CRCT CONTENT DESCRIPTIONS by tyndale

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									     CRCT CONTENT DESCRIPTIONS
              SCIENCE
Linda C. Schrenko
State Superintendent of Schools
September 2001

                      Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT)

Content Descriptions
Science

Introduction

Georgia law requires the development and administration of the CRCT in the content areas of
Reading, English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. Each spring
students in grade 1 through 8 will take the Reading, English/Language Arts, and Mathematics
CRCT, while students in grades 3 through 8 also will take the Science and Social Studies CRCT.
These tests are designed to measure student achievement of the Quality Core Curriculum (QCC).

Program Purpose

The CRCT is designed to measure student acquisition of the knowledge, concepts, and skills set
forth in the QCC. The testing program serves a dual purpose – diagnosis of individual student
and program strengths and weaknesses as related to instruction of the QCC, and a measure of the
quality of education in the state. Assessments and reports yielding information on academic
achievement at the student, class, school, system, and state levels will be provided by the CRCT.

Mandated Grades for Science

Grades 3 through 8 are mandated to participate in the Science CRCT each spring.

CRCT Content Descriptions

The CRCT Content Descriptions are provided to acquaint Georgia educators with the content
coverage of the CRCT. Only the knowledge, concepts, and skills reflected in the QCC will be
assessed on the CRCT. The content standards set forth in the QCC offer broad descriptions of the
knowledge and skills students are expected to acquire and accomplish in each content area.
Committees of Georgia educators reviewed the QCC, discussed how the information was taught
in their classrooms, and how the information should be assessed. The CRCT Content
Descriptions are the outcome of these discussions.

The CRCT Content Descriptions are in no way intended to substitute for the QCC but rather to
supplement the QCC by providing more detailed, descriptive information about how information
will be assessed. It is important to note that the CRCT Content Descriptions, by no means,
suggest when concepts and skills should be introduced in the instructional sequence; rather, its
purpose is to communicate when concepts and skills will be assessed on the CRCT. Georgia law
requires educators to teach the content standards set forth in the state-adopted curriculum (i.e.,
the QCC). The QCC can be accessed through the Georgia Learning Connections Web site,
located at http://www.glc.k12.ga.us/.

Science Content Domains

To provide reliable measures as well as structure to the assessment program, the content
standards outlined in the QCC were grouped into content domains. Each domain is comprised of
standards with similar content characteristics. Four domains were identified and created for each
grade assessed with the CRCT Science:

Science (Grades 3 through 5) Physical Science (Grade 6)

Physical Science Structure of Matter
Life Science Motion/Force
Earth Science Energy & Its Transformation
Inquiry

Life Science (Grade 7) Earth Science (Grade 8)

Cells/Human Body/Genetics Geology
Classifications/Five Kingdoms Hydrology/Meteorology/Environment
Interdependence of Life Astronomy
Inquiry

Using the Science CRCT Content Descriptions

The Science CRCT Content Descriptions provide detailed information about the content assessed
by the CRCT. Organized by grade, an overview of each domain is provided describing the things
students are expected to know and be able to do with respect to the domain. The QCC content
standards associated with the domain are listed as well as associated concepts, skills, and
abilities. The CRCT will assess how well students know and are able to perform each of the
various concepts, skills, and abilities at their grade level as well as all previous grade levels.




                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                2
Science
Grade 3
Domain: Inquiry


Overview of the Domain

Students use and apply the processes of observing, classifying, measuring, communicating,
    predicting, and concluding.
Students use a variety of reference materials that show the relationship between the different
    types of information.
Students identify and practice safety procedures.
Students identify the correct tools for a specific science activity and explain why that tool is
    most appropriate.

Associated QCC Standards

3.1   3.2   3.3    3.4

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
asking the following questions: “What do I know?” “How do I know?” and “How can I find
    out?”
seeking answers to questions by observing and using trial and error
communicating using a variety of written and graphic means
using simple scientific instruments and measuring devices to collect and analyze data (e.g.,
    magnifiers, rulers, thermometers, and balances)
analyzing data to make estimates and predictions
using evidence to construct explanations and hypotheses
using pictures, charts, tables, and graphs to support hypotheses and conclusions
classifying objects and events by similarities and differences
finding and interpreting simple reference materials (e.g., encyclopedias, journals, charts,
    graphs, computers) to find information about science concepts
using the media center to locate simple reference materials
recognizing appropriate safety procedures, including:
   wearing safety goggles
   not tasting anything in the science classroom
   safely performing science activities with teacher permission




                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                3
Science
Grade 3
Domain: Physical Science

Overview of the Domain

Students describe the basic concepts of energy and identify heat as a form of energy.
Students describe the effects of heat on ice or water.
Students describe the movement of heat by conduction, convection, and radiation.
Students identify and describe alternative heat sources.
Students identify and demonstrate forces, such as push or pull.
Students explain how simple machines work.

Associated QCC Standards

3.1   3.2   3.3   3.8    3.9   3.10    3.11

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
defining heat as one of several forms of energy
recognizing the Sun as the primary source of heat and light
understanding that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., burning, rubbing)
identifying actions or events where heat is given off in a familiar environment
understanding that when hot objects and cold objects are brought together, the hot object will
    lose heat until both objects have the same temperature
understanding that heat causes ice to melt, and loss of heat causes water to freeze
understanding that heat causes water to evaporate
recognizing that heat travels through solids by conduction, through fluids by convection, and
    through space (and some solids, liquids, and gases) by radiation
recognizing that some materials conduct heat better than other materials
identifying materials (solids, liquids, or gases) as good or poor conductors of heat
recognizing that heat can cause a gas to expand
recognizing the effect of heat on solids, liquids, and gases
defining and differentiating between synthetic versus natural fuels
identifying fuels used in Georgia, including:
natural gas
nuclear
hydroelectricity
coal
identifying sources of geothermal, nuclear, and solar energy
naming alternative sources of heat energy that could be used in the home and community
    during emergencies
defining force as a push or a pull

                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                4

demonstrating that the way to cause an object to move, or to change an object’s motion, is with
    a push or a pull
understanding that larger forces are required to cause larger masses to move, or to change their
    motion
describing changes in motion caused by applying forces
describing simple machines, including:
lever
wheels
pulleys
inclined planes
screw
wedge
recognizing that simple machines help people to do tasks more easily or better
recognizing examples of simple machines
identifying the most appropriate simple machine to do a familiar task
describing tools that act as simple machines to perform familiar tasks
locating and identifying simple machines in familiar environments




                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               5
Science
Grade 3
Domain: Life Science

Overview of the Domain

Students recognize and identify the basic life processes.
Students observe and label a diagram of a cell.
Students recognize and describe traits passed from parent to offspring and distinguish between
    learned and inherited behaviors.
Students recognize correct sequence of life cycles of mammals, egg-laying nonmammals, and
    plants.

