Docstoc

business start up opportunities

Document Sample
business start up opportunities Powered By Docstoc
					Associazione Industriali
Province della Sardegna Meridionale
Cagliari, Carbonia-Iglesias e Medio Campidano
CONFINDUSTRIA




BUSINESS START-UP
OPPORTUNITIES
IN THE SOUTHERN
SARDINIAN PROVINCES
Realizzato con il contributo
del Fondo Speciale L.R. 37/98, art. 8
in gestione speciale presso
SFIRS S.p.A.




            Associazione Industriali
            Province della Sardegna Meridionale
            Cagliari, Carbonia-Iglesias e Medio Campidano
            CONFINDUSTRIA




Si ringraziano l’Assessorato dell’Industria
della Regione Sardegna,
l’Osservatorio Economico ed il Casic
per la disponibilità delle mappe.




Finito di stampare nel maggio 2006 presso le Arti grafiche Pisano di Cagliari




2
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



INDEX




INTRODUCTION                                                          p.    5

INFRASTRUCTURE OF PRODUCTION LOCATIONS
Industrial Areas                                                      p.    7
  Macchiareddu                                                        p.    7
  Sarroch                                                             p.    8
  Elmas                                                               p.    8
  Portovesme                                                          p.    9
  Iglesias                                                            p.   11
  Villacidro                                                          p.   12
  Isili                                                               p.   13
Production Start-up Plans (PIP)                                       p.   15
Advantages of business start-up opportunities                         p.   15

TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE
Industrial Port of Cagliari                                           p.   17
  An advanced logistics platform in the centre of the Mediterranean   p.   17
  Duty free zone                                                      p.   17
Cagliari Airport - Elmas                                              p.   18

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE
Polaris, Sardinia’s Scientific and Technological Park                  p.   19
Partners of Polaris                                                   p.   21
CNR – National Research Council                                       p.   21
Other public research centres                                         p.   24
Public-private partnerships                                           p.   25

QUALITY OF LABOUR SUPPLY: EDUCATION,
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING
University                                                            p.   26
Professional and Vocational Training                                  p.   28

INCENTIVES SYSTEM                                                     p.   29

QUALITY OF LIFE
Environmental situation                                               p.   30
Security                                                              p.   30

SUMMARY OF ADVANTAGES
AND OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED BY THE AREA                                 p.   31




                                                                                3
    BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES




4
                                         INTRODUCTION




The present work has been created to provide a guide to entrepreneurs interested in locating new
investments in the area of Southern Sardinia. It is intended as an easy instrument to use to assess the
region and the competitive advantages it offers.
The knowledge that geographical location can be one of the factors influencing a business’s competitiveness
means that an accurate analysis of the distinctive qualities of the start-up opportunities in the three Southern
Sardinian provinces: Cagliari, Carbonia-Iglesias and Medio Campidano is central to this work. Thus
making it useful for understanding the characteristics of the region in terms of physical spaces, services,
incentives and all those factors which help businesses in the process of setting up.
The work is presented in six parts.
In the first three parts a description of the material and non-material infrastructures is given; for example,
availability of plots for businesses, the infrastructure to support these businesses and specialized production
and research centres present in the area.
In part four the quality of the labour supply is analysed and the range of professions available is described.
Information relative to initial and on-going training is used as part of this analysis.
In part five the incentives system is illustrated, while in the last part the quality of life is analysed, with
reference to the environmental situation and natural resources. Particular attention is paid to the theme of
social well-being.
Finally, the strong points and development opportunities offered by the region, the provinces of Cagliari,
Carbonia-Iglesias and Medio Campidano, are summarized and listed in a table.




                                                                                                               5
                     BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES




    Ae
       ro
         po
            r   to




                     Porto




6
            INFRASTRUCTURE OF PRODUCTION LOCATIONS




Industrial Areas

MACCHIAREDDU

The industrial area of Macchiareddu is situated just a few kilometres from Cagliari and from the island’s
main transport infrastructure (Table 1). It covers an area of over 8,200 hectares, 3,700 of which are set
aside for production activities.

 CONNECTIONS                                                                                          (table1)
 Industrial transhipment port (Cagliari)                                                                0 km
 Cagliari Railway Station                                                                               2 km
 Cagliari Centre                                                                                        2 km
 S.S. 131 Carlo Felice                                                                                  7 km
 (main dual-carriageway linking north and south Sardinia)
 Cagliari Airport (Elmas)                                                                               8 km

The lots aimed at industrial developments are on level ground, free from seismic activity, with an average
load bearing capacity of over 2kg/cm². The area enjoys a mild, temperate climate and has a favourable
situation as regards the prevailing winds, which help to disperse possible smoke and emissions from
industries located there into the atmosphere.
Specialist production activities in the area include the following sectors in particular: ITC (Information
and Communication Technology), mechanical, chemical, oil and metallurgical industries. The numerous
businesses in the area however, make Macchiareddu a modern, multifaceted industrial centre. CASIC is
the administrative body for Cagliari’s Industrial Development Area, which consists of three agglomerations:
Elmas, Macchiareddu and Sarroch. Its service centre (15 hectares) provides the following services: a 270-
seat conference hall equipped with simultaneous translation facilities, an 80-seat seminar hall, a bar, an
inter-company canteen, banking facilities and a cash-point machine, a post office, consortium car parks
and a multi-functional sports centre. Further technical and support services for companies are planned:
scientific and research laboratories, centres for environmental studies and research, industrial, chemical
and product analyses and business incubation through the leasing of industrial incubators.
These incubators are functional instruments for companies intending to set up new establishments or
develop research. They are situated in Macchiareddu and are made up of highly technological and
research oriented modular “units” which are rented out to companies for the incubation period of their
activity. The “unit” offer includes the supply of logistical services at competitive prices thus allowing initial
start-up costs for businesses to be considerably lowered. The rent contract can be stipulated according to
business needs and can be renewed for periods varying from six months to six years.
The following services are also provided:


• public security services;                                 • internal road network;
• fire service;                                              • long-distance industrial power lines;
• goods transportation;                                     • electricity network;
• collective transport;                                     • telephone network;


                                                                                                                 7
                                                       BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



• water purification plant;                             • rubbish dump;
• drinking water network;                              • fuel outlet;
• industrial water network;                            • coastal petrochemical storage;
• refuse collection;                                   • transhipment port.

Furthermore, in the Macchiareddu area there is an environmental section, covering an area of 18 hectares,
made up of a purification plant for the treatment of domestic water, industrial water, mixed waters and
mud, an incinerator for the disposal of solid urban waste, specific solid waste, industrial waste (solid and
liquid) and mud and a plant for the disposal of toxic and harmful waste which uses chemical/physical
procedures to make these substances inert.

SARROCH

The industrial area of Sarroch is situated just over 20 km from Cagliari, near the island’s main transport
infrastructure (Table 2). It covers an area of nearly 750 hectares, 450 of which are set aside for production
activities.

