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SW Biology 11

   UNIT 4

                                                                        Name                                                         Class                    Date

                                                                                                        SECTION 18-1 REVIEW

                                                                                                H ISTORY OF T AXONOMY
                                                                        VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs
                                                                        of terms.

                                                                         1. taxonomy, phylogeny

                                                                         2. kingdom, species

                                                                         3. phylum, division

                                                                         4. species name, species identifier

                                                                         5. varieties, subspecies
HRW material copyrighted under notice appearing earlier in this work.

                                                                        MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.

                                                                                1. Aristotle classified animals on the basis of
                                                                                   a. their size.                                 c. where they lived.
                                                                                   b. their evolutionary history.                 d. what they ate.

                                                                                2. The main criterion used in Linnaeus’s system of classification is an organism’s
                                                                                   a. phylogeny.          b. morphology.          c. taxonomy.            d. hierarchy.

                                                                                3. Each subset within a class of organisms is called
                                                                                   a. an order.           b. a family.            c. a genus.             d. a phylum.

                                                                                4. In the scientific name of an organism, the first part is the
                                                                                   a. species identifier. b. variety.             c. subspecies.          d. genus.

                                                                                5. The species name of the lion is
                                                                                   a. Panthera leo.       b. panthera leo.        c. Panthera leo.        d. Panthera Leo.

                                                                                                                                                Modern Biology Study Guide   93
Name                                                            Class               Date

SHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.

 1. How were the classification systems of Aristotle and Linnaeus similar?

 2. The word part bi- means “two,” and the word part nomen means “name.” Explain how these word

     parts relate to the system scientists use to identify organisms.

 3. How does the classification process used by modern taxonomists differ from that used by Linnaeus?

 4. Critical Thinking Explain why Aristotle’s system of classifying animals is no longer used by

     biologists. Use examples from the animal kingdom to support your answer.

STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.

                                                                                                           HRW material copyrighted under notice appearing earlier in this work.
 1. Fill in the names of the seven levels of organization in Linnaeus’s system of classifying organisms,
    with a representing the smallest category and g the largest category.




                                   a                                      d
                                                        e                 e


 2. Provide a specific example for the level represented by g.

94     Section 18-1 Review
                                                                        Name                                                        Class                 Date

                                                                                                           SECTION 18-2 REVIEW

                                                                                 M ODERN P HYLOGENETIC T AXONOMY
                                                                        VOCABULARY REVIEW Define the following terms.

                                                                         1. systematics

                                                                         2. phylogenetic tree

                                                                         3. cladistics

                                                                        MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.

                                                                                1. The legs of insects and the legs of mammals
                                                                                   a. are shared derived characters.             c. suggest descent from a common ancestor.
                                                                                   b. are homologous structures.                 d. evolved independently in the two groups.

                                                                                2. Examination of embryological patterns of development reveals that
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                                                                                   a. the blastopore becomes the same end of the digestive system in echinoderms
                                                                                      and mollusks.
                                                                                   b. each cell in the embryo of an echinoderm or vertebrate has the potential to form an
                                                                                      entire organism.
                                                                                   c. echinoderms are more closely related to arthropods than to vertebrates.
                                                                                   d. vertebrates are more closely related to mollusks than to echinoderms.

                                                                                3. The molecular-clock model of evolutionary relationships is based on the assumption that
                                                                                   changes in amino acid sequence
                                                                                   a.    are not random.
                                                                                   b.    are affected by natural selection.
                                                                                   c.    are greater in species with more-distant common ancestors.
                                                                                   d.    occur at different rates in different organisms.

                                                                                4. One example of a derived character is provided by the
                                                                                   a. feathers of birds.                         c. legs of insects.
                                                                                   b. legs of birds.                             d. chromosomes of chimpanzees.