Associated QCC Standards

3.12   3.13    3.14   3.15

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
recalling that all living things need water, food, air (with a few exceptions), and a suitable
    environment
identifying the major parts and functions of the human digestive and respiratory systems
recognizing that organisms have specific traits that help them adapt so they can carry out basic
    life processes in specific environments
understanding that the cell is the building block of all living things
recognizing that a microscope helps us to see cells
drawing cells and labeling the nucleus, cell membrane, and cytoplasm
understanding that cells, like all other living things, must:
reproduce
adapt to environment
remove wastes
get/use energy
identifying examples of simple cells and groups of cells
recognizing that there are differences among individuals of both plant and animal species
understanding that the physical characteristics of an organism closely resemble those of the
    parent organisms
recognizing inherited traits in a family group, such as hair color, eye color, height, and skin
    color
distinguishing between learned and inherited behaviors
constructing a time line for a human life cycle (baby, toddler, child, teenager, adult, elderly
    person)
recognizing the correct sequence of a plant life cycle (seed to flower)
recognizing the correct sequence of the life cycles of mammals other than humans
recognizing the correct sequence of the life cycle of an egg-laying non-mammal
comparing the life cycles of mammals with egg-laying non-mammals
                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               6
Science
Grade 3
Domain: Earth/Space Science

Overview of the Domain

Students identify fossils, where they formed, what they are formed from, and how they are
    uncovered.
Students compare, contrast, identify, and explain the relationship of fossils to modern
    organisms.
Students identify, describe, compare, and contrast the general characteristics of minerals.
Students compare and contrast rocks and minerals.
Students describe tests used to identify minerals.
Students describe, compare, and contrast the general characteristics of soils.
Students compare and contrast the general characteristics of rocks.

Associated QCC Standards

3.16   3.17    3.18   3.19    3.20   3.21

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
defining “fossil”
recognizing that some fossils represent things that once lived, but are now extinct
using a variety of written and media resources to learn about fossils that have been found in
    Georgia and other major regions of the United States
describing and explaining various ways that fossils are uncovered
identifying and discussing similarities and differences in fossils
matching fossilized prints to the plant or animal that made them by using information about
    shape and size
recognizing that many fossils can be compared and contrasted to animals and plants that live
    today
identifying the general characteristics of minerals, including:
texture
hardness
luster
color variation
describing differences in examples of various minerals, such as:
talc
quartz
diamond
gold
copper
silver
mica
                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               7
identifying the differences between a rock and a mineral
recognizing that rocks are composed of different combinations of minerals
classifying mineral content using properties of streak test and hardness/softness test (scratch
    test)
understanding that a wide variety of soil samples can be grouped by soil type
recognizing that soil is a combination of weathered rock and organic matter that has properties
    of color, texture, and capacity to retain water
defining igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary as the terms apply to rock types
explaining how igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are formed
classifying, as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary, the following rocks:
granite
basalt
sandstone
limestone
shale
slate
marble




                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               8
Science
Grade 4
Domain: Inquiry

Overview of the Domain

Students use and apply the processes of observing, classifying, measuring, communicating,
    predicting, and concluding.
Students use a variety of reference materials that show the relationship between the different
    types of information.
Students identify and practice safety procedures for equipment use and materials.
Students identify the correct tools for a specific science activity and explain why that tool is
    most appropriate.

Associated QCC Standards

4.1   4.2   4.3    4.4

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
asking the following questions: “How do I know?” “What do I know?” and “How can I find
    out?”
using estimation, measurement, and resulting data to make inferences and predictions
interpreting various types of tables, charts, and graphs
identifying and controlling specific variables
classifying objects and events according to similarities and differences
answering questions about designing simple science experiments
seeking answers to questions by observing and using trial and error
using evidence to construct explanations and hypotheses
organizing data into tables and charts for interpretation
using simple reference materials and computers to locate needed information
recognizing appropriate safety procedures, including:
wearing safety goggles, gloves, and aprons when appropriate/necessary (e.g., when handling
    chemicals or heated objects)
not tasting anything in the science classroom
safely performing science activities with teacher permission
recognizing that some materials used in the science classroom may be hazardous if not used
    as directed by the teacher
using simple scientific instruments and measuring devices to collect and analyze data
understanding how to use and care for technological tools (e.g., computers, calculators,
    microscopes, balances) when doing scientific investigations




                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                9
Science
Grade 4
Domain: Physical Science

Overview of the Domain

Students identify basic concepts of magnetism and know how to use a compass.
Students investigate the basic relationship of magnetism and electricity and make limited
    applications (such as a simple electromagnet).
Students investigate materials that do or do not conduct electricity.
Students identify basic concepts of static and current electricity and identify examples of static
    and current electricity.
Students identify and use various types of circuits.
Students read an electrical meter, identify safe uses of electricity, and describe its impact on
    daily life.
Students describe the characteristics of sounds.
Students demonstrate understanding of how we hear sound and demonstrate a knowledge of
    technological devices that produce sound or help humans hear better.
Students understand and apply the characteristics of light including absorption, reflection, and
    refraction.

Associated QCC Standards

4.5 4.6       4.7    4.8    4.9    4.10   4.11   4.12    4.13
4.14 4.15     4.16   4.17   4.18   4.19   4.20   4.21    4.22

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
identifying cardinal directions (N, S, E, W) and intermediate directions (NE, NW, SE, SW)
demonstrating how to use a compass and explaining why the needle always points north
defining magnetism and its effects on a compass
understanding that Earth has a magnetic field that affects a compass
relating directions determined with a compass to a map
understanding the magnetic relationship that results in repelling and attracting forces
identifying the characteristics of a simple electromagnet
defining and using examples of conductor and insulator
defining static electricity and current electricity
identifying common examples of the effects of static electricity, such as:
socks clinging in a dryer
shocks from touching a doorknob
clothes clinging to legs
hair standing on end
lightning


                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                10
identifying common examples of effects of current electricity, such as:
complete circuits
ringing doorbell
lighted lightbulb
defining open circuit, closed circuit, parallel circuit, and series circuit
differentiating between examples of open circuits, closed circuits, parallel circuits, and series
     circuits
identifying sources of electricity, including:
batteries
generators
photoelectric cells
recognizing sources of energy that can be transformed into electric energy, such as:
moving water
fossil fuels
wind
nuclear energy
solar energy
describing how electrical energy travels from its source (power plant) to the consumer
     (businesses, households)
understanding that household electricity is measured by a meter and how to read such a meter
describing appropriate ways to use electricity safely
recognizing electrical safety hazards
describing what it would be like to live without electricity
recognizing sources of sound
recognizing that sound moves through different materials
recognizing that sound travels at different speeds depending on the material through which it is
     traveling
defining sound in terms of vibrations
listing properties of sound
recognizing that sound varies in pitch, intensity, and quality
recognizing that loudness, or intensity of sound, depends on the energy of the sound wave
understanding that the pitch of a sound depends on the wavelength, or frequency of the sound
     wave
recalling that sound waves with longer wavelengths have lower frequencies
describing how we hear sounds
ordering the stages of the interpretation of sound as it travels into and through the human ear
listing devices that amplify sounds
listing devices that help humans to hear sounds
defining reflection and refraction
recognizing that light travels in a straight line, but can reflect from surfaces, or refract when
     traveling from one material to another
describing the visible light spectrum
examining the way a prism produces a spectrum
defining concave and convex

                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               11
identifying examples of concave and convex lenses, such as
eyeglasses
telescopes
microscopes
magnifying glasses
distinguishing among transparent, translucent, and opaque, and identifying examples of each
    (e.g., lenses, water, clear glass, frosted glass, waxed paper, brick wall)
establishing that in reflection from a plane surface, the angle of incidence equals the angle of
    reflection
correlating the position of a light source with the length and direction of the shadow cast by a
    pole
explaining the operation of a sundial
knowing that light colors reflect the most heat and light
knowing that dark colors absorb the most heat and light
describing a variety of devices that make use of light in their operation




                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               12
Science
Grade 4
Domain: Life Science

Overview of the Domain

Students identify the roles of plants and animals in the ecosystems and describe the
    environmental effect of interruptions in food chains/webs.
Students identify nutrients, producers, consumers, and decomposers and tell how matter and
    energy relate to each other in an ecosystem.
Students demonstrate a basic understanding of the causes and possible solutions for pollution.
Students demonstrate a basic understanding of the importance of recycling, and the impact of
    biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials and products on the environment.