    CONNECTIONS                                                                                             (table 2)
    Industrial transhipment port (Cagliari)                                                                   25 km
    Cagliari Railway station                                                                                  26 km
    Cagliari Centre                                                                                           26 km
    S.S. 131 Carlo Felice                                                                                     28 km
    Cagliari Airport (Elmas)                                                                                  30 km

In this case too, lots set aside for industrial developments are on level ground, free from seismic activity,
with an average load bearing capacity of over 2kg/cm². The climate is mild and temperate and the
area’s location is favourable as regards the prevailing winds, which help to disperse possible smoke and
emissions from industries located there into the atmosphere.
Sarroch industrial area specializes mainly in chemical and petrochemical activities (oil industry), plant
engineering, building and working and manufacturing metal products.
The area’s infrastructure provides:

• security services;                                   • drinking water network;
• fire service;                                         • industrial water network;
• goods transportation;                                • white water sewage system;
• collective transport;                                • grey water sewage system;
• internal road network;                               • effluent purifying plant;
• long-distance industrial power lines;                • fuel outlet;
• coastal petrochemical storage;                       • refuse collection;
• electricity network;                                 • rubbish dump;
• telephone network;                                   • technological services centre;
• water purification plant;                             • scientific and research laboratories.

ELMAS

The Elmas industrial area is situated adjacent to Cagliari airport (Elmas), just a few kilometres away from
the capital (Table 3). It covers an area of more than 260 hectares, 170 of which have been set aside for
production activities and nearly all of which is taken up by small businesses and service industries.




8
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES




 CONNECTIONS                                                                                                 (table 3)
 Cagliari Airport Elmas                                                                                         0 km
 Elmas Railway Station                                                                                          1 km
 Cagliari Railway Station                                                                                       2 km
 Cagliari Centre                                                                                                2 km
 S.S.131 Carlo Felice                                                                                           4 km
 Industrial transhipment port Cagliari                                                                          7 km

The lots are on level ground and are free from seismic activity, with an average load bearing capacity of
over 2kg/cm². The area enjoys a mild, temperate climate and has a favourable situation as regards the
prevailing winds, which help to disperse possible smoke and emissions from industries located there into
the atmosphere.
The companies present in Elmas operate mainly in the agro-industrial, mechanical, metallurgical, textile,
manufacturing, commercial and service sectors. As well as this, there is an area set aside for businesses
operating in the ITC (Information and Communication Technology) sector and those carrying out research
and development activities (area services and research-related activities zone).
The area infrastructure includes:

• internal road network;                                              • industrial water network;
• postal service;                                                     • grey water drainage/sewage system;
• cash-point machine;                                                 • effluent purifying plant;
• long distance industrial power lines;                               • refuse collection;
• electricity network;                                                • rubbish dump;
• telephone services;                                                 • fuel outlet;
• water purification plant;                                            • security services.
• drinking water network;

PORTOVESME

The industrial area of Portovesme is situated on the western coast of Southern Sardinia and is just a few
kilometres from Iglesias, (table 4). It covers an area of over 700 hectares, 500 of which are set aside for
production activities.

 CONNECTIONS                                                                                                 (table 4)
 Portovesme Industrial Port                                                                                     1 km
 Iglesias Railway Station                                                                                     14 km
 Iglesias Centre                                                                                              14 km
 Carbonia Railway Station                                                                                     20 km
 S.S. 131 Carlo Felice                                                                                        66 km
 Cagliari Airport Elmas                                                                                       72 km
 Industrial transhipment port Cagliari                                                                        78 km


Portovesme is one of Sardinia’s principal industrial areas. It owes its importance to the specialized
production activities present there, in particular to the production of metal-based products especially from
aluminium, from zinc, copper and cadmium and the production of electricity. It is probably the area with
the highest density of primary industries in Sardinia.




                                                                                                                         9
                                                       BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES




                                                   S.P. 82                                  S.S. 130   S.S. 131



                      PORTOSCUSO AREA INDUSTRIALE
                                                   PORTOVESME




The infrastructure provides:

• primary electricity substation;                     • industrial assemblage service;
• control and goods sampling;                         • consortium car parks;
• air pollutant purification;                          • cleaning service;
• conference centre (organisation and services);      • refuse collection;
• inland revenue offices – customs offices              • various industrial recovery and reclaiming services;
  harbour offices;                                     • schools and professional training centres;
• purification plant;                                  • security service;
• water purification plant;                            • environmental studies and research association;
• scientific and research laboratories;                • banking facilities;
• testing and certifying laboratories;                • multi-functional sports centre;
• area maintenance;                                   • collective transport;
• industrial and technical maintenance;               • goods transportation.
• inter-company canteen;


10
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



IGLESIAS

The industrial area of Iglesias, situated a few kilometres from the town of Iglesias (Table 5), covers an area
of almost 200 hectares, 100 of which are set aside for industrial activities.

 CONNECTIONS                                                                                          (table 5)
 Iglesias railway station                                                                                3 km
 Portovesme industrial port                                                                            20 km
 S.S. 131 Carlo Felice                                                                                 49 km
 Cagliari airport (Elmas)                                                                              50 km
 Industrial transhipment port Cagliari                                                                 55 km
 Cagliari Centre                                                                                       57 km




                                                                             I   S.S. 130
                                                                         LIAR
                                                                      CAG
  IGLESIAS

              S.P. 126



                                                                        AREA INDUSTRIALE
                                                                            IGLESIAS




                                                                                            S.P. 86




                                                                                                                  11
                                                        BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



Economic activities prevalent in this area include the production and working of metal products, the wood
industry and products made of wood and cork, various manufacturing activities and wholesale retailing.
The area is run by a consortium created to maximise use of the area’s resources. It aims to introduce more
industrialization processes, create infrastructure and systems works for land and developments and carry
out maintenance of existing structures. It works together with business associations to offer services and
promote activities and initiatives, as well as aiming to develop policies and professional training.
Moreover, this body can acquire shares in existing companies in the area, to create new industries,
consolidate existing ones and provide industrial services.
The infrastructure provides:

• primary electricity substation;                       • collective transport;
• industrial and technical maintenance;                 • serviced green spaces;
• industrial assemblage service;                        • natural green spaces.
• manoeuvring spaces for heavy vehicles;


VILLACIDRO

The industrial zone of Villacidro is excellently linked by road and rail networks to Sardinia’s most important
centres, to the industrial ports of Cagliari and Oristano and to Cagliari (Elmas) airport (table 6).


