THE BIOSPHERE Unit Plan I, II, II Greg Matthias & Brian Dean Education 337 Section 1 Dr. Cook December 7, 1998 UNIT PLAN I “Come on!” “I’m coming!” my friend shouted back. “Well, hurry up then, your going to miss it!” I responded. It was almost dark. The sun was just about to go down over the Teton Mountain Range. We were on the backpacking trip of our lives. We had hiked all day long, and this was the only time we had had to reflect on our surroundings since breakfast. Brian put his foot on top of the last step and pulled himself up with his fingernails. “Whoa, this is beautiful!” He whispered, in total awe. We both were speechless until the last ray from the golden semicircle fell beneath the snow-covered peak of Mount Moran. “Wasn’t that the most wonderful sunset in the world?” Asked Brian. “It sure was. This is magnificent earth. With the huge biosphere that contains everything on earth. I’m glad we both have a background in science, so that we can fully appreciate the earth’s splendor.” “Amen,” Brian voiced as we unzipped the door to the tent. We fell fast asleep with stars in our eyes. So what exactly is a biosphere? And what are biomes? What creates or influences them? How do they affect living and nonliving things? What are the characteristics of each? These are the questions focused upon in Unit Plan One. Why learn about biomes our future students may ask. As future adults, they need to understand what biomes are and how they function, because we live in the biosphere and a specific biome that influences everything in and around them. Our future students need to realize that understanding biomes is like the opening the door to a house of knowledge. Knowledge is important to appreciating a sunset as my friend did in Wyoming. In order to solve the questions posed above, we must first start with an introduction of biomes, some basic terms and concepts, in addition to background knowledge. After a foundation is laid, it is necessary to understand each different biome in turn. After this is done, we will tie up lose ends, as well as answer any questions. In addition, I think it is relevant to explain how biomes and the biosphere touch humans. The students need real-life relationships to fully understand biomes. Preconceptions Goal Conceptions Limited Viewpoint Expand knowledge to global scale to biome awareness. Poor perspective: Explain that the desert is a major biome, For example: No Plants in desert and that it has many plants living in it. Water use Very limited supply of fresh water. In the above table, the example of water use came up. One day I had a discussion with one of my students. He had just finished reading a passage out of the text describing the future ways to get more fresh water. After reading the essay, he questioned me. “Isn’t 75% of the earth water?” “Yes, I answered,” Seeing where he was leading. “Well, then why are they getting all upset about finding new ways to get fresh water?” He asked. “Because only a fraction of the world’s supply is fresh drinkable water.” I answered, but received a puzzled look on his face; I tried to put this idea into simpler terms. “If all the worlds water was 26 gallons, the clean drinkable water would only be one-half of a tablespoon!” “Wow! I never knew we had that little water!” This is just one example of many misconceptions and preconception students have. And I feel that by telling him a little example, my goal conception was achieved. If every one of my students will understand what biomes are and how they work, that sunset will stay with them forever… Text Analysis Text used: Campbell, Neil A.; Mitchell, Lawrence G.; Reece, Jane B. Biology. Concepts and Connections. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. 1994. PP 659-677. Definitions: Science facts are ideas or observations that have been proven many times by different people and are accepted as true by the science community. Science facts must withstand the test of time, as it takes a long time for an idea to become a science fact. An example from the text is the uneven heating of the earth. Numerous tests have proved that this phenomenon causes rain and wind on earth. Science generalizations are ideas that draw off of science facts, but include inaccurate assumptions, biases and other errors that make the statement less than true. The text states that “It is clear that no part of the biosphere is untouched by human activities.” This statement is a generalization because it assumes we have knowledge of the entire biosphere, when in fact there is no proof that we know of the entire biosphere or our influence on it. Concepts are ideas created by scientists to explain phenomena. Concepts don’t actually exist in the real world; they’re just a way to help us understand the world around us. The biosphere and biome classifications are examples of concepts. They are a way to organize and classify the different areas of the world. The world isn’t really cut into neat little sections; the differing areas blend together and are often hard to distinguish between. Laws are statements or equations that have been created to explain phenomena also. They differ from concepts in that they are concrete and directly related to the empirical world. Laws bring the theoretical and empirical world together. There were no examples of laws in this text, but an example that relates is the Laws of Thermodynamics. They can be used to explain things involved in the heating of the planet and weather systems. Theories are ideas that are currently