Associated QCC Standards

4.23   4.24    4.25    4.26

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
defining living community and describing changes that can occur in such communities
describing/constructing a simple food chain and/or food web
ordering the sequence in which organisms are consumed in a food chain/web
predicting the effect of interruptions that could happen in food chains/webs (e.g., changes in
     food availability, weather/climate, actions of humans, natural disasters)
identifying the Sun’s energy, in the process of photosynthesis, as the initial source of energy in
     every food chain/web
defining and giving examples of nutrients, producers, decomposers, consumers, and
     ecosystems
recognizing that there are many different ecosystems existing within biomes, with varied
     characteristics and populations, including:
tundra                                deserts
forests                               rainforests
oceans                                ponds
identifying the role of available energy in the relationship among nutrients, producers,
     consumers, and decomposers
listing and defining different kinds of pollution, such as:
Air – factories, automobiles, gases
Water – sewage, litter, oil spills, farm chemicals
Noise – radios, airplanes, cars
Land – oil spills, litter, paving, acid rain
recognizing that overpopulation contributes to pollution
recommending possible solutions to pollution
defining recycling and biodegradable materials

                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                12
identifying products and materials that are biodegradable and those that are not biodegradable
identifying common household materials that can be recycled, such as:
paper
plastic
glass
aluminum
compost




                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               13
Science
Grade 4
Domain: Earth/Space Science

Overview of the Domain

Students describe the interactions of the bodies in the solar system and Earth’s movement as it
    relates to seasons.
Students describe the water cycle and the role of evaporation, precipitation, and condensation.
Students identify the stages of the water cycle and factors that affect each stage.
Students use and describe weather instruments and their purposes.
Students recognize symbols on a weather map and make general forecasts using weather maps.
Students identify Earth’s climate zones.
Students compare weather and climate and understand that each is affected by humans.
Students describe how the orbit of the moon around Earth produces the phases of the moon.
Students describe and illustrate the moon’s phases.
Students compare and contrast characteristics of Earth and other planets.
Students describe the characteristics of the solar system.
Students describe characteristics of stars (color, size, temperature, gaseous composition).
Students describe characteristics of comets and meteors and differentiate between them.
Students describe characteristics of moons and understand that the orbits of planets and most of
    their moons are in about the same plane.
Students describe the tilt of Earth on its axis and explain the effect of Earth’s tilt on the
    changing seasons.
Students describe different technological devices and resources that help us study the universe
    and have improved our knowledge of the universe.

Associated QCC Standards

4.27   4.28    4.29   4.30    4.31    4.32   4.33    4.34    4.35
4.36   4.37    4.38

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
comparing seasons in different hemispheres
determining that seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth’s axis as Earth revolves around the Sun
defining evaporation, precipitation, and condensation
identifying the stages of the water cycle
identifying factors that affect the weather and climate, such as:
pollution
greenhouse effect
global warming
overpopulation
deforestation

                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               14
recognizing that when liquid water disappears, it turns into a gas (water vapor) in the air and
    can reappear as a liquid or solid when cooled
identifying weather data gathering instruments and how they are used, such as:
thermometer
hygrometer
barometer
weather vane
identifying symbols on a weather map, for example:
warm fronts
cold fronts
stationary fronts
interpreting a weather map
forecasting weather using a weather map
distinguishing between weather and climate
identifying arctic, temperate, and tropic zones
describing ways human activity affects weather and climate and why overpopulation makes the
    human impact worse
recognizing that the orbit of the moon around Earth produces the phases of the moon
identifying the moon’s phases, including:
new moon
quarter moon
half moon
crescent moon
ordering the planets according to their distance from the Sun
making observations to compare/contrast characteristics of Earth and other planets
recognizing and describing models of the Earth/moon and solar system
recognizing that planets of our solar system vary in size, distance from the Sun, speed of
    revolution, and amount of water
understanding that the size of the planets and the Sun is small compared to the distance
    between them
identifying characteristics of stars, including:
color                                  size
temperature                            gaseous composition
identifying characteristics of comets and meteors and differentiating between them
identifying characteristics of moons (satellites around planets), including differences
understanding that the orbits of planets and most of their moons are in about the same plane
interpreting model diagrams and drawings to describe the effect of the tilt of Earth’s axis with
    respect to the seasons
interpreting drawings to indicate the angle of sunlight to Earth’s surface as it changes with the
seasons, and describing the effect of that angle on the weather in different seasons
recognizing how technological devices have improved our knowledge of the universe
identifying sources of information that constantly monitor the universe for new
information, including:
satellites                             space telescopes and sensors
radio telescopes

                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               16
Science
Grade 5
Domain: Inquiry

Overview of the Domain

Students use and apply the processes of observing, communicating, classifying, measuring,
    estimating, collecting, inferring, predicting, interpreting, and applying data, hypothesizing,
    and identifying variables.
Students use a variety of reference materials to obtain information.
Students identify and practice safety procedures.
Students identify the correct tools for a specific science activity and explain why that tool is
    most appropriate.

Associated QCC Standards

5.1   5.2   5.3    5.4

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
exhibiting a systematic approach to managing data
using classification to aid interpretation of data
communicating data using graphs, tables, and charts
forming conclusions based on observations
demonstrating knowledge of scientific process and recognizing the steps necessary to complete
    experiments, using questions “What do I know?” “How do I know?” and “How can I find
    out?”
using estimation, measurement, and resulting data to make inferences and predictions
interpreting various types of tables, charts, and graphs
identifying and controlling specific variables
using evidence to construct explanations and hypotheses
classifying events and objects by similarities and differences
answering questions about designing simple experiments
identifying sources to obtain information, including computers and technical sources
recognizing and using appropriate techniques to assure safety when doing science activities and
    experiments
using simple scientific instruments and measuring devices to collect and analyze data
understanding how to use and care for technological tools (e.g., computers, calculators,
    microscopes, balances) when doing scientific investigations




                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                17
Science
Grade 5
Domain: Physical Science

Overview of the Domain

Students understand and apply basic concepts of the molecular structure of matter and the
    interactions of matter.
Students investigate matter using appropriate tools.
Students apply a general understanding of physical and chemical changes.
Students demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the differences between potential and
    kinetic energy and make applications.
Students understand the effects of forces on the motion of objects.