 CONNECTIONS                                                                                                 (table 6)
 San Gavino railway station                                                                                    11 km
 S.S. 131 Carlo Felice                                                                                         19 km
 Cagliari airport (Elmas)                                                                                      42 km
 Industrial transhipment port Cagliari                                                                         48 km


The industrial zone covers an area of 580 hectares, 350 of which are set aside for production activities
and completely divided into lots. It boasts primary infrastructures such as a purification plant, integrated
with the old sewage works which uses biological oxidisation and aerobic mud-digestion processes to
treat liquid industrial refuse from the area and civil refuse from bordering municipalities. It has a receptive
capacity of 800m³/hour. The plant has recently been enlarged with another section for anaerobic mud
digestion allowing biogas to be recovered and used for the production of electricity and hot water. A de-
nitrification section for incoming effluent has also been built.
As well as this, there is a waste treatment plant in the area which treats specific urban waste and urban
refuse from the industrial area and neighbouring areas, at a total capacity of about 120 ton/g for solid
waste and 35 ton/g for mud. The plant includes a section for compost with a capacity of 20 ton/g, from
a controlled dump of an initial volume of around 500,000m³.
The infrastructure and services provided are:

• road network;                                         • telephone network and centre;
• sewerage network for ground/storm water;              • railway line connecting the area with Sanluri state
• sewerage network for industrial effluent;                railway station (FFSS national line station).
• medium and high tension electricity distribution
  network;




12
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES




                                                      S.P. 61




                                                                                                    SASSARI
                                                                                                       S.S. 131




                                                                                                         CAGLIARI
                                                                      AREA INDUSTRIALE
                                                                         VILLACIDRO




        VILLACIDRO




In the multi-purpose Service Centre, the following services are provided: the consortium offices, banking
facilities, a local branch of the Regional Agency (Catasto) and a conference centre with a 100-seat
conference hall and an exhibition hall. As well as this, the consortium running the area has set up a mutual
association, employing many highly-qualified experts, thus ensuring that the technological works are
managed excellently; that they are efficient, economically compatible and in harmony with the environment.
The consortium is presently expanding and is working towards the creation of a commercial zone which
will enlarge the current area and favour development in this sector. In line with the Consortium’s policies
on social integration, the creation of an area dedicated to sports facilities and leisure time services is
being planned.

ISILI

The “Perd’e Cuaddu” industrial area is situated in the municipality of Isili, in the province of Cagliari. It
was created in the 1970s and covers an area of over 160 hectares, 7,000 m² of which can be used for
building purposes. The area is subdivided into 84 lots; some of these are already taken up with industrial
activities while others are available. The distances from the area to the main transport infrastructure are
shown in table 7. Within the area there are zones with distinct functions: a zone for production set-ups
with the option of both prefabricated units and frameworks to create these units, as well as completely
free lots with a minimum extension of approximately 850 m²; a zone for services, equipment and serviced
green spaces; an agricultural zone.


                                                                                                                    13
                                                       BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES




                                                                   AREA INDUSTRIALE
                                                                          ISILI




     OR
       IST
          A   NO
                   -S
                        AS
                          SA
                            RI




                          S.S 128




      ISILI
                                    CAG
                                       LIA
                                          RI




The area infrastructure provides the following services:

• water network;                                       • data processing centre;
• sewage network;                                      • technological services centre;
• primary electricity substation;                      • consultancy services in the following areas:
• purification plant;                                     administrative, commercial, labour, management
• drinking water network;                                and industrial organization, marketing and
• internal road network;                                 market research;
• industrial, chemical and product analyses;           • education and professional training.

A quality control centre for agro-industrial products and an incubator are also currently being built. The
production specializations present in the area belong mainly to the following sectors: agro-industrial,
mechanical, plant engineering, rubber and plastic materials.




14
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



 CONNECTIONS                                                                                            (table 7)
 S.S. 131 Carlo Felice                                                                                   45 km
 Cagliari Airport Elmas                                                                                  74 km
 Oristano Industrial Port                                                                                74 km
 Industrial transhipment port (Cagliari)                                                                 76 km
 Cagliari centre                                                                                         79 km
 Cagliari railway station                                                                                79 km


Production Start-up Plans (PIP)

In the Southern Sardinian provinces there are many PIP (production start-up plans) as provided for by law
no. 22, 1971. Primary developments present in council plans for incoming businesses are made up of: an
internal road network, water supply, water distribution network, sewage network for white waters, sewage
networks for grey and mixed waters, street lighting, electricity network, car parks and green spaces.
There are 36 municipalities with PIPs:


  1.   Arbus                                     13.   Nurri                 25.   Serramanna
  2.   Calasetta                                 14.   Ortacesus             26.   Settimo San Pietro
  3.   Carbonia                                  15.   Pabillonis            27.   Seulo
  4.   Donori                                    16.   Portoscuso            28.   Sinnai
  5.   Escolca                                   17.   Samassi               29.   Tratalias
  6.   Gonnosfanadiga                            18.   Samatzai              30.   Ussaramanna
  7.   Guasila                                   19.   San Gavino Monreale   31.   Villamar
  8.   Guspini                                   20.   San Sperate           32.   Villamassargia
  9.   Lunamatrona                               21.   Sant’Antioco          33.   Villanovafranca
 10.   Monastir                                  22.   Segariu               34.   Villasimius
 11.   Nuragus                                   23.   Selargius             35.   Villasor
 12.   Nuraminis                                 24.   Senorbì               36.   Villaspeciosa



Advantages of business start-up opportunities

The fact that start-up opportunities in Cagliari, Carbonia, Iglesias and Medio Campidano are so competitive
is due not only to the infrastructure provided and ample availability of environmental services but also to
the low costs that these factors imply, highly competitive factors, which can influence a business interested
in locating new production investments away from their own region and immediate circle of reference.
The serviced areas can generally be purchased in a fairly short space of time and compared to those
registered in other Italian provinces they have one of the lowest costs per metre squared (table 8), as
well as offering competitive prices for all complementary services: for example, the costs of treating solid
urban waste (table 9), solid industrial waste (table 10), and civil and industrial effluent (table 11) are
amongst the lowest of all Italian industrial areas. However, the price for water distribution, using their own
networks, both for drinking water (table 12) and industrial water (table 13), is on a par with the national
average.


 AREA OF REFERENCE                                                                   COST IN EURO PER M2
 Average sample industrial areas Centre - South                                                              15
 Average sample industrial areas North                                                                      150
 Average industrial                                                                                          12
 areas Southern Sardinia
Table 8 – Comparison of average costs for equipped areas




                                                                                                                    15
                                                                             BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



 AREA OF REFERENCE                                                                                          COST IN EURO PER KG
 Average sample industrial areas Centre - South                                                                                       0,11
 Average sample industrial areas North                                                                                                0,10
 Average industrial                                                                                                                  0,08
 areas Southern Sardinia
Table 9 – Comparison of average costs for treatment of solid urban waste


 AREA OF REFERENCE                                                                                          COST IN EURO PER KG
 Average sample industrial areas Centre - South                                                                                       0,09
 Average sample industrial areas North                                                                                                0,11
 Average industrial                                                                                                                  0,07
 areas Southern Sardinia
Table 10 – Comparison of average costs for treatment of industrial waste


 AREA OF REFERENCE                                                                                           COST IN EURO PER M3
 Average sample industrial areas Centre - South                                                                                       0,41
 Average sample industrial areas North                                                                                                0,45
 Average industrial                                                                                                                  0,35
 areas Southern Sardinia
Table 11 – Comparison of average costs for treatment of civil and industrial effluent