unproven. Theories arise by trying to solve a problem or answer a question about an observation. An example would be that “ Devastation of tropical rainforest may cause large-scale changes in world climate.” Empirical basically means the “real world”. If someone asked you for empirical evidence, they would be asking for something they can see, hear, smell or touch; something that actually exists. There are numerous examples in the text; one of my favorites is the prevailing winds. Go out and look at the tops of pine trees. They should all be pointing in the same direction. This is due to the prevailing winds of our area. Theoretical means the exact opposite of empirical. Theoretical evidence would be the result of calculations and concepts, but couldn’t actually be proven with anything physical. Sometimes things are too far away (stars) or too small (quarks) to be able to get any empirical evidence so we theorize about them. The uneven heating of the earth. Does this really happen? Preconception: The sun is so big. How can it unevenly heat something as small as the earth? Calculator Based Lab 1. Set up several stations with CBL interfaces, TI-82’s and light or heat sensors. Each station will also need a globe or beach ball with labeled markings and a flashlight or heat lamp. 2. The students will work in groups and take readings at each of the predetermined points. 3. Have the class download data into a PC and perform statistical tests to determine if readings were statistically different. *** I have no idea if this would work but if it did it would be very cool! Alternative lab (If above lab doesn’t work or if equipment isn’t available) 1. Bring in water samples from several freshwater systems in the area. Include: ponds, streams and rivers. Also get samples from different zones of ponds, benthic, etc. 2. Have students identify the different samples using microscopes, pH kits, alkalinity kits, B.O.D tests, etc. 3. Have students do a project on what they found. Lab report, poster, video, etc. Critique The chapter on the Biosphere and Biomes had many strengths and only a few weaknesses that I could find. I’ll start with the good. What I liked most about the chapter was that environmental concerns were a part of almost every section. Each biome contained a summary of its ecological problems brought on by human presence. I also liked the section on the rainforest, mainly because it included a “real world” professional and his views on tropical forest issues. The chapter also talked about deep-sea vents, which is fairly current information. The section on oceans and freshwater systems caught my eye as well. They did an excellent job of describing all the different zones. This was the exception however. Most of the other sections were a little too brief in my opinion. The only part of the chapter I had a real problem with were the two pages dealing with abiotic and biotic factors. This was the only section devoid of graphs, charts and other fun stuff. I consistently flipped past this part while referring to the text because it looked boring. When I actually read it I found they did an O.K. job but it was very boring. Overall I found this to be an excellent chapter. It is full of colorful pictures, charts, etc. that keep your attention. The organization is also good; they build a knowledge base and then expand to the different areas of the biosphere. So how do the students use the text? I think my evaluation of the text should give one a pretty good idea of how I would use the text in class. I would have the students read everything in the chapter except the pages on abiotic and biotic factors, and the sections describing the biomes. I’ve already mentioned what I think of the biotic/abiotic factors section so I would take class time to explain those ideas in detail so that I could answer any questions about them right away. I also believe that the biome descriptions should be covered in class and they are basic enough that to have the students read them would be redundant. For the remainder of the chapter I would break up the text into small sections and have them read those parts before we covered them or read them in class. I would also use the ”testing your knowledge” section at the end of the book. After or during each section of the chapter I would ask some of these questions or make up some of my own. Doing this will help reinforce what the class has been discussing. In general I don’t think it is a good idea to use a text to heavily in class. I believe some students are quickly turned-off by text books and they should be used sparingly. This section is somewhat unique because it is short and has lots of exciting pieces to it. The majority of the time texts should be used more for teacher reference than for reading assignments, but each class and unit is different and adjustments need to be made accordingly. UNIT PLAN II Table of Contents OBJECTIVES COGNITIVE SKILLS AND AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION ABIOTIC FACTORS CLIMATE OCEANS FRESHWATER TROPICAL FOREST BIOME TEMPERATE FOREST BIOME TAIGA or BOREAL FOREST BIOME TUNDRA BIOME ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS FIELD TRIP WRAP UP Objectives Students will: 1.) Understand what a biome is 2.) Know what is the biosphere 3.) Understand the components that make up a biome and biosphere 4.) Know what the major biomes are 5.) Know some of the characteristics of each biome 6.) Synthesize how abiotic factors affect the biome 7.) Be able to explain how regional