Associated QCC Standards

5.5 5.6      5.7    5.8    5.9    5.10    5.11    5.12    5.13
5.14 5.15    5.16

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following:
labeling electrons, protons, neutrons, and nucleus in a drawing of an atom
defining atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds
identifying protons as positively charged, electrons as negatively charged, and neutrons as
    having no charge
recognizing that atoms are the smallest parts of elements
recognizing that molecules are the smallest parts of compounds
defining length, mass, volume, density, alkalinity, acidity, and temperature
selecting appropriate measurement strategies for specific science problems
comparing characteristics of matter using appropriate measures
recognizing that the periodic table is organized according to atomic number
recognizing that the periodic table is grouped by similar elements that are metals or nonmetals
recognizing that the elements are often represented by their chemical symbols
defining physical change as a change in appearance, such as:
tearing paper                        cutting wood
melting/freezing water               breaking glass
defining chemical change as a change that results in the formation of a new substance, such as:
reaction between baking soda and vinegar
burning matter
yeast working in bread dough
rusting iron
Alka-Seltzer reacting in water
differentiating man-made substances (e.g., plastics, polymers, optic fibers) from natural
    substances
defining potential energy as stored energy and recognizing examples of potential energy
                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               18
defining kinetic energy as energy of motion and recognizing examples of kinetic energy
understanding that potential energy can change to kinetic energy, and kinetic energy can
    change to potential energy
explaining the effect of an outside force on an object at rest or in motion
demonstrating that a change in speed or velocity of a moving object requires the action of an
    outside force
defining inertia, acceleration, and velocity
understanding that a force is required to cause a change in the motion of any object
predicting the time required to travel a given distance when given the speed
describing the relationship between acceleration and velocity
defining gravity as a force that pulls all objects on Earth toward Earth’s surface
recognizing that the force of gravity on an object on Earth’s surface depends directly on the
    mass of the object
understanding that the force of gravity on an object decreases as the object moves away from
    Earth’s surface
explaining why an object would weigh less on the moon than on Earth
explaining that air resistance (friction) on falling objects is a force that air exerts in the opposite
    direction to the force of gravity, and that air friction tends to reduce the acceleration of
    falling objects (e.g., parachute slows falling object)
predicting what will happen when objects of varying mass are dropped
understanding that if there were no air resistance, all falling objects would fall with the same
    acceleration




                                       CRCT Content Descriptions
                                              Science
                                                 19
Science
Grade 5
Domain: Life Science

Overview of the Domain

Students describe, select, and apply scientific classifications for living things.
Students identify and describe the major body systems and their functions.
Students describe the importance of the food pyramid.

Associated QCC Standards

5.17   5.18    5.19    5.20    5.21    5.22    5.23    5.24

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
defining and recognizing examples of protective adaptation
selecting which familiar or common adaptations would be an advantage in a given habitat
identifying and listing examples of animals that benefit from protective adaptations
identifying similarities and differences in individual animals within and between species
classifying organisms according to observable physical characteristics
defining and describing the five major kingdoms of biological organisms
placing familiar, commonly known species into appropriate kingdoms
giving examples of organisms classified in each kingdom
identifying the process of photosynthesis as the basic source of energy for organisms in all of
    the kingdoms
defining crossbreeding and hybrid organisms
recognizing that scientists can manipulate genetic makeup to produce desired characteristics in
    living organisms (e.g., chickens with more breast meat, more milk from cows, leaner pigs)
recognizing, naming, and locating specific human body organs
describing the major functions of common organs
identifying all of the major body systems and their functions, including:
skeletal                        muscular                digestive
respiratory                     circulatory             excretory
immune                          reproductive            nervous systems
explaining the food pyramid
recognizing that a food group’s placement in the food pyramid is determined by Recommended
    Daily Allowances
identifying food groups
classifying given foods into appropriate food groups
recognizing that availability of certain foods and improved food safety is due to improving
    technology
understanding that advertising, cost, and general public attitudes affect consumer decisions
    about food
                                       CRCT Content Descriptions
                                              Science
                                                 20
Science
Grade 5
Domain: Earth/Space Science

Overview of the Domain

Students describe the forces involved in changing Earth’s surface.
Students recognize and describe landforms on the ocean floor.
Students recognize that the ocean is in constant motion. Students recognize that there are
    differences in ocean water environment.
Students demonstrate understanding of causes and effects of pollution, excessive harvesting
    and mining on the ocean’s resources, and suggests ways to protect resources.
Students recognize the technologies used to study and explore the ocean.

Associated QCC Standards

5.25   5.26   5.27    5.28   5.29    5.30    5.31   5.32
5.33   5.34

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
defining and recognizing the effect of chemical and physical weathering of rocks and rock
    formations
identifying examples of chemical weathering and physical weathering, such as:
Chemical –
acid rain
lichens
mosses
pollution
dissolved carbon dioxide
Physical –
ice
wind
running water
roots
defining erosion and giving examples
relating erosion to weathering
defining deposition and describing the role of deposition in forming Earth’s surface
describing examples of both erosion and deposition
recognizing that Earth’s crust is made up of moving plates
explaining how the movement of Earth’s crustal plates results in changes to surface features
    (landforms)
identifying major faults (e.g., the Ring of Fire and Mid-Atlantic Ridge)
recognizing that movement of plates near faults can cause earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain
    building, and ocean island formation
                                    CRCT Content Descriptions
                                           Science
                                              21
explaining the effects and causes of earthquakes, volcanoes, and erosion
describing examples where molten lava has changed surface features
describing examples where wind and water forces have changed surface features
identifying ways that technology can control land and water forces, including:
dams
levees
terraces
contour plowing
realizing the limitations of technology in controlling extreme examples of natural forces that
     change Earth’s surface, such as:
hurricanes
floods
tornados
earthquakes
tsunamis
labeling an illustration of the ocean floor, including:
continental shelf
continental slope
abyssal plain
mid-ocean ridge
rift
sea mounts
recognizing special ocean features (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Marianna Trench)
describing the causes of ocean currents, waves, and tides
analyzing the effects of ocean currents, waves, and tides
understanding that there are varying tides (high, low)
observing that there is more life in shallow ocean water environments (continental shelf and
     slope) due to abundance of light and oxygen
observing that life in deeper ocean water has to be adapted to reduced sunlight, high pressure,
     and reduced oxygen levels
describing reasons for variations in ocean habitat, such as:
salinity
nutrients
level of light
identifying living marine resources, such as seafood and plant life, for medicines and
other products
identifying mineral resources in the sea and understanding some of the problems that result
     from exploiting them
describing ways that pollution and excessive harvesting threaten the ocean’s resources
listing and describing technologies that have made gathering new information about the oceans
     possible, such as:
project explorations
sonar
submersibles
satellites

                                    CRCT Content Descriptions
                                           Science
                                              22
Science
Grade 6
Domain: Inquiry

Overview of the Domain

Students use and apply the processes of observing, communicating, classifying, measuring,
    estimating, collecting, inferring, predicting, interpreting, and applying data, hypothesizing,
    and identifying variables
Students identify and apply safety procedures.
Students define and identify International System (metric system) units of measurement.
Students identify the correct tools for determining mass, volume, temperature, density, and
    length.

Associated QCC Standards

6.1   6.2   6.3    (6.3.1 – 6.3.4)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
collecting and organizing data into graphs or tables
demonstrating knowledge of scientific methods
given an investigation, identifying the experimental and control group
given an investigation, identifying variables that must be controlled, variables changed by the
    experimenter, and variables measured
explaining the need to control variables
classifying objects based on one or more observable characteristics
drawing conclusions, making inferences, and making predictions from data provided in graphs
    or tables or observations
given a research question, designing a simple experiment
identifying and explaining safety rules, including the following:
following all lab instructions
do not eat or drink in the lab; never test by tasting
wearing goggles when dealing with chemicals or flames
tilting test tube away from body when heating
if chemicals come in contact with skin or eyes, washing immediately with water and telling
    the teacher
tying hair back when performing lab activities
do not wear loose clothing when performing lab activities
never holding a test tube directly under the nose; if smell test is appropriate, waft vapors
    towards nose
using safety gloves and tongs to pick up hot glassware
knowing standard safety symbols (e.g., fire, plug, skull and crossbones, razor blade)
notifying teacher of any accident
defining metric units with the following prefixes: milli-, centi-, and kilo-
converting one metric unit to another metric unit
                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                23
demonstrating knowledge of metric units used for:
length
volume
mass
density
time
temperature
given pictures of measuring devices, selecting the most appropriate device (e.g., graduated
    cylinder, balance) for a particular purpose (e.g., volume, mass)
demonstrating knowledge of the formula for density




                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               24
Science
Grade 6
Domain: Physical Science – Structure of Matter

Overview of the Domain

Students demonstrate an understanding of the structure of matter.
Students demonstrate an understanding of the phases (states) of matter.
Students demonstrate an understanding of the general characteristics of acids and bases.
Students demonstrate an understanding of how the periodic table is organized.