 AREA OF REFERENCE                                                                                           COST IN EURO PER M3
 Average sample industrial areas Centre - South                                                                                       0,75
 Average sample industrial areas North                                                                                                0,63
 Average industrial                                                                                                                  0,84
 areas Southern Sardinia
Table 12 – Comparison of average costs for drinking water



 AREA OF REFERENCE                                                                                           COST IN EURO PER M3
 Average sample industrial areas Centre - South                                                                                       0,28
 Average sample industrial areas North                                                                                                0,33
 Average industrial                                                                                                                  0,28
 areas Southern Sardinia
Table 13 – Comparison of average costs for industrial water




16
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES

                                  TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE




Industrial port of Cagliari

An advanced logistics platform in the centre of the Mediterranean

The industrial transhipment port of Cagliari deals principally with containerized goods traffic on main
world routes: its strategic geographical position as regards Europe, North Africa and Middle Eastern
countries (a potential market of nearly 700 million people), the enormous territory it can operate in and the
highly technological infrastructure it provides means that Cagliari’s industrial port is a strategic, logistical
centre for maritime transport on national and international delivery lines.
Easy to reach from all industrial areas – minimum distance 1km, maximum distance 78 km – it has assumed
a fundamental role for the island’s economy not least because of the fact that it is so easily accessible to
Cagliari’s metropolitan area and to the whole of Sardinia.
Cagliari’s international container terminal, a technologically advanced centre for the sorting of containers,
caters for the needs of present-day worldwide container traffic: the ever-increasing size of vessels used,
ability to comply with modern navigation programmes requiring the following of the best maritime routes;
rapid handling of containers and a modern and efficient infrastructure for their distribution.
As well as the transhipment terminal, which covers an area of 40 hectares, the industrial port system
includes:

•    A Port Terminal: which covers an area of over 10 hectares. It is here that the following activities take
     place: ship servicing and repair, goods health inspections, public security services and operational
     management and the following places are situated: the boat workshop and spare-part warehouse, the
     maritime health and public security buildings and the piloting and mooring operators’ building.

•    General Services for the transhipment and port terminals: cover an area of almost 30 hectares. It is
     here that operational management activities are carried out and the following services are situated:
     goods warehouses, the Customs Authority building, the electricity substation, the service centre, the
     gate and platform roof with 6 stations and 4 weight bridges, the Port Management building and
     national and international goods warehouses.

•    Public Authorities and Services: cover an area of over 10 hectares, where service-craft management
     and Public Authority services are carried out. A basin with a slipway for service-craft repairs, the
     electricity substation, the fire service, the customs and inland revenues and Port Authority buildings
     can also be found here.

The following areas are also being developed: the inter-port (goods transportation by road and rail),
areas reserved for productive and commercial operations functional to the port and inter-port, areas for
industrial activities and the like associated with maritime traffic, areas for port services and navigational
safety facilities and areas reserved for naval activities.

Duty Free Zone

The duty free zone of Cagliari’s industrial transhipment port was created according to the provisions of


                                                                                                              17
                                                      BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



EEC regulation no. 2913/1992 (Council) and no. 2454/1993 (Commission). It is an area in which non-
community goods are considered, for the application of importation customs duties, as goods not situated
in the customs territory of the European Union, if they are again exported to extra-community countries.
Customs duties are collected however, if the goods come into the community’s customs territory. The
benefits of the customs duty free zone mainly regard the collection of customs duties, which are deferred
for 180 days from the moment the goods leave the duty free zone and enter another European Union
country, as well as the working or transformation of goods and products coming from and going to non
EU destinations which can be carried out on site remaining exempt from any customs restrictions.

Cagliari Airport-Elmas

The air transport system in Sardinia boasts a good number of airports which put the island amongst the top
positions in national rankings: in 5th place for passenger traffic, 7th place for air traffic and 12th place
for goods traffic. In this light, the new air terminal at Cagliari Elmas, opened in June 2003, is the most
important in Sardinia as it alone deals with 50% of the island’s entire air traffic.
Traffic data, referring to the airport’s recently expanded commercial aviation activities, show that it
handled nearly 2.3 million passengers in 2005, a considerable increase compared to the previous year.
The airport however is able to handle traffic of up to 4 million passengers per year and is aiming to
achieve this goal by 2010. More than 24,000 aircraft made a stop here in 2005, again an increase on
the previous year. Presently the airport handles more than 4,000 tons of goods traffic per year.
The airport is situated just a few kilometres from Cagliari, in easy reach of all the industrial areas
mentioned (minimum distance 1km, maximum distance 72km) and some half million inhabitants of
Southern Sardinia.




18
                            RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE




Businesses setting up or already active in the Southern Sardinian provinces can benefit from the support
of numerous research centres operating within the territory, or throughout the region, which are easily
and directly accessible thanks to local networks. Research activities carried out in university circles will be
looked at in the following chapter.

POLARIS, Sardinia’s Scientific and Technological Park

About 30 km from Cagliari town centre and mere minutes from the well-known tourist resort of Pula,
Sardinia’s scientific and technological park, Polaris, has its headquarters. It has four centres and was created
to improve business competitiveness favouring the adoption of new product and process technologies,
promoting technological and managerial culture within companies and creating new businesses.
The following activities are carried out in Pula:

A. Services supporting research and development:

1. Support service for the preparation of research projects and identification of sources of funding:
   Consorzio 21, the body managing Polaris, looks after, on behalf of the Sardinian Regional Council,
   the branch of the Agency for the Promotion of European Research, through which it is possible to
   access research programmes and technological innovations financed with EU funds.
2. Information and communication technology services: are organized jointly with CRS4’s laboratories.
   They provide services, partnerships, scientific and technological skills, advanced equipment and
   facilities regarding: high performance calculations; parallelization of existing codes, modelling and
   scientific simulation; virtual prototyping; production of short films based on the visualisation of scientific
   imaging with digital recording and editing; planning and creation of GIS applications; techno-scientific
   start-up support.
3. Training Services: managerial training for SMEs; specialist technical training for ITC Farm companies;
   training and refresher courses for consulting firms, advanced training through the organization of
   masters for management consultants. Activities include: R&D training; innovation and technological
   transfer training; university and higher education training.
4. Pharmacological services: the laboratory is organized together with PHARMANESS Neurosciences
   who provide services, partnerships, scientific and technological skills advanced equipment and
   facilities regarding: “barriered” caging services; assessment of synthetic and natural, new generation
   and known compounds in the preclinical evaluation of the central nervous system; identification of
   molecular therapeutic targets (receptors, enzymes, genes etc.); validation and selection of molecules
   pre-selected to become drugs; techno-scientific start-up support.
5. Genetic services: the laboratory is organized together with SHARDNA who provide services,
   partnerships, scientific and technological skills, advanced equipment and facilities regarding: the
   singling out of genes and characterization of proteins associated with illnesses; identification of
   prevalent pathological phenotypes; research into genetic and non-genetic risk factors; identification of
   genomic regions shared by patients.




