Neyers - Emerging Is

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Foreword                                                            v
Contributors                                                       xv
Introduction                                                        1

1   General and Special Tort Law: Uses (and Abuses) of Theory       5
    I.   The General/Special Distinction                            5
    II. A Two-Part Criminal Law                                     7
    III. Transitional Stocktaking                                  13
    IV. Tort Theory and the General/Special Distinction            15
    V. Tort Theory Through the Lens of Criminal Law Theory         18
    VI. A Two-Part Tort Law?                                       21
    VII. Coda: The Limits of Philosophy                            27
         A. The (Dis)Unity of Tort Law                             27
         B. The Politics of Legal Philosophy                       29

2   Breach of Statute and Tort Law                                 31
    I.   Introduction                                              31
    II. The Judgment in The Queen v Saskatchewan
         Wheat Pool                                                32
    III. The Impact of Saskatchewan Wheat Pool on
         Canadian Law                                              35
         A. Statutory Standards Applied Within Existing Common
             Law Duty Relationships                                37
         B. The Use of Statutes in the Absence of a Common Law
             Duty Relationship                                     39
         C. The Suggested Correct Approach to the Interaction
             Between Statutes and Negligence Actions               52
    IV. The Interaction Between Breaches of Statutory Duties and
         the Tort of Misfeasance in a Public Office                57
    V. Conclusion                                                  61

3   ‘Sois Sage’— Responsibility for Childishness in the Law of
    Civil Wrongs                                                   63
    I.    Introduction                                             63
    II. Learning Responsibility: Curious George and the Man
          With the Yellow Hat                                      65
    III. Responsibility for Childish Behaviour                     69
viii Contents

    IV.   Childhood: Where the Parents Are                           74
    V.    Conclusions                                                83

4   Claims of Involuntary Parenthood: Why the Resistance?            85
    I.   Introduction                                                85
    II. Overview of Judicial and Legislative Positions on Claims of
         Involuntary Parenthood                                      86
    III. Limited Recovery: Partial Recognition of Reproductive
         Autonomy                                                    89
    IV. Denial of Recovery of Maintenance Costs as a Matter of
         Distributive Justice                                        94
    V. Construction of Legal Injury or Compensable Harm              98
    VI. Commodification Rationale for Denying Child
         Maintenance Costs                                          103
    VII. Conclusion                                                 109

5   Liability for Psychiatric Damage: Searching for a Path
    between Pragmatism and Principle                                 113
    I.   Introduction                                                113
    II. Categories of Claimant                                       115
         A. Psychiatric Harm Following Physical Injury to the
              Claimant                                               116
         B. Claims for Pure Psychiatric Harm in the Paradigm
              ‘Nervous Shock’ Action Involving Participation in or
              Observation of a Traumatic Event                       117
         C. Claims for Pure Psychiatric Harm where the Claimant
              Falls Outside the ‘Nervous Shock’ Paradigm of Sudden
              Traumatic Events                                       120
    III. Consequences of these Categorisations in Relation to Pure
         Psychiatric Damage                                          122
    IV. Psychiatric Harm Following Physical Injury to the
         Claimant                                                    125
         A. The Thin Skull Rule                                      125
    V. The Medical Context                                           130
    VI. Causation                                                    134
    VII. How Should Lawyers Respond to Claims Involving
         Psychiatric Harm?                                           135

6   Should White v Jones Represent Canadian Law: A Return to
    First Principles                                                 141
    I.    The Two Routes to Liability Considered in
          White v Jones                                              143
    II. The Fundamental Categories of Duty Relations in
          Negligence                                                 149
                                                             Contents    ix

           A. The Three Elements of Duty and Liability for Physical
              Loss                                                      149
           B. A Second Category of Negligence: the Reliance Model       155
           C. The Two Fundamental Categories of Negligence:
              Comparisons and Conclusions                               165
    III.   The Requirements of Justice and a Proposed Solution          168

7   Breaches of Contracts and Claims by Third Parties                   191

8   Policy Issues in Defective Property Cases                           199
    I.   Introduction                                                   199
    II. An Overview of the Cases                                        200
         A. England                                                     200
         B. Australia                                                   203
         C. Canada                                                      206
         D. New Zealand                                                 208
    III. Legal Principle                                                211
    IV. Policy Concerns                                                 213
         A. Promoting Professional Accountability                       214
         B. Imposing a Proportionate Burden of Liability                214
         C. Maintaining Contractual Certainty                           216
         D. Responding to Need                                          221
         E. Protecting the Vulnerable                                   225
    V. Negligent Inspections                                            229
    VI. Limitation of Actions                                           230
    VII. Conclusion                                                     231