                                                                                5. Cladistic taxonomists establish evolutionary relationships among organisms by examining
                                                                                   the organisms’
                                                                                   a. morphological similarities.                c. homologous chromosomes.
                                                                                   b. analogous structures.                      d. shared derived characters.
                                                                                                                                            Modern Biology Study Guide      95
Name                                                       Class                   Date

SHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.

 1. List four types of evidence used by systematic taxonomists to construct phylogenetic trees.

 2. What is a blastopore, and how is it used to indicate evolutionary relationships?

 3. How do shared derived characters help cladistic taxonomists determine phylogenetic relationships?

 4. Critical Thinking A paleontologist studying two modern species finds a 7-million-year-old fossil
    organism with a morphology similar to the modern species and concludes that it is an ancestor
    of both. A molecular biologist studying the amino acid sequence of a particular protein in both
    modern species concludes that the two species last shared a common ancestor 12.5 million
    years ago. Suggest possible reasons for the discrepancy in the two conclusions.

                                                                                                          HRW material copyrighted under notice appearing earlier in this work.
STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS Use the figure to answer the following questions.

     The phylogenetic tree shown below indicates the evolutionary relationships
     for a hypothetical group of modern organisms, labeled 1–5,
     and their ancestors, labeled A–E.                                                            4
     1. Which two modern organisms are likely to
                                                            1                                         5
        be most closely related?
     2. What was the most recent common ancestor
        of organisms 2 and 3?

     3. What was the most recent common ancestor

        of organisms 1 and 5?

96     Section 18-2 Review
                                                                        Name                                                           Class                 Date

                                                                                                          SECTION 18-3 REVIEW

                                                                        T WO M ODERN S YSTEMS OF C LASSIFICATION
                                                                        VOCABULARY REVIEW For each of the kingdoms listed below, state the cell type
                                                                        (prokaryotic or eukaryotic), number of cells (unicellular, multicellular, or both), and
                                                                        form of nutrition (autotrophy, heterotrophy, or both).

                                                                         1. Archaebacteria

                                                                         2. Eubacteria

                                                                         3. Protista

                                                                         4. Fungi

                                                                         5. Plantae

                                                                         6. Animalia

                                                                        MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the correct letter in the blank.

                                                                                1. The organisms that live in hostile environments that cannot support other forms of life
                                                                                   are members of the kingdom
                                                                                    a. Protista.            b. Archaebacteria.      c. Eubacteria.       d. Fungi.
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                                                                                2. Amoebas and giant kelp belong to the kingdom
                                                                                    a. Fungi.               b. Plantae.             c. Protista.         d. Archaea.

                                                                                3. Mushrooms, puffballs, mildews, and molds belong to the kingdom
                                                                                    a. Fungi.               b. Plantae.             c. Protista.         d. Eukarya.

                                                                                4. The domain that includes the organisms that cause tooth decay and food poisoning is called
                                                                                    a. Eukarya.             b. Archaea.             c. Bacteria.         d. Eubacteria.

                                                                                5. The domain that includes organisms with true nuclei and membrane-bound organelles is
                                                                                    a. Bacteria.            b. Archaea.             c. Animalia.         d. Eukarya.

                                                                                6. The domain Eukarya includes
                                                                                    a.   archaebacteria, protists, fungi, and plants.
                                                                                    b.   protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
                                                                                    c.   protists, fungi, eubacteria, and archaebacteria.
                                                                                    d.   fungi, eubacteria, plants, and animals.

                                                                                                                                               Modern Biology Study Guide    97
Name                                                            Class                   Date

SHORT ANSWER Answer the questions in the space provided.

      1. What characteristics distinguish archaebacteria from eubacteria?

      2. What characteristics distinguish fungi from plants?

      3. Which kingdoms include multicellular heterotrophic organisms?

      4. What evidence led scientists to develop the three-domain system of classification?

      5. Critical Thinking Another possible way to classify organisms would be to separate them into
         unicellular and multicellular organisms. Explain why this is not a useful classification system.

