       responsibility and    Ministry of Local
empowerment,      especially information              Council and five independent                          private public co-    Government &
media)            and communications                  commissions (Police Commission,                       operation             Provincial Councils
                  technology (MDG                     Public Service Commission etc)
                  Target 18)                                                                                Ethnic conflict and   Ministry of
                                                      Establishing 9 Provincial Councils                    peace                 constitutional affairs &
                                                      and devolve certain functions to                      negotiations          National Integration
                                                      PCs
                                                                                                            Complexity due to     Auditor generals
                                                      Establishment of National                             devolution            department
                                                      Procurement Agency (NPA)
                                                                                                            Political system      Ministry of Finance
                                                      Establishment of Administrative                       and democracy:
                                                      Reforms Committee (ARC)                               building              Ministry of Plan
                                                                                                            consensus and         Implementation
                                                      National Council for Economic                         reconciliation
                                                      Development (NCED)                                    among the             Department of
                                                                                                            political parties     Planning
                                                      National Council for                                  over national
                                                      Administration (NCA)                                  issues

                                                      Constitutional Council of Sri Lanka




                                                                           41
Strategic Thrust 8: Ensure Social security

Sri Lanka has long been cited as an example of a low-income country that has achieved remarkable
progress in health & social development. Infant mortality in Sri Lanka in 2002 was only 17 per 100,000
live births while under five mortality was 19 per 1000 live births, the lowest rates in South Asian
Region. The maternal mortality ratio per 1000 live births in 2001 was reported as 0.47 compared to
the 1990 figure of 0.92. The proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel was 97 %.
However in some regions in the country, the figures have declined marginally. Conflict affected areas
and estate sector need to be given special priority in terms of infrastructure, experienced health
personnel and awareness building.

Sri Lanka has implemented various programmes to combat AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis and other
diseases. According to an estimate done in 1991, approximately 200,000 sexually transmitted
infections occur annually, however it is estimated that only 15% are reported in Government clinics.
The reported number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS was 131 at the end of 2004, however, it is estimated
that about 3500 persons are living with HIV in Sri Lanka at the end of 2003. Malaria was widespread in
Sri Lanka till 1940 and since then has been controlled with the reduction of fatalities. However, it has
recently reemerged as a problem with highest incidence reported in the         Northern Province, Uva
and Northwestern provinces according to Health Ministry figures.

Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Sri Lanka is on the rise (6174 in 1991 to 8,884 in 2002). In 2000 high
number was reported from western province (3159), the highest in Colombo district. This is followed
by the Central Province. Lowest number has been reported in Kilinochchi area.

COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

Sectors:
    Include education, housing, safety, law & order, disaster management as relevant sectors

Policies:
     Other relevant policies include Samurdhi policy, foreign employment policy, health insurance
        policy
     Make sure whether child labor act is in place.

Gaps:
    Address women headed households, child abuse, drug addiction, foreign employees security




                                                  42
  Strategic              Sri Lanka         Relevant       policies/strategies/Legislations        Current         Gaps/issues        Actors/stakeholders
   thrusts              Millennium         Sectors                                               Initiatives
                       Development
                    Targets relevance
                     to each strategic
                           thrust
Ensure Social      Reduce two thirds       Health      National Health Policy                 National STD      Preventive           Ministry of Housing
security           between 1990 and                                                           AIDS              measures for
(employment,       2015, the under five    Labor       National Plan of action for Women      programme         vulnerable groups    Department of social
health service,    mortality rate (MDG                 (1995)                                                                        Science
disease            Target 5)               Social                                             Respiratory       Association with
management,                                welfare     National Health Policy, NC&D Policy,   disease control   poor and low         Ministry of Health
senior citizen);   Reduce by three                     Compensation formula, Human Rights     programme,        income groups
                   quarters, between       Human       and Child Rights, Insurance policies   Ministry of                            MCPA
                   1990 and 2015, the      rights                                             Health
                   maternal mortality                                                                           Environmental        Ministry of
                   rate (MDG Target 6)     Insurance                                          Anti Malaria      factors associated   Reconstruction,
                                                                                              Campaign,         with diseases:       Rehabilitation and
                   Have halted by 2015     Trade &                                            Health Ministry   Malaria, Dengue      EPF&ETF
                   and begun to reverse    economy
                   the spread of                                                              Social security                        Department of
                   HIV/AIDs (MDG                                                              schemes:                               Pensions
                   Target 7)
                                                                                              Employee’s                             RADA
                   Have halted by 2015                                                        welfare, ETF,
                   and begun to                                                               EPF, Pension
                   reverse, the                                                               scheme
                   incidence of malaria                                                       Payments to
                   and other major                                                            disabled
                   diseases (MDG                                                              soldiers
                   Target 8)                                                                  Payments to
                                                                                              internally
                                                                                              displaced
                   Develop &                                                                  persons
                   complement
                   strategies for decent
                   and productive work
                   for youth (MDG
                   Target 16)




                                                                                43
Strategic Thrust 9: Knowledge-based society

The country’s population has long standing high literacy rates. Sri Lanka possesses a 92.3 % and
89.2% of male and female literacy rates respectively (2001) which is the highest relative to other
South Asian countries. Education in Sri Lanka is predominantly state run and has been viewed as
a basic right and as a result adopted policies to encourage enrollment of children. The country has
an islandwide network of approximately 10,475 schools (public, private Pirivena) with provisions
for primary and secondary education. The private sector involvement is very small with 78 private
schools.