9   Defective Structures and Economic Loss in the United States:
    Law and Policy                                                      233
    I.   Introduction                                                   233
    II. Law, Legislation and Behaviour                                  234
         A. An Overview of United States Case Law                       234
         B. Defective Buildings, Products Liability, and the United
             States Supreme Court                                       235
         C. The Economic Loss Doctrine Always Applies: New
             York                                                       237
         D. Statutory Causes of Action: California and Nevada           239
         E. Duty to Construct Without Negligence: Colorado and
             South Carolina                                             241
         F. Comparative Policy Considerations Between the United
             States and England, Australia, Canada and New
             Zealand                                                    242
         G. What’s a Builder To Do? Insurance and Risk
             Mitigation Cost and Availability of Insurance              243
x   Contents

           H. Risk Management Strategies                             244
    III.   Policy                                                    246

10 Harm Screening Under Negligence Law                               251
   I.   Introduction                                                 251
   II. Relational Screening: The-Scope-of-Risk Rule                  256
        A. What Makes Conduct Faulty and a Risk Tortious?            256
        B. The Four Aspects of Risk                                  257
        C. The ‘Description Problem’ and the Attack on
            Relational Risk-Related Screening                        258
        D. The ‘Harms/benefits Correlation Problem’                  261
        E. Rationale and Justifications for Risk-Related Screening
            of Foreseeable Harms                                     262
        F. Tackling the ‘Harms/Benefits Correlation Problem’         265
   III. Unforeseeable Risks and Exceptions to
        Risk-Related Screening                                       267
        A. Screening Unforeseeable Harms: Justifications             267
        B. The Different Kinds of Unforeseeability                   268
        C. Unscreened Unforeseeable Harms: Undeserving Actors,
            Deserving Plaintiffs and the Extent of Harm              270
   IV. Liability-Watch Screening: Justifications, Methods and
        Increasing Complexity                                        272
   V. The Screening Devices and the ‘Division of Labour’
        Between Them                                                 275
        A. Screening Concepts: The Confusion                         275
        B. Distinguishing between Relational and Liability-Watch
            Screening Devices                                        276
        C. The Pros and Cons of the Third Restatement’s
            Screening ‘Revolution’                                   276
        D. ‘Division of Labour’ between Duty and Legal
            Causation: An Illustration                               279
        E. Three Observations                                        282
   VI. A Short Summary                                               284
   VII. Two Concluding Notes: Unforeseeability and Corrective
        Justice                                                      285

11 Acts and Omissions as Positive and Negative Causes                287
   I.   Introduction                                                 287
   II. Positive and Negative Causation                               290
   III. Overdetermined Positive Causation                            292
   IV. Overdetermined Negative Causation                             302
   V. Conclusion                                                     307
                                                         Contents    xi

12 Decision Causation: Pandora’s Tool-Box                           309
   I.   Introduction                                                309
   II. The Cases                                                    316
   III. Analysis                                                    323

13 Non-Delegable Duties and Vicarious Liability                     331
   I.    Introduction                                               331
   II. Attribution                                                  332
   III. Fault                                                       337
   IV. Normal and Abnormal Risks                                    339
         A. The ‘rule in Rylands v Fletcher’                        339
         B. Australia                                               344
         C. Qualified Privilege                                     345
   V. Statutory Duties                                              348
   VI. Miscellaneous Cases                                          349
         A. Fire                                                    349
         B. Private Nuisance                                        350
         C. Withdrawal of Support from Neighbouring Land            351
         D. Public Nuisance                                         351
   VII. Contractual and Consensual Duties                           352
         A. Exigibility                                             352
         B. Bailment                                                354
         C. Employer’s Duty to an Employee                          354
         D. Carriers                                                356
         E. Hospitals                                               356
         F. Occupiers                                               357
         G. Landlords                                               359
         H. Assumed Duties Generally?                               359
         I. A Radical Thought and a Doubt                           365
   VIII. Conclusion                                                 366

14 Juridical Foundations of Common Law Non-Delegable Duties         369
   I.   Introduction                                                369
   II. The Non-Delegable Duty/Vicarious Liability Relationship:
        Some Red Herrings                                           371
        A. Two Misleading Rationales                                371
        B. Three Problematic Cases                                  374
        C. Judicial Confusion                                       378
   III. The Juridical Foundations of Non-Delegable Duties           379
        A. Two Competing Features?                                  380
        B. A Second Precondition: Affirmative Duty                  387
   IV. Conclusion                                                   390
xii Contents