climate influences the distribution of biological communities 8.) How weather occurs 9.) Understand some environmental problems 10.) Examine some solutions to these problems 11.) Understand basic definitions 12.) Know basic historical aspects of the environmental debate 13.) Understand what natural selection is 14.) Analyze the concepts of water, water usage, and water conservation 15.) Evaluate where water comes from 16.) Know why tropical rainforests are so important, apply this to your backyard 17.) Understand why it is important to study biomes 18.) Understand the relevance of biomes to students’ lives 19.) Relate knowledge of biome to: all live is precious 20.) Understand that all biomes are important Cognitive Skills and Affective Objectives Cognitive skills 1.) Learn how to take basic, fundamental knowledge and apply it to specific areas. Example: abiotic factor, climate> specific biome. 2.) Evaluate our impact on ecosystems, rainforests etc. What are we doing to save them? And what could you do personally. Affective objectives 1.) How would you feel if the tree that holds the cure to AIDS is cut down and goes extinct? 2.) What happens when you have no more clean water to drink? Introduction to Biomes Changing Attitudes Objectives Students will: 1.) give an example of a change in attitude related to a wild animal and/or the environment; 2.) describe factors which may influence change in attitude. Method Students design and conduct community interview, compiling and summarizing findings. Age level 5-12 Time frame One class period to discuss, out of class time needed to interview. Background Attitudes toward wildlife, the environment and appropriate uses of natural resources have changed over time. They also vary from culture, subgroups, communities and individuals. For example, 60 years ago in the United States, predator control was more or less taken for granted. There were efforts to control grizzly bears, cougars, coyotes, wolves, hawks and even eagles. There was even a bounty on many of these animals, as they were considered a threat to domesticated animals and human safety. However, today it is recognized that these annals have a role in the overall health of ecosystems. In addition, most predators are now protected by law. The major purpose of this activity is for students to interview members of their community to gain information concerning changes in attitudes about wildlife and the environment. Procedure 1.) Initiate a discussion with students about whether or not they think people’s attitudes about some subjects might change over time. Examples include fashion or food. Ask the students if they can think of any examples of changes in attitudes about wildlife, the environment, uses of natural resources, lifestyles involving natural resources and the environment. Discuss their suggestions and list the topics they suggest. 2.) Ask the students, working in group of two to four students, to generate a list of questions relating to wildlife and the environment they might ask adults in their community. Examples include: How do you feel about wildlife? What were some attitudes you remember having about wildlife when you were a youngster? Which of these attitudes, if any, have changes in the past 20 years? What has caused them to change? 3.) Review the questions generated by each student or group of students before they conduct interviews. Younger students’ questions may be shorter and fewer. 4.) Ask the students to interview at least one long-lived person in their community. Students are to record the conversation on paper or on tape. 5.) Next, ask the students to interview each other or themselves by recording their won responses to these questions as a point of comparison of change. Also, if time permitting, interview family members or more community members in certain employment categories. 6.) Compile the results of the interviews. Students are to summarize and highlight their findings within their groups. Discuss their findings with other groups and students and present those findings to the class. Extensions and Variations 1.) Expand the questions to other facets of the natural environment such as vegetation. 2.) Identify a local issue that is rampant in the local talk around town. Formulate a diagram listing and describing the pros and cons of the issue. 3.) Incorporate a history lesson into this lesson plan. Pretend that you were settlers living 100-200 yrs ago. Describe the environment and how it has changed. 4.) Explore Native American Indian attitudes toward wildlife and other natural resources- in historic times and today. Evaluation 1.) Describe how you think most people form their attitudes-what they know and how they feel- about animals or the environment. 2.) Give two examples of attitudes about animals that you have reason to believe are based on wrong information or not enough information. 3.) Give an example of a change in attitude about an animal that has occurred in this country during the past 100yrs. How did this change come about? 4.) If you were going to try to change someone’s attitude about snakes from negative to positive, how would you do it? Abiotic Factors Objectives: 1. Know the seven important abiotic factors. (Wind, fire, water, soil, solar energy, temperature, and oxygen) 2. Apply the "seven factors" to the real world; how are each of these factors controlled? 