Associated QCC Standards

6.5 (6.5.1 – 6.5.7)   6.6 (6.6.1 – 6.6.2)
6.7 (6.7.1 – 6.7.3)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
demonstrating knowledge of the charges, relative locations (Bohr’s model), and relative masses
     of protons, neutrons, and electrons
listing the four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
given the periodic table, identifying the symbol, atomic mass, and atomic number of a
     particular element
recalling the chemical formulas for:
water (H2O)                            table salt (NaCl)
sugar (C6H12O6)                        carbon dioxide (CO2)
oxygen (O2)                            nitrogen (N2)
given a simple chemical equation, describing aspects of the reaction such as products,
     reactants, and number of molecules
recognizing examples of physical changes including, but not limited to, the following:
cutting                                tearing
breaking (e.g., glass)                 freezing
boiling
recognizing examples of chemical changes including, but not limited to, the following:
burning rusting (oxidation) effects of acids
using the terms states and phases interchangeably
demonstrating the ability to compare movement of particles (speed and distance between
     particles) in different states of matter
using pH scale, when given, to determine whether a substance is an acid or base (including
     indicators of litmus paper or red cabbage juice)
recalling the formulas for common acids and bases such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric
     acid (H2SO4), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
describing neutralization process


                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               25
Science
Grade 6
Domain: Physical Science – Motion/Forces

Overview of the Domain

Students identify and apply Newton’s laws of motion.
Students identify and apply Archimedes’ and Bernoulli’s principles.
Students identify simple machines and their functions, recognize them in compound machines,
    and calculate the mechanical advantage of a simple machine.
Students apply their understanding of how satellites are placed in orbit around Earth.

Associated QCC Standards

6.9 (6.9.1 – 6.9.8)    6.10 (6.10.1 – 6.10.5)
6.11 (6.11.1 - 6.11.3) 6.12 (6.12.1 – 6.12.5)
6.13 (6.13.1)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
describing what is most likely occurring at different points on a graph of distance over time
comparing speed, velocity, or acceleration of two or more vehicles, when given graphic
     representations
demonstrating understanding of the definitions of speed, velocity, and acceleration
determining the effects of directional forces (e.g., Two people are pushing on the box with
     equal forces in the directions shown by the arrows. In which direction will the box move?)

matching situations with the appropriate Newton’s law
knowing that gravity is pulling down; friction causes slowing down
knowing that with circular motion, direction is constantly changing and with straight line
     motion, direction does not change
knowing that if an object’s mass is that of the water it displaces, it will float (e.g., boat hull
     shapes)
demonstrating understanding of Bernoulli’s principle, when given concrete examples such as
     airplane wings (air flowing over a curved surface)
demonstrating understanding of how a hydraulic device operates, when given pictures/
     examples of familiar hydraulic machines such as bulldozers or jackhammers
identifying the six simple machines from pictures or examples
identifying two or three simple machines used in a compound machine (e.g., scissors, bicycle)
evaluating which of several situations involves more work or more power
identifying examples of bionics (e.g., implants, artificial organs)
understanding how satellites are used to improve the quality of life, such as:
television
cell phones
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in cars
                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                26
Science
Grade 6
Domain: Physical Science – Energy and Its Transformation

Overview of the Domain

Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between differing forms of energy
    and work.
Students demonstrate an understanding of characteristics, movement, and measurement of heat
    energy.
Students identify and describe properties and characteristics of sound and light waves.
Students describe the characteristics and properties of electricity and magnetism.

Associated QCC Standards

6.8    (6.8.1 – 6.8.3)     6.14 (6.14.1 – 6.14.5)
6.15   (6.15.1 – 6.15.4)   6.16 (6.16.1 – 6.16.2)
6.17   (6.17.1 – 6.17.2)   6.18 (6.18.1 – 6.18.3)
6.19   (6.19.1 – 6.19.5)   6.20 (6.20.1 – 6.20.10)
6.21   (6.21.1 – 6.21.9)   6.22 (6.22.1 – 6.22.3)
6.23   (6.23.1 – 6.23.2)   6.24 (6.24.1 – 6.24.2)
6.25   (6.25.1)            6.26 (6.26.1 – 6.26.5)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
matching pictures/descriptions to the appropriate form of energy (kinetic versus potential)
matching pictures/descriptions to the appropriate form of energy, including:
mechanical
electrical
chemical
radiant
nuclear
explaining how energy and power are related
demonstrating understanding that temperature is measurement of heat
describing the effects of heat (i.e., whether material contracts or expands when given a picture
    or description of a situation)
distinguishing between conduction, convection, and radiation by explaining how heat is
    transferred in each case
identifying causes and effects of thermal pollution and possible solutions (e.g., water used to
    cool power plants cannot be dumped directly into a river without causing thermal pollution)
determining whether waves are transverse or compressional
identifying amplitude, frequency, crest, trough, and wavelength when given diagrams of
    transverse waves
identifying areas of rarefaction and compression when given diagrams of compressional waves
demonstrating understanding of angles of reflection and angles of incidence
                                       CRCT Content Descriptions
                                              Science
                                                 27
demonstrating understanding that when light waves are refracted, the waves slow down and are
    bent
demonstrating knowledge of the colors of the spectrum
demonstrating understanding that wavelength determines color
matching common objects (e.g., wax paper, mirror, glass) with the appropriate term (e.g.,
    opaque, transparent, or translucent)
demonstrating knowledge that white light includes all colors of the spectrum and describing
    how the reflection/absorption of different light waves result in the appearance of color
demonstrating knowledge that all colors of light combined result in white while all colors of
    pigment combined result in black
given examples of plane, convex, and concave mirrors, identifying the path of light waves as
    they are reflected
demonstrating understanding that convex lenses, such as the one in the human eye, produce an
    inverted (upside-down) image and that concave lenses, such as those used in magnifying
    glasses, produce a real image
demonstrating understanding that refracting telescopes use mirrors while reflecting telescopes
    use lenses
discussing uses of fiber optics and lasers
comparing early models of cameras or microscopes with modern models
identifying examples as either static or current electricity (e.g., electrons in copper wire,
    clothes stuck together after being removed from dryer)
using diagrams of open and closed circuits, understanding the difference between electric
    current and circuits
given diagrams of open and closed circuits, determining which are complete circuits and
    explaining why the incomplete circuits will not work
given diagrams of series and parallel circuits, determining if the circuits are complete
classifying materials as insulators or conductors
describing how fuses or circuit breakers prevent fires
determining the cost to operate an appliance when given the cost of electricity per kilowatt-
    hour and the number of kilowatts used
demonstrating knowledge that lightning is caused by positive/negative charges traveling
    through the air
demonstrating understanding that fires are a natural and necessary part of ecosystems, such as:
clearing underbrush
germinating seeds
returning nutrients to soil
quick spread, not easily contained
economic impact on housing, industry, wildlife loss
identifying and explaining safety rules associated with electricity including:
do not stand under a tree during an electrical storm
do not use electrical appliances near water
do not place metal objects in electrical outlets
do not put cords under rugs
do not pull cord to remove plug from outlet
replace fuses with the same voltage
do not fly kites or climb trees near power lines
do not touch fallen power lines
                                    CRCT Content Descriptions
                                           Science
                                              28
demonstrating knowledge that like charges/poles repel and opposite poles attract
demonstrating knowledge of the shape of magnetic fields around the poles of a bar magnet
explaining how electromagnets can be produced using metal objects, wire, and batteries
demonstrating knowledge that electromagnets are temporary
demonstrating knowledge that the strength of a battery is measured by a voltmeter
demonstrating knowledge that electric motors change electrical energy into mechanical energy
demonstrating knowledge that generators change mechanical energy into electrical energy
demonstrating knowledge that magnets will cause electrons to flow through a wire
demonstrating understanding of direct currents, such as those produced by a battery
understanding that step-up transformers increase voltage, while step-down transformers
     decrease voltage
demonstrating knowledge that superconductors are made from metals
explaining that an MRI is used to take pictures of soft tissue
explaining why the temperature or density of a medium affects the speed of sound
recalling that waves with shorter frequencies produce sounds with higher pitches and that
     waves with higher amplitudes produce louder sounds
illustrating the Doppler effect using examples, such as a train whistle or a car horn
demonstrating understanding that music has rhythm and noise does not
explaining that musical instruments produce different sounds because they cause different
     ranges of vibrations
using diagrams to explain wave interference
demonstrating knowledge of uses for an ultrasound, such as:
diagnose sports injuries
prenatal care
locate and break up kidney stones
discussing the benefits, drawbacks, and limitations of various energy sources
listing ways to conserve energy
giving examples of energy sources and classifying energy sources as renewable or
     nonrenewable
comparing and contrasting alternative energy sources, such as geothermal, solar, and wind
discussing the problems associated with storing and disposing of nuclear wastes