                                                                                                            HRW material copyrighted under notice appearing earlier in this work.
STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS The diagram below represents the relationship between
the three-domain system and the six-kingdom system of classifying organisms. Label each
box in the diagram with the correct domain or kingdom name.

           a                 b                             c

               Eubacteria    Archaebacteria   d            e                f                  Animalia

98             Section 18-3 Review
  SW BIOLOGY 11                   THE FIVE KINGDOMS

This exercise will help you prepare information needed to start your poster project.

1. Use the following key to label the diagram below:

    A = Kingdom Monera            C = Kingdom Fungi             D = Kingdom Plantae
    A1 = Monerans                 C1 = Molds and Yeasts         D1 = Plants
    B = Kingdom Protista                                        E = Kingdom Animalia
    B1 = Protistans                                             E1 = Animals

2. Use your textbook and/or the Internet to list the main characteristics and example
   members of each kingdom.

     •    Main characteristics of the Kingdom MONERA

          Example Monerans:

     •    Main characteristics of the Kingdom PROTISTA

          Example Protists:

     •    Main characteristics of the Kingdom FUNGI

          Example Fungi :

     •    Main characteristics of the Kingdom PLANTAE

          Example Plants:

     •    Main characteristics of the Kingdom ANIMALIA

          Example Animals:

5. Refer to your notes or complete your own research then use the following page to plan
   your comparison of the Five and Six Kingdom systems of classification.

Comparison of the Five and Six Kingdom Systems of Classification
SW BIOLOGY 11                    UNIT 4 - Classification / Taxonomy Self Quiz

•    Use the following questions to help you review the concepts covered in this unit.
•    Go to http://www.cst.cmich.edu/users/Benja1dw/BIO101/tools/quiz/clas-taxon.htm to check
     your answers. (See the SW Biology 11 web page for the link to this site.)

1.    The level of hierarchy just below phylum is:
      a. class
      b. family
      c. genus
      d. order
      e. group

2.    The Fungi kingdom is described as:
      a. eukaryotic, multicellular
      b. eukaryotic, unicellular
      c. prokaryotic, multicellular
      d. prokaryotic, unicellular
      e. none of the above

3.    A kingdom of single-celled, eukaryotic organisms is the:
      a. fungi
      b. monerans
      c. plants
      d. protists
      e. animals

4.    The basic classification unit of living things is:
      a. phylum
      b. class
      c. genus
      d. species
      e. kingdom

5.    The disadvantage of using common names for species is that:
      a. the names may change
      b. one name does not apply universally
      c. one species may have several common names
      d. one common name may be applied to two species
      e. all of the above

6.    Which of the following is the correct scientific name of an organism?
      a. Canis lupis
      b. saccharum
      c. Grant's gazelle
      d. E. Coli
      e. Common loon

7.    The living world is divided into:
      a. two kingdoms
      b. three kingdoms
      c. four kingdoms
      d. five kingdoms
      e. varying number of kingdoms depending on who is doing the classifying

8.    Which of the following would you expect to be most closely related?
      a. two species in the same genus
      b. two species in different phyla
      c. two species in different families in the same order
      d. two species in different genera in the same family
      e. two species in the same class

9.    From the following list of common and Latinized names determine which pair represents
      the two most closely related plants.

           o   broad bean Vicia faba
           o   castor bean Ricinus communis
           o   kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris
           o   potato bean Apios americana
           o   scarlet runner bean Phaseolus coccineus

      a. broad bean and castor bean
      b. castor bean and kidney bean
      c. kidney bean and scarlet runner bean
      d. scarlet runner bean and castor bean
      e. potato bean and broad bean

10.   Using the binomial system, an organism is named by its:
      a. kingdom
      b. genus and species
      c. phylum and class
      d. mode of reproduction
      e. parasitic associate

