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					                                   Green Week Eco- Contest:
                                    Questions and Answers
*Answers are in bold type.

    1. What do you call the rain that contains chemical waste and causes damage to plants
       and animals?

       Smog            Acid rain       Monsoon rain           Seasonal rain

    If you ever come across thick black smoke coming out of a fire that releases a pungent foul
    smell, you will know that the smoke contains sulphur. These fumes release a large amount of
    sulphur dioxide (SO2), and sulphur trioxide (SO3) into the atmosphere. These sulphur oxides
    (combination of sulphur and oxygen) react with the water vapour in the air to form very strong
    acids like sulphuric acid (H2SO4). These acids fall along with the rain and hence the name ‘acid
    rain’. This rain is very harmful for plant and animal life.

    2. What is the term used to describe a substance that can be broken down and eaten up
       by microorganisms like bacteria?

       Compound          Environment friendly          Biodegradable          Recycled

    A large amount of wastes that are generated by industries are formed of substances, which
    cannot be easily broken down by the microorganisms. These substances are called non-
    biodegradable. The plastic we use to make polythene bags is an example of a non-
    biodegradable substance. Microorganisms do not eat up these plastics and they choke the soil
    as no water and air is able to reach it. Slowly, the soil turns barren and devoid of life. Did you
    know that a polythene bag could take as much as 30 years to disintegrate?

    3. What is the natural environment of a living organism called?

           Habitat     Surroundings             Environment          Biosphere

    4. The natural surroundings or the environment in which an organism lives is its habitat. For
       example, the Sunderbans is the natural habitat of the Royal Bengal tiger. The destruction of
       an animal’s or plant’s habitat generally leads to its extinction.



    5. Most of the oil that we use is imported into our country from other nations. The oil is
       carried in huge sea going tankers. Sometimes these tankers get damaged and the oil
       leaks into the oceans and seas. What is such an accidental discharge of oil into water
       bodies called?

       Water pollution         Oil spill        Oil leak      Tanker leak




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       Oil on ocean surfaces is harmful to many forms of aquatic life because it prevents sufficient
       amounts of sunlight from penetrating and also reduces the level of oxygen dissolved in
       seawater. Crude oil renders feathers and gills ineffective, so that birds and fish may die from
       direct contact with the oil itself.

    6. What is the process of collecting, processing and reusing waste materials called?

       Recycling      Reworking      Reusing         Reprocessing

       Recycling is the process though which waste materials are recovered and reprocessed for
       use in new products. Recycling not only helps reduce quantities of solid waste deposited in
       landfills but it also reduces the creation of new non-biodegradable materials.

    7. Name the phenomenon because of which the earth’s atmospheric temperature is
       increasing causing widespread environmental changes?

       Seebeck effect         Greenhouse effect Geothermal effect           Biothermal effect

       The gases, which have a tendency of absorbing the sun’s heat, are called greenhouse
       gases, for example carbon dioxide (CO2). The burning of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum
       releases a large amount of these gases into the atmosphere. Thus the amount of heat
       absorbed by the atmosphere increases. This causes the global atmospheric temperature to
       rise. Rising temperatures can cause the polar ice to melt and eventually raise the sea levels
       across the world. As the water levels rise, low-lying areas will get submerged.

    8. What is a substance that dirties the air, water or ground – thereby harming the living
       organisms called?

          Pesticides Non-biodegradable       Pollutant      Environmentally friendly

       With the large-scale development of industries and burning of fossil fuels large amounts of
       pollutants are being released into the atmosphere. This is causing an imbalance in the
       environment. For example the release of carbon has lead to the rise in global temperature
       because of the greenhouse effect.

    9. What is the term used for the pollution and damage caused by release of heated water
       into rivers and lakes that can harm animal and plant life?

       Thermal pollution      Geothermal pollution Biothermal pollution     Isothermal pollution

       Thermal means heat. Interestingly the wastewater generated by factories and cities is
       generally warmer than the usual temperature of the lakes and rivers. When these
       wastewaters mix with the lakes and rivers they raise their temperature. With the rise in the
       temperature of water, several algae and waterweeds start growing rapidly. These organisms
       consume a large amount of oxygen from the water. This increased oxygen demand (i.e. the
       amount of oxygen available vis-à-vis the number of organisms) on the water causes serious
       threats to marine life.




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    10. Have you heard that the ultraviolet radiations from the sun may cause skin cancer?
        Can you tell me which layer of the earth’s atmosphere protects the earth from these
        dangerous ultraviolet radiations of the sun?

       Stratosphere           Ozonosphere            Ionosphere            Troposphere

       The Ozonosphere is a layer of the atmosphere, which contains a blanket of the ozone gas,
       this, is also called the ozone layer. The presence of the ozone layer in the upper
       atmosphere, blocks almost all ultraviolet solar radiations from reaching the Earth's surface.
       These radiations can injure or kill most living things. However, large-scale use of ozone
       destroying gases like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is leading to the depletion of the ozone
       layer. In fact a very large hole in the ozone layer has been detected over the Antarctica, near
       the South Pole.