3. Explain what role abiotic factors have in the adaptation of organisms. Materials: 1. Glass of water (H2O) 2. Thermometer (temp) 3. Cup of dirt (soil) 4. Empty box (oxygen) 5. Bunsen burner or lighter (fire) 6. Fan (wind) 7. Magazines, Internet, etc. for research on project. Time Estimate: Total: 4 days, 2 days to cover the abiotic factors 1 day to cover organism adaptation, and 1 day for project time. Procedure: Day 1: Introduction. Have all seven items (the seventh being an open window) out on a desk. Use each item to introduce the seven abiotic factors. Once they are all introduced, explain what an abiotic factor is and have them write down one abiotic factor they can think of for the next class period. Discuss why each of the items on desk is important, and how they differ in the biosphere. Day 2: Either collect assignment from day 1 or ask students what they found. Write a list of the results on the board. Ask the class what all the items on the board have in common. Cover any of the "seven factors" not covered in day 1. If time permits do a quick review of natural selection (which would have been previously covered). Day 3 & 4: Use an example of an exciting animal (tiger, shark, etc.) to explain how abiotic factors influence organisms, and how they adapt to fit their environment. Specifically show how the "seven factors" influence a species of animal or plant. Project: With remaining time explain the "Favorite plant/animal project". Students will pick a plant or animal and show how it has adapted to its environment, using specific examples of abiotic factors. Project can be in any appropriate format (paper, posters, video, poem, etc.) Let class work on project in class for remainder of period and next day. Assessment: Grade project on creativity, effort and time spent on project, evidence of research and understanding of abiotic factors and their influence on organisms. Questions: Q. If hydrothermal vents don't get their energy from the sun, where do they get it? Anticipated response: They get it from the earth's crust. Correct response: They use the heat of the planet's interior for energy (hydroTHERMAL) Q. Aquatic and terrestrial organisms both have to deal with problems with water, but how do these problems differ? A.R. Aquatic things don't have a water problem, but land organisms have to be sure they don't dry out. C.R. Aquatic species must maintain a balance of water in their systems, and land species must avoid drying out. Rationale: These events occur everywhere on the planet, and they are problems for organisms everywhere. By understanding abiotic factors, we can understand the problems better and possibly save organisms that are in trouble. An understanding of these factors will help you keep pets alive longer too! Follow up/conclusion: Now that we have learned these 7 factors, among others, we are going to begin looking at the different parts of the biosphere. Keep in mind that these factors occur in all parts of the biosphere and we will be referring to them throughout the unit. Many of the abiotic factors we just learned fall under the category of climate, or next topic. Climate Objectives: 1. Understand how uneven heating of the earth's surface occurs and what it does. 2. Explain what causes the different seasons of the year. 3. Apply what you have learned about wind patterns, ocean currents, etc. to regionality of climates.(Why are some areas dry, others cold, etc.) Materials: Large globe Flashlight Lamp inflatable globe Geographic maps of rainfall, temperature, etc. glass pot or bowl, food coloring or dye, Bunsen burner colored pencils 8"x11" world maps Time Estimate: 2 days Procedure: Day 1: Using a globe and flashlight, illustrate how the sun heats the earth unevenly. Refer to UPI for a possible CBL activity on this topic. Explain the consequences of uneven heating and define the term's doldrums, and trade winds. Another good illustration technique is to boil water in a pot. Heat one side of pot until you can see the convection waves then place drops of dye into water. Use glass bowl so everyone can see. The currents in the water will churn the dye around. This can be an analogy to how winds are created by uneven heating. Next have students use inflatable globes and lamp to illustrate how the position and tilt of the earth create the different seasons. This gives students chance to participate. Day 2: Begin with a quick review of yesterday (short quiz?) then explain prevailing winds and ocean currents. Lots of overheads or posters will help with this section. Lastly explain how mountain ranges effect rainfall and have students fill in a map of the world by color with one category we discussed, temperature, rainfall, etc. Have students fill out maps using their own knowledge, make them think it through. When everyone is done, have then check his or her map with a textbook or other reference. If there isn't time to check them in class, do it at the beginning of the next class. Questions: Q. How do Mountains cause clouds to lose their moisture? A.R. The clouds bump into the Mountains and the water is pushed out of them as they go over the Mts. C.R. The Mts. cause the moist air to rise over them, as the air rises it gets cooler and loses its moisture as precipitation (rain, snow). Q. What causes ocean currents? A.R. The motion of the earth. C.R. Prevailing winds, the planets rotation, and the shapes of the continents all influence ocean currents. Rationale: If you know this stuff, you might actually be able to understand what the weatherman is talking about on the local news, and then you can explain it to your parents and they'll finally know how smart you are. This is also a fundamental part of the biosphere; these things effect everything, and so are very important. Follow up/closure We ended this section with ocean currents, which leads us directly into our next section, Oceans as a part of the biosphere. Oceans as a Part of the Biosphere Objectives: 1. Have a fundamental understanding of how oceans effect the biosphere. 