11.   One of the accomplishments the Swedish naturalist, Carolus Linnaeus, is famous for is:
      a. discovering and describing Oncorhynchus clarki
      b. naming the buffalo sculpin
      c. cataloguing species belonging to Kingdom Protista
      d. inventing the binomial system of nomenclature
      e. proposing a five kingdom classification system

12.   The science of naming and classifying organisms is called:
      a. taxonomy
      b. systematics

      c. mutualism
      d. binomial nomenclature
      e. both a and b

13.   A taxonomic key used to identify organisms is labeled:
      a. systematic key
      b. phylogenetic key
      c. evergreen key
      d. dichotomous key
      e. none of the above

14.   A rod-shaped cell with no nuclear membrane, and having a capsule exterior to its cell wall
      is a member of which of the following?
      a. fungi
      b. protozoa
      c. bacteria
      d. eukaryotic algae
      e. Cnidaria

15.   A certain organism is multicellular, adapted for photosynthesis, and has reproductive
      organs. to which kingdom does it belong?
      a. Animal
      b. Monera
      c. Plant
      d. Protista
      e. Fungi

16.   An animal with pharyngeal grooves and a notochord is a:
      a. chordate
      b. mollusk
      c. crustacean
      d. roundworm
      e. hydra

17.   Which of the following are amphibians?
      a. lizard
      b. turtle
      c. toad
      d. crayfish
      e. b and c

Go to http://www.cst.cmich.edu/users/Benja1dw/BIO101/tools/quiz/clas-taxon.htm to check
your answers. (See the SW Biology 11 web page for the link to this site.)
44 lEfDrcHoTofvrous
How canyou identifyan organism you find in yourbackyardor
                                   that                              OBJECTIVE
in thepark? Onemethod identification is usedby professional .
                         of              that
                                                                       To learn the use of a dichoto-
andamateur  biologistsalike is rhedichotomous key. In Part 1 of this mous
                                                                          key in identifying organisms.
investigation will usesucha key. In Partz, you will construct      a
key ofyour own.

localorganisms single
             and     keysto identifythem


Part 1 Uslng a Dlchotomous Key
A dichotomous is a means identifyingobjects
                                of                    then divided on the basisof numberof pairs of
or organisms through a series of paired,              wings. This procedure wasfollowed until eachfinal
contradictory  statements.   Only oneof eachpair of   descriptionappliedto only a singleinsect. The final
statements  appliesto the objector organismyou are    stepwas to translate chartin Fig. 2 into the key
trying to identify. The statement appliesdirects
                                   that               usedin Part1.
the user to the next pair of statements. This
continues   untii you are directedto the nameof the   4. Now you will construct identification
                                                                                an               chartfor
objector organism.                                    leaves,similarto the onefor insects.Divide the 10
                                                      leavesshownin Fig. 3 into trvoapproximately   equat
1. To identify insectA in Fig. 1, beginwith paired    groups according to easily seen contrasting
descriptions and lb in Table1. Oneandonly one         characteristics.You may distinguish     leaf shape,
of the descriptionsshould apply. If you find a        edge,lenglhof leaf stalk,divisioninto leaflets,vein
numberat the endof the description, guidesyou to
                                    it                pattern, etc. Draw Fig. 4 in your notebook and
the next pair of descriptions.If you find a nameat    complete chart.
the end of the description, shouldidentify your
insect. Of course,this key appliesonly to these       5. Repeat process
                                                                 the        with oneof thetwo groups  of
specific kinds of insects. It will not identify any   leaves. Continuedividing and subdividinguntil
oryanisms included its construction.
           not         in                             repeatwith the otherof the two original groupsof
                                                      leaves. You will not use all of the blank spacesin
2. After you have identified all of the insectsin     the right-handcolumn. If one of the leavesis
Fig. 1, checkyour answers with your instructor.       separated  from all the rest by the time you reach
                                                      column3 or 4, the remaining   blanksin that branch
3. Your instructormay have live or preserved          are left vacant. lnclude the plant namein the last
organisms keys for you to use in identifying
         and                                          space you use.
                                                      6. Go through your chart with each leaf
                                                      individually. If thereareerrors,
Part 2   Constructlng a Dtchotomous Key
The dichotomous   key in Part I was constructed       7. Exchange    your chartwith anotherteam. Check
from the characteristicschartshownin Fig. 2. The      their chartin the sameway you checked   your own.
13 insectswerefirst dividedinto two groupson the      Discuss problems
                                                              any           theyfind with your chart.
basisof an easilyseencharacteristic, presence
                                  the         or
absence wings. Thenthenine insects    with wings      8. Your instructormay ask your teamto translate
were divided according transparency wings.
                         to            of             the informationon your chartinto a key. Compare
The five insectswith fully transparentwings were      Fig.2with thekey in Part 1 asanexample.