    11. Who is the current Canadian Minister for the environment?
        Jim Prentice        Kim Campbell           Ken Dryden           Stephen Harper
        He was sworn in as Minister of the Environment on October 30, 2008

    12. What is the main promise made by countries in the “Kyoto Protocol”?
          a. legally binding commitments for the reduction of four greenhouse gases (carbon
              dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two other groups of gases
              (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons)

    13. What percentage of Canada is covered by lakes and rivers?
               20%          60%            5%               12%
        An estimated 12% of Canada, or 1.2 million km 2, is covered by lakes and rivers.

    14. Name three ways to reduce personal (I.e.: individual) carbon emissions
        (From: www.jnf.org) *For a bonus, the player to list the most ways in 30 seconds can win a
        ‘lightning round’

           a. Replace your light bulbs. Compact fluorescent light bulbs (those funny-looking swirls)
              that fit into standard sockets may cost four times as much as conventional bulbs, but
              they use one-quarter the electricity and last several years longer.
           b. Be more efficient with your laundry. Wash your clothes in warm water instead of hot
              and try to launder a few large loads instead of many smaller ones. Over its lifetime,
              the average t-shirt can send up to 9 pounds of carbon dioxide into the air. Being more
              efficient with your wash will help curb this problem.
           c. Buy used clothes. Buying a new shirt from your favorite department store means
              consuming all the energy used in producing and shipping it. Swap some clothes with
              friends or visit your local secondhand clothing store and make your wardrobe more
              environmentally friendly.
           d. Eliminate your paper trail. Pay your bills online instead of by mail. Use the internet to
              send birthday cards or holiday greetings. You’ll not only reduce fuel consumption by
              the trucks and planes that transport your mail, but you will also avoid unnecessary
              carbon emitting car trips to the bank and post office.
           e. Shut down your computer. Three quarters of all the electricity used at home is
              standby power used to keep your computer, television, and other electronics running.
              Shutting down your computer each night, could reduce the machine's annual carbon
              emissions by as much as 83%.



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           f.   Ride the bus. Public transportation saves an estimated 1.4 billion gallons of gas each
                year -- that’s 14 million tons of carbon. Thirty percent of U.S. carbon emissions are
                attributed to motor vehicles. Commuting with others is one of the most effective ways
                to reduce your emissions.
           g.   Carpool. And when you’re filling up your car, handle the pump with care and avoid
                topping off. Spilled fuel evaporates and causes air pollution. In addition, buy gas
                during cooler times in the day or during evening hours when there is less
                evaporation.
           h.   Give your engine a tune-up. Replacing a clogged air filter can boost the efficiency of
                your vehicle by 10%. Keeping tires properly inflated can improve gas mileage more
                than 3%. Doing these simple things means you’ll be emitting 200 fewer pounds of
                carbon into the atmosphere each year.
           i.   Open a window instead of running the air condition.
           j.   Adjust the thermostat a couple of degrees higher in the summer and a couple of
                degrees lower in the winter.
           k.   Caulk and weather-strip all your doors and windows. Insulate your walls and ceilings.
           l.   Use the dishwasher only when it's full.
           m.   Wrap your water heater in an insulated blanket.
           n.   Install low-flow showerheads.
           o.   Unplug your cell phone charger after your cell phone has charged

    15. How much carbon does the average person emit per year? (www.jnf.org)
                i. The average person is responsible for emitting 23 tons of carbon dioxide each
                   year.

    16. What does the term "environment" mean?
          a. Any information related to planet earth.
          b. The interrelationship between human beings, their natural surroundings and
              the environment they create.
          c. Constructing luxury beachfront apartments.

    17. What is the ozone layer?
          a. An air pollutant.
          b. A layer in the atmosphere that protects us from UV radiation.
          c. All of the above.



    18. Where did the first ozone hole appear?
          a. In Antarctica.
          b. In the United States.
          c. In the North Pole.

    19. What is the significance of International Clean-Up Day?
          a. Increasing awareness about cleanliness with the sense of "togetherness" of
              those participating in this mission throughout the globe.
          b. b. Without it nobody would ever clean up.
          c. c. It is important to take part in international campaigns regardless of their objective.




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    20. What is the "Greenhouse Effect"?
          a. Building greenhouses in the western Negev region.
          b. Rise in temperature of the planet's surface caused by atmospheric emission of
              infrared radiation (heat radiation).
          c. Heating process for wooden houses situated in cool areas.