2. Be able to take knowledge of oceans and apply it to specific organisms. 3. Know the basic parts of an ocean and understand what goes on in each area. Materials: Salt water tank with variety of marine life (optional) Computers (in class or in Comp. Lab) with Internet an email. List of marine biology websites Prior contact via email to several marine biologists Time Estimate: 3 days Procedure: Day 1: Discuss how oceans effect the biosphere. 75% of earth's surface 1. Evaporation = rainfall 2. Temperature effects climate and wind 3. Supplies oxygen to biosphere Discuss what happens when oceans meet land or freshwater. *Ask students what they think happens when river runs into ocean* Does anything live their? Is it fresh water or salt water? 1. Estuary 2. Intertidal zone 3. Wetlands Use salt-water tank to show example of life in ocean. Compare and contrast to freshwater tank. Other possibility would be to show National Geographic Explorer episode or a part of one. *Main idea is to bring ocean into classroom since we don't live by one* Assignment: Come up with one question you would ask a marine biologist. Day 2 Parts of the ocean. Zones. 1. Pelagic a. photic Visual aids are helpful here. b. Aphotic 2. Benthic When this is covered, go to computer lab or use computers in class to email marine biologists (whom have been contacted by teacher before hand) their one question. Day3 Hopefully get responses from Biologists. If so have student read their question and the response to the class. Also give students computer time to explore marine biology web sites that are provided to them. * Questions may have to be emailed before this unit, or else the responses may have to be read during another unit, as two days may not be enough time to get responses. Assessment of assignment: If students come up with an appropriate question they get credit, if they don't, they don't get the credit. Incentive is that it's interesting and its easy points. Questions: Q. If earth's surface is 75% water, why do we have water shortage problems in some areas of the world. A.R. Deserts don't have water and a lot of the water is polluted. C.R. Only a very small portion of the water on earth is drinkable. Rationale: We don't know a lot about the ocean's, even though they're a huge part of the planet, so we have to continue to learn about them. Even in Wisconsin oceans effect us o a daily basis. Follow up/closure: The next unit is freshwater which is a natural transition from oceans. Freshwater Biome How Wet is our Planet? Objectives Students will: 1.) describe the amount and distribution of water on the earth in oceans, river, lakes, groundwater, icecaps and the atmosphere; and 1.) make inferences about the importance of responsible use of water. Method Students calculate water volumes using percentages. Time frame One 50 minute lesson Background The earth has been called the water planet. Three-fourths of the earth’s surface is water. The earth’s water can be seen in flowing rivers, ponds, lakes, oceans, locked in the icecaps, and drifting through the air as clouds. Water that has seeped into the earth’s crust is more difficult to see, yet all these forms of water are part of a dynamic interrelated flow that we call the water cycle. Students tend to think of the water on the planet as being limitless and yet simple calculation demonstrate the fact that the amount of water is limited. Scientists believe that all the water that we will ever have is on the earth right now. Whatever amount is available to humans and wildlife depends largely on how its quality is maintained. Human beings have a responsibility to conserve water, use it wisely and protect its quality. The major purpose of this activity is for students to acquire and understanding of how fragile a resource water really is. Materials Large display map of the world; a 12 inch diameter globe; a five gallon aquarium, bucket, trash can, writing materials, calculators, measuring cup, one quart container for every three students; one measuring tablespoon for every three students. Procedure 1.) Using a map of the earth, begin a discussion of how much water is present. Ask the students to comment on why the earth is called the water planet. Call the students’ attention to the statistic that three-fourths of the surface of the earth is covered with water. After general discussion, provide the students with the following statistics: Water on Earth Oceans 97.2% Icecaps/glaciers 2.0% Groundwater .62% Freshwater lakes .009% Inland seas/salt lakes .008% Atmosphere .001% All rivers .0001% 2.) Discuss the relative percentages. Do the calculations for them or ask the students to calculate the estimated amounts of fresh water potentially available for human use: Groundwater .62% Freshwater lakes .009% Rivers .0001% Icecaps/glaciers 2.0% Total 2.62% 3.) In discussing these figures, emphasize that the usable percentage of existing fresh water is reduced by pollution and contamination. Also, all the groundwater and icecaps are not all readily available. Discuss the needs of humans for fresh water. Ask the students what other life forms also need the same water. 