For example, at a school, be sure that: TALK EDUCATE
• art supplies are properly stored and hazard- Be sure that town officials know you operate Inform your staff as well as your water users
ous wastes produced by the art studio are a public water system. Explain the exact location about potential threats; they may help you locate a
not discharged through the sink; of your well and your Zone I. You may be able problem. DWS can provide you with sample
• laboratory chemicals are properly stored and
to work with town officials to reduce threats from
town-wide activities such as road salting. If your
notices you may post within your facility to remind
your staff that they are within the protected area of
disposed of; and town has a groundwater protection zoning
district, request that your IWPA be included in
a water supply. It is critical to water supply protec-
tion that the public be aware of a resource area as
• waste oils and antifreeze from the automo- the regulations as well. If you are concerned well. Post signs at reasonable access routes within For Small Public Water Systems
bile shop are properly labeled, stored, and about a particular activity near your well, request and surrounding the Zone I to inform visitors that
disposed of. that the Board of Health perform an inspection. they are entering a sensitive area.
Ask them to notify you of any corrective action.
Work with the director of your facility to BENEFITS
correct any problems you may notice.
Wells with an approved wellhead protection plan
Potential Threats Around a Small Public Water Supply are eligible for cost-saving SOC/VOC monitoring
waivers. Also, protecting your water quality saves
you the added expense of costly water treatment.
Ultimately, the protective measures you take help
to ensure high-quality drinking water. Clean water
preserves public health and enhances the quality of
life in your community.
For further information on drinking water
protection, please contact DEP's Division of
Water Supply, One Winter Street, Boston, MA
02108, (617) 292-5770.
Prepared by the Massachusetts
Department of Environmental Division of Water Supply
Protection, Division of Water Department of Environmental Protection
Supply, One Winter Street, Boston,
MA 02108, September 1995.
quality occur within the Zone I. Regularly inspect • inspect backflow prevention valves and mine if herbicides or pesticides are absolutely
your protection area to be sure the water supply is replace as needed. necessary. If you must use them in the IWPA, be
not being degraded. aware of specific restrictions, registration require-
DON’T: ments, and storage guidelines, which vary depend-
Zone II / IWPA ing upon the quantity and types of products you
• allow the installation of floor drains that
The area of an aquifer that contributes water to choose to apply. Contact DWS, (617) 292-5859,
discharge to a drywell or any surface leach-
a well under the most severe pumping and recharge for more information.
ing system within 100 feet of the well bore;
conditions is known as the Zone II.
For public supply wells that lack a DEP ap- S e p t i c S y s t e m s -- Septic tanks, leach fields,
• store any type of chemical in or near the
mall water systems such as schools, proved Zone II, DEP applies an Interim Wellhead etc., should be removed and placed outside of the
Protection Area (IWPA). This is the area within a well house; or
libraries, or restaurants can take steps to Zone I of a well. Septic systems near the Zone I
protect their water sources from contamina- one-half-mile radius for sources whose approved should be well maintained. Pump septic tanks
tion. Wellhead protection begins with the owner pumping rate is 100,000 gallons per day (gpd) or • thread sample taps to prevent cross connec-
every two years. Never dump hazardous sub-
greater. For smaller sources, the IWPA radius is tions.
and operator of a well. As a water provider, you stances down the drains. Do not use septic system
should: proportional to the well’s approved daily volume. cleaners.
√ Familiarize yourself with the established S t o r a g e A r e a s -- Do not store hazardous
protection areas around the well; PRACTICE Look carefully at activities and businesses
substances (i.e., gasoline, garden chemicals,
around the well site. Identify any threats to water
quality and develop strategies to address them. Be paints, deicers/salt, motor oil, or antifreeze) within
A well must be secure and protected. To ensure
√ Practice good management procedures; a Zone I, either indoors or outdoors. If it is
the safety and purity of the well, sure to include:
absolutely necessary to store these materials, do so
√ Examine activities around the well; outside the Zone I, and locate them in a secure
DO: U n d e r g r o u n d S t o r a g e T a n k s -- Leaking oil
and gasoline USTs contaminate soil and ground- building equipped with an impermeable floor and
√ Talk with municipal officials; and • restrict access to the well;
water. If a UST is located within the Zone I of a with adequate spill containment precautions.
• label clearly any hazardous materials well, remove it to a location outside the Zone I
√ Educate staff and water users about the P a r k i n g a n d V e h i c l e U s e -- Do not establish a
located near the well; and check for signs of previous spills or leaks. If
importance of clean water. parking area in the Zone I. Perform mainte-
you need to store fuel for power pumps, DWS
recommends that you consider using alternate nance and washing of vehicles beyond the pro-
• cap and/or screen all vents, access ports,
FAMILIARIZE fuels, such as natural gas or propane. Store these tected radius. Keep any vehicles that must
and other openings;
fuels in an above-ground tank on a concrete operate within the Zone I in good repair to
Zone I prevent leaks and spills. Thoroughly clean up any
• check the condition of sanitary seals and platform. Any heating oil tanks in your IWPA
The primary protection area around a small leaks or spills immediately.
replace those that are not intact; should be in above-ground or basement tanks
public water system (PWS) is known as the Zone I.
located not only on an impermeable surface, but
The Zone I is a 100- to 400-foot protective radius M u n i c i p a l / I n s t i t u t i o n a l S y s t e m s -- Your
• slope parking areas and concrete pads also contained in an area large enough to hold the
around the well or wellfield which must be owned own facility may perform some of the harmful
under storage areas away from the well, complete liquid volume, should a spill occur.
or controlled by the water supplier using conserva- activities listed above. In addition, your system
tion restrictions. The extent of the protective periodically check their condition, and
H e r b i c i d e s a n d P e s t i c i d e s -- Herbicides and may use hazardous substances or produce hazard-
radius depends on the approved yield of the well. repair any permeable areas;
pesticides must not be used or stored within your ous waste. Inspect your facilities, record what is
Know the extent of your protection area, and being used, and be sure hazardous materials are
• safeguard chemical feeders from inadvert- Zone I. If you currently use such products, re-
be sure only activities that are both directly related properly stored and disposed of.
ent physical disturbances or tampering; and evaluate your ground maintenance plan to deter-
to the PWS and nonthreatening to the water