                Table 1 A DichotomousKey for the ldentification Certain Insects

                1a. Insect with wings.......                                      ........2

                lb. Insectwithout wings.......                           ....................7

                2a. Wingsall fully transparent wingsclearlyvisible.....................3

                2b. Wings not all fully transperant                             ..........10

                3a. Hind ryings absent                                         Housefly

                4a. Hind wings aboutthe samesize as front wings..................Dragonfly

                4b. Hind wings smallerthan front wings........                ..............5

                5a. Two or threelong slender
                                           tails .........               .............Mayfly

                5b. No long slender tails                                          .......6

                6a. Wings at rest held iike roof over body .........           ......Cicada

                6b. Wings at restnot held like roof over body                ............8ee

                7a. Three long slendertails                            ............Si1verfish

                7b. No long siender tails                                          ........8

                8a. Head almost as wide as body                              .....Termite

                8b. Head much narrower than body                                ...........9

                9a. Head connected body by a narrow neck...........
                                 to                                                Louse

                9b. Neck not especially                                    ..............F1ea

                   Wings held against
                10a.                body when at rest............                 .........11

                10b.Wings not held against
                                         body when at rest                 ........Butterfly

                1la. Hind legs enlarged jumping
                                       for                        ................grasshopper

                l1b.Hind legs not enlarged jumping ..............
                                         for                                      ........12

                   Front wingspartly leathery; transparant.........................Stinkbug
                12a.                         tip

                12b.Frontwings fully shell-like..........              .........PotatoBeetle

l. Is presence wings the only characteristic could be usedinitially to divide the 13 insects
             of                             that                                            into two
groups?What othercharacteristics Fig. 2 couldbeusedinitially?

2. How many different characteristics were usedby your classinitially to divide the ten leavesinto two
groups? Is any key producedby your classmore usefrilthanothersproduced your ciass?Explain.


Fig. 1. Selectedinsects.

                                             winqs               front,
                     wrngs                      -
                     fully                                                                                      dragonflY
                                                          s-     wings
                     parent                front,                         2or3
                                                                 size              -$>                          maYflY
                                           hind                           long
                                           wings                                              wrngs

                                                                                              iiiJ -            "'""0"


                                                                                              ffi: {bee
                                                                iumPing                                         grasshopper
                                          wrngs                              wrng
                                                                                         --            I^       stinkbus
                                          against                            ili"r-
                                          body                  no           parenr
                     wrngs                                      legs         front
                                                                             wing -4>                           poratobeetle
                     trans-                                                  like

                    3 long
                                      wide                                                                  '   termite
                                 I      bodv
                     no                                                                                         touse
                             J                       -I-"1.-
                                 |                   |
                                 t                   l
                                 I   tread           I
                                     narrow          I
                                                     I    neck
                                                     l-   161                                                   flea

                  a          key.
Fig.2. Constructingdichotomous

                              pine (needles)

             horse chestnut

           honey locust


Fig. 3. Leaves.

Fig. 4. A chart for identification selected leaves.


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