4.) Now show that students five gallons of water in an aquarium. Tell them how much is there. 5gal = 1280 tablespoons. 5.) Have the students assume that the five gallons represent all the water on earth. Do the calculations for them, or ask the students to calculate the volume of all the other quantities on the water percentage list. 5 Gallons Oceans 1244 Icecaps 25 Groundwater 7.9 Freshwater lakes .11 Inland seas .1 Atmosphere .0128 Rivers .0012 6.) Once the values are obtained, ask the students to calculate the volume of the water other that ocean water. Ask them to divide up in teams of three and put 34 tablespoons of water in a container and take it to their workplaces. 7.) At their workplaces, ask the students to remove the amount of water represented by all freshwater lakes and rivers. Then ask the students to extract the amount represented by rivers. This is less than a drop. Discuss the relative proportions with the students. 8.) Consider the fragile nature of the freshwater, wetlands and oceans of our planet. Discuss how all species depend upon this minute percentage of water for their survival. Close by emphasizing the importance of keeping the earth’s water clean and healthy and use them wisely and responsibly. Extensions 1.) Create a mural of the water cycle that graphically includes the statistics that represent the relative amount of water in each component of the cycle. 2.) Calculate how much pollution is entering our waterways each year. (The Information Please Almanac and The Cousteau Almanac are good sources for such information. 3.) Calculate the size of a model of the earth that would accommodate all the water in the aquarium used in the demonstration. Evaluation 1.) Estimate the percentage of water that is distributed in each of the following areas of our planet: oceans, rivers, freshwater lakes, inland seas and salt water lakes, groundwater, icecaps and glaciers, and the atmosphere. 2.) Explain why it is important that humans use water responsibly. Tropical Forest Biome Animals in their Habitats Objectives Students will 1.) Identify ecological niches of animal species; and 2.) Construct ecological interrelations in tropical food chain Method Animal study, measurements, and evaluations. Age level 3-9. Background Students will learn about animals in the context of the natural habitats. They will examine the ecological niches filled by different species, and how animals sometimes endanger each other individually but rely on each other ecologically. Time frame Initial lesson: One 45-minute period or equivalent Extensions: two periods Materials No special materials needed. Procedure 1.) Visit one or more of the zoos in your neighborhood to initiate a discussion of animals. Have students brainstorm about types of animals, their habitats, eating habits, and endangered species. Use the worldwide web to get some of info: Zoo in the wild: http://www.edv.it/zoo/ and the National Zoological Park Home Page: http://www. Si.edu/natzoo/ 2.) Take your students to this site to see how animals are organized into meaningful categories by scientists, based upon their similarities and differences, and their evolutionary origins. The Tree of Life: http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/tree/phylogeny.html Tree of Life: Metazoa: http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/tree/eukaryotes/animals/animals.html The levels of classification of living organisms are: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Share the mnemonic device with your students: King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti. 3.) Since three-fourths of earth is covered with ocean, you’ll want to have your students visit some of our aquatic friends. Students should understand that the ocean is the foundation of life on earth, both historically and ecologically. New England Aquarium: http://www.neaq.org/ Extensions 1.) Take a field trip with your class to a nearby park where you can study flora and fauna in person 2.) The richest host of different species in the world is the rainforest. Continue your studies of fauna at this site. Tropical Rainforest in Suriname: http://www.euronet.nl/users/mbleeker/suriname/suri-eng.html 3.) Show “Medicine Man” movie at the end of this lesson. Temperate Deciduous Forests (Outline) Day 1: Characteristic Abiotic Factors: Latitude Range Temperature Precipitation Seasons Day 2: Characteristic Fauna (tracks, habits, behavior, etc. of each) birds small mammals fox, bear, mountain lion deer Day 3: Characteristic Flora (identification) broad-leaved deciduous trees maples oaks hickory beech birch Day 4: Human Impact Logging agriculture urban development Taiga -Coniferous or Boreal Forest (outline) Day 1: Abiotic Characteristics High elevation temperate latitude mountainous regions (Taiga is Russian for Mountain) harsh winters/short summers lots and lots of snow thin acidic soil, protected by accumulated snow Day 2: Characteristic Fauna adapted to cold mice, shrews, and voles large browsers - deer, elk Predators - wolves, lynx, wolverines Day 3 Characteristic flora (identification) adapted to cold conifers waxy needles hold in moisture densely grown - not much room for undergrowth hemlock spruce pine Tundra Biome Simulated Wolf Population Studies Objectives Students will: 1.) Identify food, water, and shelter as three essential components of a habitat; 2.) describe the importance of a good habitat for animals; 3.) Define limiting factors and give examples; 4.) Recognize that some fluctuations in a given wolf population are natural as ecological systems undergo a constant change; 5.) Recognize that changes in wolf population are due to man. Age level 4-9 Purpose To increase students’ awareness of the conditions which affect the size on individual wolf packs in the wild. Overview Students become wolves and components of a habitat in a highly involving physical activity. Time frame One 50 minute class period. Materials Board and paper to record population counts and habitat conditions. Graph paper is needed for making a pictorial study of the population changes. Procedure 1.) Review the essential components of a wolf habitat. 