                                                                                                             19
                                                       BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



B. Services for Innovation and Technology Transfer:

1. Technological Animation: promotes and organizes seminars and one-day events for disseminating
   technological and economic information which gathers together experts, consultants and business
   people.
2. Business incubation services, start-up and spin-off assistance: the installation of incubators allows a
   company to generate a working environment in which it is possible to create new projects, alone or
   collaborating with other businesses already in the area. Businesses, according to their activities, can
   be welcomed in one of the two technological “incubators” in Pula: ICT and Applications (ICT farm,
   technological incubator and agro-industrial line) and Biomedicine (Bio-med Farm and Bio-incubator).
3. Patenting Service: amongst the services offered for technological innovation is the opportunity to
   patent your product, contributing a maximum of 50% to total costs.
4. Design, engineering and prototyping – Proto 21: This service develops and applies results obtained
   from research and invention activities, providing businesses with the following services: design of
   new products and production processes; preliminary studies and CAD graphics, studies relative
   to operational conditions (climatic characteristics, mechanical, thermal and chemical loads, fluid
   dynamic conditions, environmental aspects, etc.); definition and study of yields, performances, and
   tolerances; alterations to existing production machinery and installations; creation of prototypes with
   rapid assemblage techniques and prototyping; study of operative legislation; preparation of possible
   certification, registration, brands and patents; assistance in the various phases of innovative processes;
   research into possible and particular sources of funding.
5. Technology promotion service: Consorzio 21 is part of CIRCE, one of the 71 Relay Centres (IRC)
   promoted by the European Commission within its Innovation programme for the dissemination of
   innovation and transitional technology transfer.
6. Information service for patents and brands: using
   purpose-made instruments and qualified personnel,
   the Documentation Centre is able to provide up-
   to-date and complete answers to researchers and
   business people, supplying them with instructive
   information to follow a technological product through
   from the research phase to its commercialization.
7. Regional marketing and research promotion: this
   service aims to identify and encourage national
   and international partners in new projects and
   research activities and to promote their location
   within Polaris.

C. Space and equipment supply:

1. Space for installation: the area covered by buildings set aside for new installations is approximately
   equal to 2% of the total 160 hectares and has been created with full respect for the surrounding
   environment. The car parks are underground and the main road has been built with a special concrete
   which evokes the colour of the surrounding mountain peaks. The road network is made up of a ring
   road which connects all the buildings. A pathway, with access to each building, has been made along
   the park’s perimeter, at 100 m. above sea level. The head offices have a telephone and data network:
   the main network is in optical fibre for data transmission and normal copper wire for telephony. The
   Internet connection is a shared dedicated line of 8MBps (guaranteed minimum) which will shortly
   be increased to 16MBps. The security of the structure is guaranteed by a system which includes:
   centralized general supervision in the entrance building; CTV surveillance and control of access points
   in each building.
   The following spaces in particular are available:
   • Standard installations: spaces reserved for exclusive use, assigned to businesses and research
   bodies who intend to carry out their research in the park on a permanent basis.



20
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



   • Technological Farms: provide the ideal environment for the development of innovative projects
   by companies already operating in the Information and Communication Technology (ITC Farm) or
   Biomedicine (Bio-med Farm) spheres.
   • Business Incubators: these are structures where it is possible to test the techno-economic viability of
   new entrepreneurial initiatives.
2. Complementary services: self-service canteen; restaurant; private lounge; bar; cash-point; gymnastic
   and health paths (through the surrounding woods).
3. Logistical and technological services: transport to the city (Cagliari); internal transport; communal
   rooms and spaces; conference halls; communications room; computer room; seminar room; telephony
   and data networks; surveillance and security.

Partners of Polaris

The present partners of Polaris are:

•    CRS4 (Centre for Research, Development and Higher Studies in Sardinia): is the most important
     ITC (Information and Communication Technology) research centre in Sardinia. ITC is currently one
     of the island’s most dynamic and innovative sectors. It is a driving force for inter sector activation
     and its development strongly influences all other production activities. CRS4 makes an important
     contribution to this development with its fundamental, scientific skills in computing, modelling and
     advanced research. It collaborates with other important research groups, in particular the Department
     of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Cagliari University.

•    Neurosciences: works in the field of neuro-psychopharmacology with the aim of identifying the
     neurobiological basis of drug addiction, alcoholism, depression, anxiety and sleep and dietary
     disorders.

•    Helichnos: was created with the aim of developing research projects in the pharmaco-genomic and
     bioinformatics spheres, working with regional, national and international businesses, research centres
     and universities.

•    Promea: works in the field of material technology, in particular with ceramics, composite materials,
     metals and alloys in powder or thin films. It also studies optical and opto-electronic properties of semi-
     conductors and insulators as well as laser ray properties and applications.

•    Porto Conte Ricerche: works in the field of biotechnology applied to the agro-industrial, zoo-technical
     and environmental sectors, promoting innovation and technology transfer.

•    AILUN: L’Associazione Istituzione Libera Universita Nuorese, is a centre for advanced training and
     research, operating in the sectors of optical technology and organizational science. In particular, it
     carries out research geared towards the application of optical technologies to the production world.

•    Parco Genos: is a co-operative consortium created with the task of co-ordinating research activities
     regarding human, vegetable and animal biology. It works in the field of genomics, biomedicine and
     bio-informatics. One of its aims is to identify both simple and complex genes associated with hereditary
     diseases, by means of a multidisciplinary approach, including epidemiological, anthropological,
     clinical, genetic and statistical studies of the population of Ogliastra.

CNR – National Research Council

The CNR has the task of developing, disseminating, transferring and championing research activities in
the main sectors of knowledge and promoting their applications. It has recently been reorganized, giving
rise to the creation of 107 institutes organized into main offices and regional sections.



                                                                                                            21
                                                         BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



CNR Institutes present in Sardinia, with their headquarters (two in Cagliari
and one in Sassari) are as follows:

•    Neuro-genetic and Neuro-pharmacological Institute (INN): in order to
     create the new institute, with its headquarters in Cagliari, the Centre
     for Neuro-pharmacological studies (CNF) and the Institute for research
     into Mediterranean thalassemia and anaemia (IRTAM) have been
     amalgamated.
     Its research activities regard: the identification of genetic determinants,
     including modifying genes of mono and poly-factorial pathologies
     in the Sardinian population; large-scale studies of genic and
     proteomic expression (in humans and in the model mouse) in order
     to understand pathogenic mechanisms responsible for mono and
     poly-factorial pathologies; study of the genetic basis of individual variability to the pharmacological
     (pharmaco-genomic) response and development of genic therapy protocols in pathologies particularly
     frequent in Sardinia; chemical design and molecular and pharmacological assessment of new atypical
     antipsychotic drugs; identification and assessment of main active ingredients from natural sources
     particularly as regards Cannabis Sativa; genotype phenotype correlation in animal species (rodents)
     according to varied central nervous system reactions to active compounds.

•    Population Genetics Institute (IGP): includes the Institute of molecular genetics (IGM/SS).
     Its research activities regard: multidisciplinary studies of human populations, mainly in Sardinia,
     paying particular attention to genetic isolation to identify genes and environmental factors associated
     with simple and complex phenotypes; molecular genetics of monogenic and multi-factorial diseases;
     epidemiology and molecular diagnoses of hereditary pathologies.