    21. What does the term "ecology" mean?
          a. A scientific medical field related to the functioning of the heart.
          b. A loud scream echoing repeatedly.
          c. The study of the interrelationship between living organisms, their surroundings
              and the unit of living and non-living components of the environment.

    22. What is sewage?
          a. A type of animal.
          b. Liquid waste which is the by-product of human activity.
          c. A way to sew materials together.


    23. What is a biosphere?
          a. The part of earth within which life occurs.
          b. A mathematical field in numbers theory.
          c. An environmentally friendly laundry detergent.

    24. What is the meaning of the word "sustainable"?
          a. Benefiting humans in a way that does not jeopardize the future existence of
              ecosystems.
          b. Using terrain in a way that will not deplete its resources
          c. Both answers are correct.

    25. What is acid rain?
          a. Rain that tastes like lemon.
          b. Precipitation with acidities below PH 5.7.
          c. Precipitation with acidities above PH 5.7.

    26. What is fertilizer?
          a. Substances that pollute the ground water.
          b. Chemicals required for proper growth of plants and which provide soil with
              mineral nutrients.
          c. Drugs to make animals fertile.

    27. What is the meaning of the term "extinction"?
          a. The cessation of a biological species.
          b. Synonym for the word "extant".
          c. Overcooking a dish.

    28. What does "laying a foundation" mean?
          a. A new amendment of the Rabbinate toward the Shmita year (the seventh year in a
              seven-year cycle during which land in Israel must lie fallow and debts are canceled).
          b. Converting ground with an accumulation of waste, desert terrain, swamp land,
              etc. into earth that may be used for agricultural processing and housing.



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           c. A Ministry of Agriculture course geared towards agronomists.

    29. What is pollution?
          a. Adverse effects on the environment, which are a byproduct of human activity,
              agriculture, and industry.
          b. Hazard which causes the greenhouse effect and global warming.
          c. Both answers are correct.

    30. What is a rain forest?
          a. A forest that is typical of the tropical region of the earth that gets a lot of rain all
              year round.
          b. A forest in the northern part of Israel that was named for a particularly rainy year.
          c. A forest in the central region earmarked to be used as a water park.

    31. What does the term "carrying capacity" mean?
          a. Special endurance level that is required of elite military units in the IDF.
          b. A girl who has reached marriageable age.
          c. The maximum number of living organisms of a particular species that any
              terrain can sustain.
    32. What is desertification?
          a. The development of desert conditions as a result of climatic variations and human
              activity.
          b. An area that is exposed as a result of excess grazing and deforestation
          c. Both answers are correct.

    33. What is recycling?
          a. Granite rock sculpting in the area of Eilat.
          b. Reprocessing household and industrial waste for repeated use.
          c. Riding a bicycle over the same area.

    34. What is a resource?
          a. Any substance that is consumed by living organisms in an ecosystem.
          b. A pedagogical center for teachers and preschool teachers.
          c. A field related to humans.

    35. What is air monitoring?
          a. A phenomenon in which the air stands still without any breeze.
          b. An Olympic sport.
          c. Regular measurements of the concentration of air pollutants and their
              comparison to the standard level.

    36. What is drift?
          a. Solid rock broken up into small particles and transported to a new place.
          b. Soil depletion due to deforestation.
          c. Both answers are correct.

    37. What is smog?
          a. The name of a bat that is mentioned in fairytales.
          b. Fog that contains particles of pollution.
          c. A phenomenon that occurs in Israel exclusively in the area of Haifa.



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    38. What is the most polluted city in Israel?
          a. Tel Aviv.
          b. Jerusalem.
          c. Haifa

    39. What is bio-degradable plastic?
          a. Plastic that is broken down naturally, mainly biologically by micro-organisms.
          b. Plastic that does not break down naturally.
          c. Plastic sheets that are used in greenhouses.

    40. What is treated waste water?
          a. Water that flows powerfully.
          b. Water that is left over after cooking corn on the cob.
          c. Sewage that has undergone sludge removal and other purification processes.

    41. What is "preservation"?
          a. Optimal agricultural exploitation of the soil.
          b. A variety of techniques and designing used to protect and preserve a given
              terrain against pollutants, excess exploitation and extinction of species.
          c. A method of keeping fruit by pickling.

    42. What is the food chain?
          a. A type of necklace made from food leftovers such as nutshells.
          b. A hierarchy of feeding (who eats whom) between living organisms. Carnivore-
              prey ratio.
          c. An ancient method of chaining food.

    43. What is a power station?
          a. A chain of gyms in Israel.
          b. A railway station in the area of Bar - Giora in the hills of Jerusalem.
          c. A facility for producing electricity from various energy sources such as: fuel,
              coal etc.

    44. What is the air pollution standard?
          a. The maximum permitted concentration of pollutants in the air we breathe in a given
              period of time.
          b. International standard for permissible level of pollution.
          c. An international flag flown in polluted areas.




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