15 Perish Vicarious Liability?                                          393
   I.   Introduction                                                    393
   II. Vicarious Liability was Once a Contractual Doctrine              395
   III. Contract Principles do not Explain or Justify the
        Imposition of Vicarious Liability in all Circumstances          398
   IV. Tort Principles do Explain and Justify the Imposition of
        Vicarious Liability in all Circumstances                        404
   V. Unfortunately Courts Still Look to Contract Principles to
        Justify the Imposition of Vicarious Liability                   413
   VI. Conclusion: In Order to Change our Contractual Mindset
        We Need to use Tortious Words                                   417

16 Comparative Perspectives on Vicarious Liability: Defining the
   Scope of Employment                                                  419
   I.   Introduction                                                    419
   II. Scope of Employment                                              422
   III. Deciphering the ‘Scope of Employment’: the Common Law
        Approach                                                        423
   IV. A Fresh Perspective: Liability for the Acts of others in Civil
        Law                                                             427
        A. The Concept of ‘Abus de Fonction’                            429
   V. Finding a Rationale for Vicarious Liability                       433
   VI. Conclusion                                                       438

17 What is a Loss?                                                      441
   I.   Introduction                                                    441
   II. Traditional Ideas: Money, Loss and Other                         441
        A. Is There any Relevant Loss at All?                           444
        B. Loss and its Impact on the Plaintiff                         450
        C. The Wrong Directly Impacts on Someone other than
            the Plaintiff                                               452
   III. The Logic of Loss                                               454
   IV. A New Approach to the Problem of Loss                            456
   V. Conclusion                                                        465

18 The Changing Face of the Gist of Negligence                          467
   I.   Introduction                                                    467
   II. The Changing Face of the Gist of Negligence                      468
        A. Increased/Industrial Risk                                    469
        B. Medical Risk and Patient Autonomy                            476
        C. Loss of Chance                                               478
   III. Conclusion and the Future of Negligence                         483
                                                          Contents   xiii

19 Tort Law in Practice: Appearance and Reality in Reforming
   Periodical Payments of Damages                                    487
   I.    Introduction                                                487
   II. The First Judicially Approved Structure                       488
   III. The Need to Impose Periodical Payments                       490
   IV. Limits on the Power to Impose Periodical Payments             492
   V. Exercise of the Court’s Discretion to Award Periodical
         Payments                                                    494
   VI. A Change to the Method for Assessing Damages                  496
   VII. The Impact on the Bargaining Power of the Parties            497
   VIII. Why Costs for Insurers Will Increase                        499
   IX. The Political Reasons for the Reform                          501
   X. Canadian Comparisons                                           504
   XI. Conclusions                                                   506

20 The Structure of the Intentional Torts                            509
   I.   Introduction                                                 509
   II. The Intentional Torts                                         511
        A. Meaning of ‘Intentional Tort’                             511
        B. The Lack of General Principle in the Intentional Torts    513
   III. A General Liability for Intentional Injury?                  516
        A. The Early Tort Treatises                                  517
        B. Liability for Malice in 19th-century Tort Cases           520
        C. The Rejection of Liability for Malicious Injury per se    522
   IV. Conclusion                                                    530

21 The Role of Intention in the Tort in Wilkinson v Downton          533
   I.   Introduction                                                 533
   II. Reconstructing the Original Understanding of the Tort in
        Wilkinson v Downton                                          536
   III. The Canadian Sequel                                          544
        A. The Leap Across the Pond                                  544
        B. The Rahemtulla Test: Intentional Infliction of Distress
            Canadian-Style                                           546
        C. Recent Developments                                       548
   IV. Conclusion: Future Prospects                                  553

22 Where Principle Meets Pragmatism: Tort Law in Post-Colonial
    Hong Kong                                                        557
   I.   Introduction                                                 557
   II. The Common Law in Hong Kong                                   558
   III. Negligence                                                   560
   IV. Workers and Tort Law                                          563
xiv Contents

        A. Employers’ Duty of Care                           563
        B. Occupiers’ Liability                              564
        C. Breach of Statutory Duty                          567
  V. Liability for the Wrongs of Others                      568
        A. Property Management Companies                     568
        B. Liability of Principal for Agent’s Torts          569
        C. Employers’ Vicarious Liability for the Torts of
           Employees                                         572
  VI. Intentional Torts                                      575
  VII. Defamation                                            576
  VIII. Conclusion                                           577
Epilogue                                                     579
Index                                                        581