•    Institute of Mediterranean European History (ISEM): in order to create this new institute, with its
     headquarters in Cagliari, the following centres have been combined: the Centre for the study of
     literature and culture of emerging areas (CSAE), the Institute for Italian-Iberian relations (IRII) and the
     Centre of Studies for Technical History (CST).
     The institute’s research activities regard: the study of historical, institutional and social relationships
     between the states of Mediterranean Europe; research, study and editions of historical and archive,
     documentary and literary sources relative to Mediterranean European states; studies of the relationship
     between mankind and his territory in Mediterranean Europe (means of communication, naval and
     technical history); history of travel, exchange and conflict between cultures and religious forms in the
     Mediterranean area.

Eight Territorial Sections of the CNR Institutes are also present in the Sardinian region:

•    Institute of Neuroscience (IN): the institute’s research activities
     regard the molecular, cellular, physiological and pharmacological
     study of the nervous and neuromuscular system, the study of
     bio-medically relevant membrane phenomena and biologically-
     based studies of psychic processes and cerebral ageing.

•    Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo-engineering
     (IGAG): the Centre for geo-mineral and mineralogical studies,
     with its headquarters in Cagliari, has merged with the new
     institute. Its research activities regard: basic and applied
     studies regarding the planet’s more recent geological history;
     location and exploitation of mineral resources and geological materials, as well as basic studies of
     hydrocarbon geology; mitigation of risks incurred by human activity (industrial and non-industrial)
     and natural risks regarding effects of earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides; geological tectonic



22
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



     and geo-morphological evolutionary models in continental
     coastal and marine areas; excavation and stabilization
     technologies, associated problems of work safety, physical
     mechanical rock characterization, stability surveys and
     monitoring.

•    Institute for the coastal marine environment (IAMC): the
     regional section in Oristano studies the interactions between
     marine organisms and their environment, from the assessment
     of the state of the marine ecosystem to provision for its future
     progress in time and space, with numeric models corroborated by measurements. The main research
     disciplines regard organism biology, ecological modelling and the theory of applied information.

•    Institute of biometeorology (IBIMET): the Institute of research for the monitoring of agro-ecosystems
     (IMAes) now forms part of the new institute.
     Its research activities regard: assessment of the impact of global changes on agriculture, forests,
     mankind and his health, territory and landscapes; development of models for the innovation and
     optimization of agro-forest systems; interaction of climate and atmospheric weather with the quality
     of products and rational utilization of climatic resources; meteorological and seasonal forecasts for
     agriculture; monitoring systems for farming, harvest provisions and product quality

•    Institute of bio-molecular chemistry (ICB): the Institute for the application of advanced chemical
     techniques to agro-biological problems (IATCAPA) now forms part of the new institute.
     The institute’s research activities regard: isolation, chemical synthesis, molecular characterization,
     structure-activity relationship and molecular design of biologically active compounds; chemical
     methodologies innovative in their synthesis, biosynthesis, purification and characterization of
     biologically active molecules; chemistry, biochemistry and microbiology for the applied development
     of biomasses and compounds of biotechnological and ecological interest.

•    Institute for animal production systems in Mediterranean environments (ISPAAM): the Centre for studies of
     Mediterranean pastures (CSPM) now forms part of the new institute. Its research activities regard: fodder
     production and environmental sustainability; animal systems and biological sustainability; biodiversity
     and genetic improvement; production quality; optimization and economic sustainability models; training
     and operational transfer.

•    Institute of alimentary production sciences (ISPA): the
     institute for the physiology of maturing and conserving fruit
     from Mediterranean tree species (ISP) now forms part of
     the new institute.
     The territorial section operates in two different geographical
     areas, with premises in both Sassari and Oristano. The
     new centre provides a series of eight fridge conservation
     cells with a controlled environment and six for shelf-life
     and market simulation. It also has a large laboratory for
     analytical control activities and the automatic registration
     of statistics. Research activities are presently carried out in laboratories on both sites, whereas the
     agronomic field work, aimed especially at the primary production of cultivating specimens and control
     treatments, is carried out mainly in Oristano, where there is also another series of six cells for fridge
     conservation, ripening and shelf-life.

•    Institute for the study of ecosystems (ISE): the research institute for the biological control of the
     environment (IRCOBA) now forms part of the new institute.
     The institute’s research activities regard: limnology and eco-physiology of aquatic ecosystems; ecology of



                                                                                                             23
                                                        BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



     populations; evolutionary biology, biodiversity and nature conservation; macro and micro environmental
     pollution; integrated biological control; soil ecosystems, control and recovery of soil quality.

Other Public Research Centres

Many public research centres engaged in scientific studies operate throughout the region. They are
mainly linked to the agro-industrial, environmental, study of materials, biotechnology, information and
communication technology and astrophysics sectors.

•    Zoo-technical and Cheese Institute for Sardinia (IZCS): carries out research activities and experiments
     regarding selection and cross breeding of livestock, molecular biology applied to genetic improvement,
     new reproduction techniques, new breeding and feeding techniques and technological innovations in
     the cheese making field.

•    Experimental Zoo-prophylactic Institute of Sardinia: The institute, with various centres throughout the
     island, including two in Cagliari, carries out research and experimentation activities involving the
     monitoring of pathologies rooted in the zoo-technical section, research into residues found in animals
     and meat, surveillance and control of man-animal-environment balance and information systems for
     the running of public veterinary health services.

•    Institute for horse promotion in Sardinia: carries out research to promote the Sardinian equine breed,
     for selection, preservation and breeding and for assisting private stud activities.

•    Italian study and research centre for fishing (CIRSPE): the centre, with offices in Cagliari, carries out
     research and experimentation on fishing and aquaculture activities and their products, area surveys,
     restocking and biological protection, protected marine conservation areas, pollution, de-pollution and
     waste disposal, running of protected areas and natural parks, both in water and on land.

•    Centre for sanitary and environmental engineering (CISA): the centre, based in Cagliari, carries out
     studies and research in the following areas: surveys and recovery and reclaiming of contaminated
     sites; recovery and use of biogas from controlled rubbish dumps; treatment of effluent, minimisation of
     environmental impact from percolation; environmental recovery of old rubbish dumps.

•    Progemisa S.p.a. (joint stock company): this regional agency, located in Cagliari, carries out studies
     and research in the following areas: geo-environmental; mineral resource location, exploitation and
     protection; geological research; soil defence.

•    National Institute of Bio-structures and Bio-systems (INBB): carries out research into: cellular biology;
     bio-molecules; biotechnology; bio-systems and bio-structures; bio-instrumentation and bio-electronics;
     biological and super-molecular functional units.

•    Consortium for computing, training and advanced research (CIFRA): carries out research and training
     in the following sectors: expert systems; artificial vision and microelectronics.

•    Astronomical Observatory of Cagliari (OAC): the observatory is located in Capoterra, a town situated
     a few kilometres from Cagliari. It carries out research training and popularization activities in the
     sectors of astronomy and astrophysics.