2.) Number students off in fours. Mark tow parallel lines twenty yards apart on the ground having ones lineup behind one line and the twos, threes and fours behind the opposite line. 3.) The ones are wolves and are looking for food (hands clamped over stomach) water (hands over mouth), and shelter (hands over head). During a single round each wolf is looking for one of these components. 4.) The twos, threes and fours are the components of the habitat and use the same hand signals as noted above. Each student gets to choose at the beginning of each round which component he or she will be during that round. 5.) Each round starts with all players lined up in their respective lines and with their backs to the students behind the other line. 6.) The teacher notes the beginning of each round. Wolves and habitat components make their individually determined signals. When students are ready, the teacher count to three at which time everyone turns around. Wolves are allowed to run and capture one person exhibiting the sign that the wolf if looking for. 7.) Successfully captured habitat components return to the wolf line and then become wolves increasing the wolf population. Wolves that do not find what they need, die and become part of the habitat for the next round. 8.) The teacher and students keep track of the wolf population for each round. Continue until you have done fifteen rounds. 9.) Graph data. Extension 1.) Discuss and write about what would happen to the wolf population if man were included into this experiment. 2.) Include a history lesson: this experiment was done by the Hudson Bay trappers in early American history. Compare your findings to what their results after some research on this topic. Evaluation After graphing the data, ask the students to summarize some of the things they have learned from this activity. Discuss what wolves need to survive; what are some of the natural limiting factors that affect their survival; whether wildlife populations in general are static; whether wildlife nature is ever really in balance. Environmental Problems Environmental Barometer Objectives Students will: 1.) observe and count wildlife in and area; 2.) discuss why the wildlife is or is not present; and 3.) Consider way in which the presence of wildlife can be seen as an indicator of environmental quality. Method Students will go outside to observe and count or estimate wildlife in an area, and do the same for another setting, to make a school “environmental barometer.” Age level 5-9 Time frame One class period to discuss, more time needed to observe and count wildlife Background The major purpose of this activity is for students to consider the importance of wildlife as an indicator of environmental quality. Procedure 1.) Discuss the diversity of wildlife. 2.) Go outside with your students on the school grounds and do a wildlife count. Each student should sit quietly alone for ten minutes. The students should record the kinds and numbers of any wildlife they see or evidence of wildlife. 3.) Next, take the students to a setting where wildlife is more abundant doing the same recordings. 4.) Compare the two charts. Discuss the differences. Ask and offer explanations to observations. Extension Share barometer with other class in other subjects. Show seasonal changes in the barometer’s readings. Evaluation 1.) Do research on bird migration, or any other pertinent available information that is recorded from year to year. Compare the differences, and offer explanations. 2.) Make a list of thing we sometimes do in cities and towns that tend to decrease or increase the amounts and kinds of wildlife. Biome Unit field trip wrap-up An excellent way to conclude this unit would be to take the class on a field trip to a Zoo. The Milwaukee County Zoo and the Minnesota Zoo would both offer a huge learning experience to the students. Most zoos have their plants and animals arranged in some way similar to the biomes described in this unit. If done properly this could be a great way to help the students retain all the information they just learned. Look for a detailed plan of this field trip in the coming future as my student choice assignment. UNIT PLAN III Test Covering: Environmental Barometer, Changing Attitudes, How Wet is our Planet, Simulated wolf Population Studies, and Animals in their Habitats. Multiple Choice Questions: (Circle the most appropriate answer) 2pts each 1.) The amount (in numbers) of wildlife in our school habitat was found to be: a.) 0-10 b.) 11-20 c.) 21-30 d.) greater than 50 2.) The amount of wildlife in our school habitat vs. outside of town habitat was found to be: a.) greater b.) smaller c.) exactly equal 3.) Which animals are predators now protected by law: a.) grizzly bears b.) cougars c.) coyotes d.) all of the above 4.) The attitudes of people toward wildlife awareness in people you surveyed has generally: a.) increased b.) decreased