                                   CRCT Content Descriptions
                                          Science
                                             29
Science
Grade 7
Domain: Inquiry

Overview of the Domain

Students use and apply the processes of observing, communicating, classifying, measuring,
    estimating, collecting, inferring, predicting, interpreting, and applying data, hypothesizing,
    and identifying variables.
Students identify and apply safety procedures.
Students define and identify International System (metric system) units of measurement
Students identify the correct tools for determining mass, volume, temperature, density, and
    length.

Associated QCC Standards

7.1   7.2   7.3 (7.3.1 – 7.3.4)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
collecting data and organizing the data into graphs or tables
demonstrating knowledge of scientific methods
given an investigation, identifying the experimental and control groups
given an investigation, identifying variables that must be controlled, variables changed by the
    experimenter, and variables measured
explaining why it is important to control variables
classifying objects based on one or more observable characteristics
drawing conclusions, making inferences, and making predictions from data provided from
    observations, graphs, and tables
given a research question, designing a simple experiment
identifying and applying safety rules, including the following:
following all lab instructions
do not eat or drink in the lab; never test by tasting
wearing goggles when dealing with chemicals or flames
tilting test tube away from body when heating
if chemicals come in contact with skin or eyes, washing immediately with water and telling
    the teacher
tying hair back when performing lab activities
do not wear loose clothing when performing lab activities
never hold a test tube directly under the nose; if smell test is appropriate, waft vapors towards
    nose
using safety gloves and tongs to pick up hot glassware
knowing standard safety symbols (e.g., fire, plug, skull and crossbones, razor blade)
notifying the teacher of any accident
demonstrating knowledge of SI/metric units with the following prefixes: milli-, centi-, and kilo-
                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                30
converting one metric unit to another metric unit
demonstrating knowledge of SI/metric units used for length, volume, mass, temperature, and
    time
given pictures of measuring devices, selecting most appropriate device (e.g., graduated
    cylinder, balance) for a particular purpose (e.g., volume, mass)




                                   CRCT Content Descriptions
                                          Science
                                             31
Science
Grade 7
Domain: Life Science – Cells, Human Body, Genetics

Overview of the Domain

Students demonstrate an understanding of structures, organization, and functions of cells.
Students identify the organs and functions of human body systems and make inferences about
    these systems.
Students explain and apply the principles of heredity and demonstrate an awareness of the role
    of DNA and advances in the field of genetics.

Associated QCC Standards

7.5 7.6 (7.6.1 – 7.6.6)      7.7 (7.7.1 – 7.7.4)    7.8 (7.8.1) 7.9 (7.9.1)       7.10
7.11(7.11.1 – 7.11.4)        7.12

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
recalling the elements (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen) and organic (carbon) compounds
    found in all living cells
explaining that energy is stored in molecular bonds and this energy is released if the bonds are
    broken
demonstrating understanding of the importance of carbon for living cells (all living things
    contain carbon)
demonstrating understanding of the importance of water for living cells
given a diagram of a cell, identifying the organelles
describing the basic function of each organelle
recognizing that plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts
demonstrating understanding of hierarchy of cell organization: simple to complex
demonstrating knowledge of diffusion and osmosis
demonstrating knowledge of major events that occur during meiosis/mitosis
describing the functions and organs/structures of body systems, including:
Circulatory System
    - function - transporting nutrients throughout the body
    - organs/structures - heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries), blood (white blood
       cells, red blood cells, platelets, plasma)
Digestive System
    - function - breaking down food for use by cells
    - organs/structures – mouth, esophagus, stomach, esophagus, small intestines, large
       intestines, and accessory organs including liver, gall bladder, pancreas
Endocrine System
    - function - producing hormones that regulate body changes
    - organs/structures – glands (pituitary, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas,
       ovaries, testes)
                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               32
Lymphatic System
    - function - filtering blood/tissue fluids to remove debris and return fluid to the bloodstream
    - organs/structures – lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes
Nervous System
    - function – controlling/coordinating the body
    - organs/structures – brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem), spinal cord, nerves
       (peripheral/central nervous system)
Reproductive System
    - function – producing offspring
    - organs/structures – female includes ovaries, uterus, egg; male includes testes, sperm
Respiratory System
    - function – exchanging gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between cells and the
       environment
    - organs/structures – nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli (air sacs)
Skeletal System
    - function – providing protection/support for the body, movement when associated with
       muscles, storing minerals (calcium), producing blood cells (marrow)
    - organs/structures - bones, cartilage, joints, ligaments
Skin (formally the Integumentary System)
    - function – covering and protecting the body, dissipating hear (via sweating), sensing the
       environment
    - organs/structures - skin, including glands (oil, sweat), sensory receptors (pressure,
       temperature, pain), and extensions (hair, nails, lashes)
describing infectious diseases and how they affect immune system
describing common genetic disorders and how they are inherited, such as:
sickle cell anemia
Huntington’s
albinism
describing technology as the use of scientific knowledge to solve problems or improve the
    quality of life; examples related to life science include:
 MRI                  CT                  artificial organs
recognizing that technology often leads scientists to recognize new areas for research
describing DNA replication
understanding that genes are carried in DNA and that genes determine traits in
organism or offspring
describing the structure of a chromosome
understanding that DNA is made up of bases in specific sequences and directs all activities of
    the cell
identifying dominant traits, recessive traits, phenotype, and genotype
using Punnett squares to predict results of genetic crosses
recognizing the probability of a certain cross producing a particular outcome
describing Mendel’s contributions to genetics
explaining advantages and disadvantages of selective breeding, hybridization, genetic
    engineering, such as:
inbreeding
in vitro fertilization
genetic engineering
                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                33
cloning
mapping the human genome
“ice-minus” bacteria
seedless fruits and vegetables
fuzzless peaches




                                   CRCT Content Descriptions
                                          Science
                                             34
Science
Grade 7
Domain: Life Science – Classification/Five Kingdoms

Overview of the Domain

Students understand that living things are classified according to similar characteristics and
    apply these characteristics to classify common organisms.
Students describe the structures, life processes, and other characteristics of selected phyla and
    divisions of plant and animal kingdoms.