24
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



Public-private partnerships

Here are just some of the public-private partnerships which deserve a mention:

•    Batelle 21: carries out research, training, technological transfer and computing systems services for
     administration, environmental monitoring and medicinal plants.

•    Biotecne: carries out research activities and technological transfer in biotechnologies for the environment,
     agro-industry, energy and medicine.

•    Associated Research Consortium(CRA): carries out research and services in the domain of bio-fuels
     and vegetable based additives for fuels, natural extracts from medicinal plants, characterization and
     development of agro-industrial products, environmental analyses and monitoring and eco-compatible
     production.

•    Florys S.p.a. (joint stock Company): carries out research and development activities and services
     for eco-compatible production, natural products and the production of electricity from bio-fuels and
     biomasses.

•    Hydrocontrol S.r.c.l. (P.l.c.): carries out research activities, technological transfer and training for the
     administration of water systems, water quality control and control-based technologies.

•    International Marine Centre (IMC): carries out research activities and technological transfer for
     oceanography, coastal ecosystems, sensory ecology and organism biology.

•    Sardinia’s Chemical Merchandise Laboratory: provides services for businesses regarding chemical
     and microbiological analyses of food, environmental analyses, self-control consulting (HACCP) and
     development of analytical methodologies.




                                                                                                               25
                  QUALITY OF LABOUR SUPPLY: EDUCATION,
                 PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING




University

Universities play an essential part in defining and creating strategies for research and innovation. In
the general scientific context, the two Sardinian universities of Cagliari and Sassari bring a wealth of
experience, skills and professionalism which contribute to economic and entrepreneurial growth, not least
because of the research and study centres which have grown up around them.
The university’s role within the region also develops through its constant support and comparison of
scientific, technological and entrepreneurial trends and strategies for innovation, through its participation
in running structures, infrastructures and functional facilities, to the putting into effect of strategies and
through the monitoring of international scientific and technological trends, promoting links with national
and international research centres.
Scientific and technical collaboration with local institutions is of utmost importance as is the deep-rooted
commitment to the creation of instructive courses in the field of education and advanced technical training
aimed at the acquisition of skills linked to the needs of businesses and the job market.
Over the last sixty years (Since the end of the second World War), the University of Cagliari has experienced
a long phase of uninterrupted development. It possesses all the main faculties which are listed below (Table
14) together with many operational departments where research and teaching activities come together
(Table 15).


 FACULTIES
 Economics                                             Medicine and Surgery
 Pharmacy                                              Training Sciences
 Law                                                   Mathematics, Physics and Natural Sciences
 Engineering                                           Political Sciences
 Humanities                                            Inter-faculty degrees
 Foreign Languages and Literature

Table 14 – Faculties at the University of Cagliari




26
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



 DEPARTMENTS
 Architecture                                                         Neurosciences
 Animal Biology and Ecology                                           Psychology
 Experimental Biology                                                 Business Research: Economics,
                                                                      Law, Communication
 Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry                                   Economic and Social Research
 Medical Sciences: Clinical and Semeiotic Surgery, Public Health
 Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Paediatrics, Radiology
 Cytomorphology                                                       Sciences Applied to Bio-systems
 Public Law and Social Studies                                        Archaeology and Art History
 Economics                                                            Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences
 Business, Technology                                                 Botanical Sciences
 and Environmental Economics
 Pharmacy - Chemistry - Technology                                    Neurological and Cardiovascular Sciences
 Classic Philology, Linguistics and Ancient                           Chemical Sciences
 and Medieval History
 Philology and Modern Literature                                      Surgical Sciences and Organ Transplant
 Philosophy and Theory of Human Sciences                              Earth Sciences
 Physics                                                              Biomedical Science and Technology
 Geo-engineering and Environmental Technology                         Judicial Sciences
 Chemical and Material Engineering                                    Medical Sciences: Internal medicine,
                                                                      Anaesthesiology, Infectious diseases
 Territorial Engineering                                              Orthodontics

 Electric and Electronic Engineering                                  Pedagogical and Philosophical Sciences

 Mechanical Engineering                                               Paediatrics and Clinical Medicine

 Structural Engineering                                               Modern and Contemporary International Politics

 Linguistics and Stylistics                                           Historical, Geographical and Artistic Studies

 Mathematics and Computing                                            Toxicology

Table 15 – Departments at the University of Cagliari


There are many more research and study centres which form the basis of Cagliari’s academic life:

•    Interdepartmental Centre of Engineering and Environmental Sciences (CINSA);
•    Centre for Computing Services and Scientific Calculations (CSICS);
•    Mediterranean Biochemical Network Centre;
•    Interdepartmental Centre for Information Sciences/computing laboratory;
•    Research Centre for Mobility Models (CRIMM);
•    North-South Economics Research Centre (CRENOS);
•    Industrial Relations Studies Centre;
•    Judicial Computing and Data Communication Laboratory;
•    Condensed matter theory group;
•    Legal Medicine and Insurance Service;
•    Interdepartmental Centre of European Documentation;
•    University Linguistics Centre;
•    Interdepartmental Centre of Well Being.


                                                                                                                       27
                                                        BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



Finally, the University of Cagliari has recently obtained recognition for its centre of excellence “Dependency
Neurobiology” of which the Neuroscience, Experimental Biology and Toxicology Departments are part.

Professional and Vocational Training

There are a high percentage of people in the area who have professional qualifications, obtained from
both public and private training centres or from work experience gained with companies in various
sectors.
Training, both initial training (aimed at favouring introduction into the labour market) and on-going training
(aimed at keeping people in the labour market), has created a highly-skilled workforce, especially in the
following sectors where, in recent years there has been difficulty in finding qualified personnel on the
labour market:

•    chemical;
•    engineering;
•    plant engineering;
•    mechanical and electro-mechanical maintenance;
•    building.

Companies located in Southern Sardinia can easily tap a wide range of skills developed throughout the
region. A few figures demonstrate the extent of these skills: the estimated number of students attending
experimental courses, introduced by the reform law in Italy in 2002, is around 23,000, 5,500 of them in
Sardinia, approximately 23% of the total figure.
As far as spending is concerned; in 2002, after Piedmont, Sardinia was the region which spent most
money on training, more than 70 million euros. If, in the future, the level of spending remains stable and
considering the total number of students involved, the amount spent per participant will be about 5,000
Euro per year.
To assess the growth level of human capital, it can be useful to observe the numbers of employed and
unemployed who take part in training and educational activities. Considering information relative to
employed adults in the age group 25-64 taking part in training activities for the years 1995, 1999 and
2003, we can see a significant rise in Sardinia of 1.7% in 1995 to 4.3% in 2003. This last figure is higher
than both the overall Italian average and the Southern Italian average. An analysis of data regarding
unemployed adults taking part in training activities shows Sardinian results as being quite high: whilst the
national average is 5.1% in 1995, 5.9% in 1999 and 6.6% in 2003, Sardinia’s averages for the same
years are 5.8%, 8.1% and 8.9%.