c.) remained the same 5.) The term given for the dynamic interrelated flow of water from the lakes and oceans to the atmosphere is called: a.) water sliding b.) water maintaining c.) water bicycling d.) water cycling 6.) The estimated amount of fresh water potentially available for human use is: a.) 97.2% b.) 75% c.) 2.6% d.) 5 gallons 7.) The most probable change in the wolf population can largely be related to: a.) wolf habitat b.) man c.) the greenhouse effect d.) mice 8.) The most essential components of a wolf’s habitat is(are): a.) food b.) water c.) shelter d.) all of the above 8.) The movie Medicine Man best represents what kind of problem: a.) drinking too much of alcoholic beverages b.) the rainy season c.) destruction of important species d.) woman vs. man 9.) The highest level of classification of living organisms are: a.) Kingdom b.)Phylum c.) Species d.) Class 10.) The reason we took a field trip to a zoo was because: a.) for fun b.) too see animals in their semi-reconstructed habitats c.) to increase the greenhouse effect by burning gas in the bus for no reason d.) to experience the feeling of being incarcerated True or False? (Circle the correct answer) 2pts each 1.) An “Environmental Barometer” represents how the weather is changing the environment. T F 2.) Generally over time, the protections of animals have increased. T F 3.) In our households we should conserve as much water as we can because the amount of fresh water in the world is limited. T F 4.) The Simulated Wolf Population Study was fist done by the Hudson Bay trappers. T F 5.) The zoo is a great place to see animals that you would not normally see. T F Short Answer (Write in the most appropriate word or phrase) 15pts 1.) The levels of classification of living organisms are: (From highest to lowest) a.) b.) c.) d.) e.) f.) g.) Essay (Pick two of the three possible) 15pts each 1.) If you were going to try to change someone’s attitude about snakes from negative to positive, how would you do it? 2.) Create a drawing of the water cycle that graphically includes the statistics that represent the relative amount of water in each component of the cycle. 3.) Describe a wolf population before and after mans interference. Alternative Assessment Rubric Attendance ¼ pts………………………………………………………………5 pts total Participation ¼ pts…………………………………………………………….5 pts total Attitude ¼ pts per day between tests………………………………………….. 5 pts total Involvement and interest ¼ pts ……………………………………………… 5 pts total Conceptual Change ¼ pts…………………………………………………….5 pts total Total Points………………………………………………………………… 25 pts total Note: The ¼ th points are assigned per day as the student shows. The point total in each group is added up for the 20 day period between each test. The total alternative assessment points will be added to the 75pt test for a grand total of 100pts for each test section. Test covering : climate, abiotics factors, oceans, and multiple biomes’ Multiple Choice: (2pts each) Circle the most appropriate answer. 1) Which of these is not an abiotic factor? a) Temperature b) Weight c) Water d) Solar Energy 2) Ocean currents are caused by: a) Prevailing winds b) Shape of the continents c) Rotation of the Earth d) All of the above 3) An estuary is: a) A river of freshwater flowing on the ocean floor b) A river of salt water c) The marshy area where fresh and salt water meet d) An island that forms in the middle of very large rivers 4) The richest communities in the ocean are: a) The aphotic and pelagic zones b) Estuaries and coral reefs c) Coral reefs and hydrothermal vents d) The ones with big houses and nice cars 5) This biome is characterized by maple, oak, hickory, and birch trees. a) Temperate forest b) Taiga c) Tundra d) Chaparral 6) Tagia is: a) A russian word for “icey place” b) A biome dominated by high winds and very little precipitaion c) A coniferous biome d) The biome most effected by human overpopulation 7) Air which is heated by the sun at the equator rises, creating an area of calm or light winds know as: a) doldrums b) humbolt currents c) trade winds d) temperate zones 8) Humans influence biomes by: a) destruction of habitat b) pollution c) over harvesting d) all of the above 9) Conifers have needles with a waxy coating on them. This waxy coating is there to: a) Make the needles taste bad so animals don’t eat them b) Hold in moisture c) Protect the needle during fires d) Aid in seed dispersal 10) Question #9 is an example of: a) A really good question b) An adaptation to predation c) A, B, and D d) Influence of abiotic factors TRUE/FALSE(2pts each)circle either T or F 1. T/F Deserts are biologically dead, containing almost no life. 2. T/F Desertification is the process of destroying deserts. 3. T/F The Taiga is characterized by long summers and short, harsh winters. 4. T/F Wetlands are ecosystems that usually occur between aquatic and terrestrial areas. 5. T/F Algae and cyanobacteria are collectively called phytoplankton. SHORT ANSWER (15 PTS) 1. Draw a diagram of the ocean with all its different parts. 2. Why is it foolish to think that we have an unlimited supply of fresh water? Essay (40 pts) Choose one of the two listed. 1. Explain how the uneven heating of the earth is responsible for the trade winds, prevailing winds, ocean currents, tropics, temperate zones, and doldrums. Remember a picture is worth a thousand words. 2. What are the seven “key abiotic factors” that we discussed in class? Use an example organism (possibly from our field trip) to show how organisms adapt to these factors.