Sri Lanka has currently 13 Universities, 6 Post Graduate institutes and 7 non-graduate institutes
under the purview of the University Grants Commission (UGC). The private sector participates in
training at middle level technical and industry related jobs such as information technology. Despite
the above achievements, we have a substantial base on which to develop a productive workforce.
Higher education and tertiary education has to be expanded aiming at middle level technical and
industry related jobs.

COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

Policy & initiatives:

   Existing policy on language education
   Tertiary & vocational education commission has been established for formulating policy on
    vocational training

Gaps:
 Further gaps in language education
 Policy to cover education standards ( No policy for international school education)
 Education needs to be geared for technology transfer & technical education
 Reforms to improve education standards and institutions
 ICT policy (no policy)
 Policy to improve rural sector education (incentives & facilities for teachers etc.)
 Policies to shift supply driven to demand driven education

Actors:
 ICT agency under the Ministry of Science & Technology
 National Human Resource Development Council
 National Institute of Technical Education (NITE)




                                              44
  Strategic       Sri Lanka Millennium        Relevant     policies/strategies/Legislations   Current Initiatives     Gaps/issues         Actors/stakeholders
   thrusts        Development Targets         Sectors
                    relevance to each
                       strategic thrust
Knowledge-        Ensure that by 2015,       Higher        Major accomplishments:             Establishment of      Gender                M/Education & HRD,
base society      children everywhere,       education                                        National education    inequalities :
(indigenous       boys and girls alike,                    Permanent National Education       Commission and        Female literacy       National Institute of
group,      IT,   will    be     able   to   Vocational    Commission to make policy          proposed              rate is relatively    Education (NIE)
education,        complete a full primary    and           recommendations to the             education reforms     low, gender gap
skill   human     schooling          (MDG    technical     Government on all aspects of                             in mean income,       Territory & vocational
resources)        Target 3)                  training      education has been initiated.      Youth   Brigades      low female labour     education commission
                                                                                              Programme             force participation
                  Eliminate gender           Mass media    IPR                                                                            National apprentice
                  disparity and              &                                                Skills                Provincial level      industrial training
                  secondary education,       Information                                      Development           difference in         authority (NAIRA).
                  preferably by 2005,                                                         Fund                  enrolment rates
                  and in all levels of       Science &                                                              and literacy rates    National Education
                  education no later than    technology                                       Government                                  Research and
                  2015 (MDG Target 4)                                                         incentives        :   Extreme Poverty       Evaluation Center
                                                                                              scholarships, mid-    and non               (NEREC)
                  Develop &                                                                   day meals, free       participation of
                  complement                                                                  text        books,    children at the       Ministry of Skills
                  7strategies for decent                                                      material        for   primary stage         development &
                  and productive work                                                         schools, bursaries
                  for youth (MDG Target                                                       for      deserving    Lack of               Vocational & technical
                  16)                                                                         students              programmes to         education
                                                                                                                    identify disabled
                  In co-operation with                                                        Mahapola              children and          University Grants
                  the private sector                                                          scholarship           enroll in schools     Commission
                  make available the                                                          programme       for
                  benefits of new                                                             University                                  Universities & technical
                  technologies                                                                Students                                    colleges,
                  especially information
                  and communications                                                                                                      Department of
                  technology (MDG                                                                                                         Technical education &
                  Target 18)                                                                                                              training

                                                                                                                                          M/ID,




                                                                               45
     GTI,

     Private Sector
     (Informatics group of
     companies ….)

     National institute of
     business management
     (NIBM)

     Vocational taining
     authority




46
Strategic Thrust 10: Protect heritage and culture

Sri Lanka inherits a rich cultural heritage spanning over 2500 years. During first millennia Sri Lanka
produced an intricate hydraulic civilization under the leadership of Sinhalese-Buddhist rulers. Some of
the man made reservoirs and canals of this hydraulic civilization still being used for irrigating paddy
fields are living testimonies of sustainable use of natural resources. Ruins of the ancient cities,
temples, kovils, stupas, and palaces, some of which are declared World Heritage Sites, are scattered
all over the Dry Zone plains. This ancient civilization is also responsible for developing its own
knowledge systems and skills, which are still being used side by side with modern counterparts.

Over the years the predominantly Sinhalese society came into contact with others- Tamils, Muslims
and colonial western societies such as Portuguese, Dutch and English producing a multi-ethnic and
multi-religious society.

COMMENTS RECEIVED AT THE WORKSHOP:

Sectors:
    Tourism

Policies & strategies:
     Assessment of archeological values before projects are implemented, Archeological Act,
        Cultural triangle

Gaps:
    Protecting traditional knowledge system, include in school curriculum.

Stakeholders:
     Ministry of Religious Affairs




                                                    47
  Strategic        Sri Lanka Millennium         Relevant   policies/strategies/Legislations    Current      Gaps/issues   Actors/stakeholders
   thrusts     Development Targets relevance    Sectors                                       Initiatives
                  to each strategic thrust
Protect                                        Culture &                                                                  Ministry of Culture &
heritage and                                   heritage                                                                   Heritage
culture                                                                                                                   Department of
                                               Religious                                                                  Archeology, Museum,
                                               affairs                                                                    Architects; Ministry of
                                                                                                                          Tourism




                                                                   48
49

								
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