Associated QCC Standards

7.13 (7.13.1) 7.14 (7.14.1) 7.15 (7.15.1)
7.16 (7.16.1) 7.17 7.18(7.18.1 – 7.18.3)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
given pictures of organisms with structural parts visible, classifying by kingdom
describing the two-word system used to name living things (i.e., genus & species)
listing the classification categories from largest to smallest
recognizing that organisms can be grouped based on similar characteristics
recalling major characteristics of organisms in each kingdom
Monerans: unicellular, bacteria, autotrophs or heterotrophs, lack nucleus
Protists: unicellular, have nucleus, autotrophs or heterotrophs
Fungi: heterotrophs (decomposers), multicellular, have cell walls
Plants: true roots, stems, and leaves, autotrophs, multicellular, have cell walls
Animals: heterotrophs, multicellular
comparing and contrasting how members of each kingdom obtain food
describing where one might find a Moneran
describing where one might find Protists
describing where one might find Fungi
identifying medicinal and other uses for organisms from each group
identifying diseases and other problems associated with organisms from each group
demonstrating knowledge that nonvascular plants lack transport tubes and seeds (use spores)
demonstrating knowledge that vascular plants have true roots, stems, and leaves
demonstrating knowledge that gymnosperms (conifers) bear seeds in cones and the seeds are
     uncovered
demonstrating knowledge that angiosperms are flowering plants and that their seeds are
     covered
describing sexual and asexual reproduction in plants
demonstrating understanding that photosynthesis involves using carbon dioxide and water, in
     the presence of sunlight to make glucose and oxygen
demonstrating understanding that cellular respiration uses glucose and oxygen to make carbon
     dioxide and water and obtain energy
                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                35
recognizing the effects of phototropism (light), geotropism (gravity), hydrotropism (water) on
    plants
given a table showing the characteristics of different invertebrates, classifying a list of
    invertebrates
given a table showing the characteristics of the different classes of vertebrates, classifying a list
    of vertebrates
recognizing differences between invertebrates such as poriferans (sponges) and arthropods
    (insects, crustaceans)
comparing/contrasting methods that vertebrates and invertebrates use to obtain food
comparing/contrasting methods that invertebrates and vertebrates use to reproduce




                                       CRCT Content Descriptions
                                              Science
                                                 36
Science
Grade 7
Domain: Life Science – Interdependence of Life

Overview of the Domain

Students apply ecological principles including energy flow and adaptation.
Students identify characteristics of major biomes (e.g., tundra, ocean, desert, rainforest).

Associated QCC Standards

7.19   7.20 (7.20.1 – 7.20.3)     7.21 (7.21.1)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Behaviors

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following concepts:
demonstrating understanding that sunlight is the major source of energy for ecosystems
demonstrating understanding that producers transfer energy entering the ecosystem into
    chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis
demonstrating understanding that the number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends
    on the resources available, biotic factors, and abiotic factors such as amount of light and
    water, temperature range, and soil composition
differentiating between a food web and a food chain
explaining the consequences of introducing a new organism into an ecosystem
identifying the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers
given a list of organisms, creating a food chain/web
describing one of the major biomes, such as:
tundra                               taiga
temperature deciduous forest         desert
temperate grassland                  savanna
tropical rainforest                  freshwater
saltwater/marine
comparing and contrasting two of the major biomes
describing the biome in which you live
matching organisms to correct biomes
relating biomes to specific climatic conditions
recognizing various ways organisms adapt, such as:
color                                muscle strength to climb or run
size                                 speed
given a scenario, identifying possible changes in the species
explaining how adaptations occur (offspring born with those characteristics best suited to the
    environment are the ones that survive to reproduce)
explaining reasons for extinction of animals and plants



                                      CRCT Content Descriptions
                                             Science
                                                37
Science
Grade 8
Domain: Inquiry

Overview of the Domain

Students use and apply the processes of observing, communicating, classifying, measuring,
   estimating, collecting, inferring, predicting, interpreting, and applying data, hypothesizing,
   and identifying variables.
Students identify and apply safety procedures.
Students define and identify International System (metric system) units of measurement.
Students identify the correct tools for determining mass, volume, temperature, density, and
   length.

Associated QCC Standards

8.1   8.2   8.3 (8.3.1 – 8.3.4)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following:
collecting data and organizing the data into graphs or tables
demonstrating knowledge of scientific methods
given an investigation, identifying the experimental and control groups
given an investigation, identifying variables that must be controlled, variables changed by the
    experimenter, and variables measured
demonstrating understanding of the need to control variables
classifying objects based on one or more observable characteristics
drawing conclusions, making inferences, making predictions from data provided from
    observations, graphs, or tables
given a research question, designing a simple experiment
identifying and applying safety rules, including the following:
following all lab instructions
do not eat or drink in the lab; never test by tasting
wearing goggles when dealing with chemicals or flames
tilting test tube away from body when heating
if chemicals come in contact with skin or eyes, washing immediately with water and telling
    the teacher
tying hair back when performing lab activities
do not wear loose clothing when performing lab activities
never hold a test tube directly under the nose; if smell test is appropriate, wafting vapors
    towards nose
using safety gloves and tongs to pick up hot glassware
knowing standard safety symbols (e.g., fire, plug, skull and crossbones, razor blade)
notifying the teacher of any accident
demonstrating knowledge of metric units with the following prefixes: milli-, centi-, and kilo-
                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               38
converting one metric unit to another metric unit
demonstrating knowledge of SI/metric units used for length, volume, mass, density, time, and
    temperature
given pictures of measuring devices, selecting the most appropriate device (e.g., graduated
    cylinder, balance) for a particular purpose (e.g., volume, mass)
demonstrating knowledge of the formula for density




                                    CRCT Content Descriptions
                                           Science
                                              39
Science
Grade 8
Domain: Earth/Space Science – Geology

Overview of the Domain

Students demonstrate an understanding of the chemistry and relationships between minerals
    and rocks.
Students describe the composition of Earth and explain the dynamic forces that are changing it.
Students demonstrate understanding of Earth’s topography and how that topography affects
    economic development.
Students use evidence documented in Earth's rock record to describe and analyze Earth's
    processes that are currently occurring and have been occurring for millions of years.