28
                                   INCENTIVES SYSTEM




Southern Sardinian provinces benefit from an interesting incentives system, with incentives emanating
from both national and regional authorities. These are steps taken to facilitate and favour the creation
and development of new entrepreneurial initiatives in different sectors. The Sardinian Regional Council
is also rationalizing and implementing these measures, with the aim of further facilitating the location of
new productive investments.

For illustrative purposes only, the following laws related to incentives and their benefits are cited:

•   Law 488/92: concessions, prime rate funding and ordinary funding for industrial, service, tourist and
    commercial sectors;
•   Regional Law 15/94: concessions for industrial and service sectors; is accumulative with R.L. 21/93;
•   Regional Law 21/93: interest subsidies for medium to long term funding;
•   Regional Law 21/85 (Consorzio 21): non-repayable loans for the purchase of material services; support
    services for scientific research, innovation and technology transfer;
•   Sabatini Law: concessions for the purchase of machinery;
•   Law 598/94: loans with interest subsidies for technological innovation and environmental protection
    investments;
•   Regional Law 9/98: concessions for the upgrading and adaptation of hotels;
•   Measure 4.1.b POR Sardinia: capitalization of industrial SMEs through the taking up of stock options
    in company’s capital;
•   Measure 4.1.d POR Sardinia: participative loans;
•   Measure 4.1.e POR Sardinia: interest subsidies on medium to long term financing and the taking up of
    stock options in company’s capital for innovative small businesses;
•   Regional Law 36/98: tax relief for social and welfare contributions;
•   Law 407/90: total tax relief for social and welfare contributions for those registered unemployed for
    at least two years;
•   Law 289/02: tax credit for the increase of employment;
•   Regional Law 12/01: employment subsidies for apprentice recruitment.

Of the provisions that the Regional Administration is presently working on, those regarding the support of
research and innovation and those aimed at business internationalization are particularly interesting.




                                                                                                         29
                                                      BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES

                                     QUALITY OF LIFE




Environmental Situation

The provinces of Southern Sardinia are consistently at the top of the league in the rankings of indicators
used for assessing the quality of life, which constitute a “measuring” of climatic conditions, natural
environment, urban environment, cultural resources and all those peculiarities which make the area a very
important tourist destination.
The region possesses exceptional natural resources, protected on a regional, national and European level.
Weather conditions are mild all year round; with maximum temperatures of 38.8 degrees in summer and
minimum temperatures of -2 degrees in winter, softened by a constant wind and rainfall which affects the
area 100 days per year.

Security

An analysis of the latest statistics available on criminality regarding Southern Sardinia, provided by the
Interior Ministry and the Central Direction of the Criminal Police, demonstrates that the level of public
security is significantly high. Having made a comparison of crimes committed in the three provinces from
2000-2001, figures for criminality show a considerable and significant fall: fraud and robbery are down
by about 18% and extortion has dropped by almost 15%, while action against criminality has meant a
40% rise in the number of people identified at check points and a 50% rise in the number of vehicles
inspected at roadblocks.
The high level of public security can also be deduced from a careful reading of national data and from
a comparison of this with similar data for Southern Sardinia. In 2001, in contrast to national statistics,
which register substantial stability for reported crimes, in the Southern Sardinian provinces there was a
reduction of approximately 15%. In 2001, relative to the whole of Sardinia, 3,500 crimes were reported
per 100,000 inhabitants, whereas the national average was almost 4,000 per 100,000 inhabitants.
Furthermore, there have been no incidents that can be linked directly or indirectly to organized crime
or subversive crime, and any criminal events that have actually taken place can certainly be assigned,
through unanimous judgement of the perpetrators, to the sector of common crime.
To conclude, taking into consideration the “2005 report on the quality of life in Italy”, we can establish
that the Southern Sardinian provinces have been consistently amongst the first twenty safest provinces in
Italy for many years.




30
BUSINESS START-UP OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN PROVINCES



 ADVANTAGES
 Serviced Areas
 Plenty of available serviced lots.                                   Low set-up and running costs.
 Excellent infrastructure.                                            Short purchasing times.
 Business support service.                                            Quick connections to ports, airports, railway
                                                                      stations and the main roadway.
 Production specializations
 Presence of various production specializations such
 as: Information and Communication Technology
 (ITC); metal and mechanical; metallurgical; plant
 engineering; aluminium, chemical; oil industry;
 agro-industrial.
 Material Connections
 Excellent port infrastructure.                                       Duty free zone.
 Presence of industrial transhipment port.                            Presence of new air terminal at Cagliari airport, Elmas.
 Research
 Presence of Polaris, central offices of Sardinia’s Presence of important research centres specialized in
 Scientific and Technological Park.                 micro-electronics, pharmacology and biotechnology.
 Presence of many Institutes and Territorial Sections Presence of many specialized research centres operating
 of the National Research Council (CNR).              within the orbit of Cagliari and Sassari universities.
 Labour Supply
 Presence of good supply of human resources with a Presence of professionally skilled workers in specific
 high level of professional qualifications.         sectors where supply is lacking.
 Incentives
 Laws providing incentives for new businesses and Local financial benefits for the lowering of work
 industries.                                      costs.
 Quality of Life
 Healthy environment.                                                 Low crime rates.
 Presence of natural resources protected on a
 regional, national and European level.

 OPPORTUNITIES
 Territory and environment
 Strategic geographical position                                      Central location in relation to a potential market
 in the Mediterranean.                                                of almost 700 million people.
 Infrastructural System
 Possibilities for development linked to the increase Growth of passenger and goods traffic at the new
 of traffic in the industrial transhipment port.       air terminal at Cagliari airport, Elmas.
 Job Market
 Growth of participation in training and educational Presence of highly-qualified professionals.
 activities.
 Tourism
 Gradual opening of Cagliari airport, Elmas, to low Reconfiguration of Cagliari’s port to improve tourist
 cost flights.                                       access.




                                                                                                                             31
                                 LINKS




                             www.assindca.it
       Associazione Industriali Province della Sardegna Meridionale

                            www.confindustria.it
                              Confindustria

                        www.regione.sardegna.it
                    Regione Autonoma della Sardegna

                                www.sfirs.it
         SRIRS - Società Finanziaria Industriale Rinascita Sardegna

                              www.ossind.it
                          Osservatorio Economico

                              www.casic.it
          Consorzio per l’Area di Sviluppo Industriale di Cagliari

                               www.csse.it
       Centro Servizi Sardegna Europa (Consorzio Industriale di Isili)

                            www.civillacidro.it
                     Consorzio Industriale di Villacidro

                           www.ziriglesias.it
    Consorzio per la Zona Industriale di Interesse Regionale di Iglesias

                                www.cict.it
                 Cagliari International Container Terminal

                              www.sogaer.it
                Società Gestione Aeroporto Cagliari-Elmas

                         www.consorzioventuno.it
Consorzio Ventuno (Polaris – Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico della Sardegna)

                               www.unica.it
                     Università degli Studi di Cagliari

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Stats:
views:186
posted:12/11/2008
language:English
pages:32