Associated QCC Standards

8.6 (8.6.1 – 8.6.4) 8.7 (8.7.1)            8.8       8.9     8.10
8.11 (8.11.1)       8.13 (8.13.1 - 8.13.2) 8.14      8.15

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following:
recognizing the following chemical formulas:
water (H2O)                           table salt (NaCl)
carbon dioxide (CO2)                  oxygen (O2)
nitrogen (N2)                         hydrochloric acid (HCl)
sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
identifying a substance as an element, a compound, or a mixture
locating on a periodic table (with a key) the following: metals, metalloids, and nonmetals
using the periodic table to identify an element’s atomic number and understanding the
    relationship to number of protons
recognizing the following symbols:
H (hydrogen)                          O (oxygen)
Cl (chlorine)                         Si (silicone)
C (carbon)                            Fe (iron)
N (nitrogen)                          Na (sodium)
Al (aluminum)                         Ca (calcium)
K (potassium)                         Mg (magnesium)
Ni (nickel)                           S (sulfer)
demonstrating understanding of the meaning of subscripts and coefficients in simple
chemical formulas (e.g., H20 has two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen in
each molecule)
defining crystal systems; the crystal shapes are classified into different groups
recognizing that different minerals are composed of different crystal systems


                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               40
describing the two types of chemical bonds and explaining the differences between them:
ionic: an ionic bond forms when one or more electrons actually move from one atom to
    another
covalent: a covalent bond forms when two atoms share one or more electrons
describing various tests (luster, streak, color, cleavage and fracture, hardness) and typical
    results and interpreting data about minerals based on Mohs’ scale of hardness when given a
    table
identifying the three types of rocks (sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic)
demonstrating understanding of the rock cycle
describing how each rock type forms
demonstrating understanding of the relationship between plate boundaries and earthquakes and
    volcanoes (Ring of Fire)
explaining the differences between weathering and erosion
recognizing the cause and effect relationships between plate movement and features on Earth’s
    surface (subduction, mountain formation, ocean floor spreading)
explaining the theory of plate tectonics, such as:
seafloor spreading
continental/oceanic plates
divergent boundaries
convergent boundaries
transform boundaries
interpreting topographic maps using a map key or legend
describing/demonstrating what topographic maps show about earth’s surface
describing factors that influence the development of an area, such as:
soil content
availability of fresh water
whether or not the ground will support certain structures
explaining radiocarbon dating
explaining the difference between relative and absolute time
describing how scientists use fossils as clues to events in Earth’s past
describing how the half-life of radioactive elements is used to find the absolute age of rocks
    and fossils
determining the relative age of rock layers using the law of superposition
understanding the principle of uniformitarianism
understanding the principle of superposition
demonstrating knowledge of the location of Earth’s crust, mantle, and core
demonstrating knowledge of the major characteristics and components of Earth’s crust, mantle,
    and core




                                    CRCT Content Descriptions
                                           Science
                                              41
Science
Grade 8
Domain: Earth/Space Science – Hydrology/Meteorology/Environment

Overview of the Domain

Students demonstrate an understanding of Earth’s environment and ways to manage those
    resources.
Students describe the characteristics, composition, and movement of fresh and saltwater.
Students describe the composition and structure of the atmosphere and explain the changes that
    cause weather.

Associated QCC Standards

8.5 (8.5.1 – 8.5.2)    8.12 (8.12.1 – 8.12.2) 8.16 (8.16.1 – 8.16.3)
8.17 (8.17.1 – 8.17.5) 8.18 (8.18.1 – 8.18.3) 8.19 (8.19.1)
8.20 (8.20.1 – 8.20.5)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following:
identifying the characteristics and most likely causes of acid rain, greenhouse effect, and ozone
    depletion
recognizing common sources of pollution, such as:
industry
production of electricity
thermal pollution
transportation
agriculture
identifying ways to correct/reduce pollution, such as:
catalytic converters
sanitary landfills
ground covers
alternative fuels
identifying and recognizing uses of alternative energy sources, such as:
solar
geothermal
wind
nuclear
synthetic fuels
biomass fuels
describing the processes of the water cycle, including:
evaporation
precipitation
condensation
transpiration
run off
                                     CRCT Content Descriptions
                                            Science
                                               42

describing the differences between surface and underground water sources
explaining the difference in the distribution and quality of fresh water and saltwater
identifying the stages in development of a river system
defining salinity
identifying the relationship between salinity and density
describing features of the ocean floor, such as:
mountains
trenches
plains
ridges
reefs
continental shelf
describing the movements of ocean water in currents (e.g., surface currents, deep ocean
    currents, long shore currents, rip currents), tides, and waves
identifying and describing the relationship between the three major groups of ocean organisms
    (benthos, plankton, nekton)
demonstrating knowledge that the troposphere is the layer of Earth’s atmosphere where we live
demonstrating knowledge of the relationship between the troposphere and weather
demonstrating knowledge of the relationship between the stratosphere and the jet stream and
    the ozone layer
relating the mesosphere to meteors catching fire
recognizing and understanding the order of the layers of Earth’s atmosphere
identifying the two major gases of the atmosphere and approximate percentages of each
    (Nitrogen – 80 percent, Oxygen – 20 percent)
demonstrating knowledge that the exosphere is the outermost layer and that satellites that
    circle Earth travel in the exosphere
given a weather map similar to those printed in newspapers, interpreting the map and
    predicting the weather
describing the formation of hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms and their effects on
    Earth’s surface
describing safety rules associated with hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms
demonstrating knowledge of the three types of clouds (cumulus, stratus, cirrus)
demonstrating knowledge of water vapor in the air (e.g., humidity, dew point)
identifying how heat is transferred to cause weather
describing the relationship between heat, wind, temperature, and humidity
demonstrating knowledge of the uses for barometers and anemometers
describing the differences between polar, tropical, maritime, and continental air masses
describing the effects of temperature, altitude, and latitude on climate
identifying weather associated with warm and cold fronts




                                    CRCT Content Descriptions
                                           Science
                                              43
Science
Grade 8
Domain: Earth/Space Science – Astronomy

Overview of the Domain

Students describe and analyze the structure of our solar system and the universe, the
    relationship among its components
Students describe how information about our solar system has been obtained and used
    including the history of the space program

Associated QCC Standards

8.21 (8.21.1 – 8.21.2) 8.22 (8.22.1 – 8.22.3) 8.23 (8.23.1)
8.24 (8.24.1)          8.25                   8.26 (8.26.1 – 8.26.4)

Associated Concepts, Skills, and Abilities

Assessment of this domain will focus on the following:
listing the planets in order based on distance from the Sun
describing the differences among asteroids, comets, and meteorites
using the terms inertia and gravity to explain why objects orbit other objects
describing the difference between rotation and revolution
describing the differences in star color based on temperature
recognizing the Milky Way as a spiral galaxy
recognizing that our solar system is part of the Milky Way galaxy
identifying the three major types of galaxies (elliptical, spiral, irregular)
interpreting the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, which depicts the relationship between
     the surface temperature and brightness of stars
describing what a constellation is
describing our solar system as heliocentric (sun-centered)
describing Ptolemy’s (earth-centered universe) and Copernicus’s (sun-centered universe) views
     of the solar system
distinguishing among solar system, galaxy, and universe
describing and contrasting theories on the origin of the universe
recognizing instruments used to gather information about space (probes, satellites, telescopes
     [Hubble], spectroscopes)
recognizing the term Sputnik
identifying the first person in space, the first American in space, and the first person
on the moon
identifying technological advancements resulting from the space program and impact on out
     lives
demonstrating understanding of why seasons occur
identifying relative position of Earth during winter/summer months (axis tilt)
describing why the moon appears to change shape
demonstrating knowledge of the terms waxing, waning, full moon, and new moon
                                    CRCT Content Descriptions
                                           Science
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given diagrams showing the relative positions of Earth, the moon, and the Sun, identifying the
    type of eclipse visible from points on Earth
explaining why eclipses do not occur monthly
describing the causes of high tide and low tide
given diagrams, identifying and describing the cause of neap and spring tides




                                    CRCT Content Descriptions
                                           Science
                                              45

								
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