# Computer Applications Introduction to Computers by zzz22140

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```									Computer Applications
Introduction to Computers

By: Richard W. Lipham - Waltrip High School
The Operating System
   an executive program that controls
execution of all other programs and
operations of all system components such
as the disk drive, and printer.
Operating System Platforms

PC

Apple Macintosh
Operating Systems
   Macintosh       PC
   Mac OS 9        Windows XP
   Mac OS 8        Windows 2000 ME
   Mac OS 7.5      Windows 98
   Mac OS 7.1      Windows 95
   Windows NT
   Windows 3.x
   DOS
   Linux
   Unix
Internal Components of the
Computer
 CPU - Central Processing unit
 Mother Board
 Memory Chips
 Power Supply
 Hard Drive
 Disk Drive
 CD/DVD Drive
 Battery
CPU - Central Processing unit
   the system component that
contains within "memory"
the executing program and,
following instructions,
causes arithmetic, logical,
and input/output operations
to be performed; also called
"processor".
The Processor uses digital data known as
binary numbers
 Bit - a single binary number. It is either
a 1 or a 0.
 Byte - 8 bits.
 Kilobyte - 1024 bytes.
 Megabyte - 1,000 kilobytes
 Gigabyte - 1,000 megabytes
The Binary System
 The binary system based on powers of 2. In
the binary system, only the digits 0 and 1
are used. Thus, the first ten numbers in
binary notation, corresponding to the
numbers:
 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,      5, 6, 7, 8,           9
 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000, 1001
Megahertz/Gigahertz
 is the speed at which the processor operates.
 Hertz is a unit of frequency, equal to 1 cycle
per second. The term is combined with
metric prefixes to denote multiple units
such as the kilohertz (1,000 Hz), megahertz
(1,000,000 Hz), and gigahertz
(1,000,000,000 Hz).
Mother Board
   a rigid, slotted board
upon which other
boards that contain the
basic circuitry of a
computer or of a
computer component
can be mounted.
Memory Chips- RAM
   Random Access Memory.

   Ram is the section of
memory that is accessible
to the computer user, used
to run applications etc.
RAM allocation
64 Megabytes of ram
Available memory to
run programs

The system uses this
much.
RAM allocation
64 Megabytes of RAM
Available memory to
20.3
run other programs
An open application
15.9                         uses RAM

27.8                         The system uses this
much.
Memory Chips- ROM
These chips have
etched in them the
instructions that tell
the computer how to
run. ROM is the
section of memory
reserved for system
use only.
Power Supply
   a device that provides
power to electronic
equipment, computers,
etc.
Hard Drive
   A hard drive is a high-
capacity storage
device with much
faster access time than
a flexible diskette.
Disk Drive
   An electromechanical
device for recording
and retrieving data
from a diskette; an
input/output device.
   3 1/2” floppy disk (1.44
Meg)
   ZIP disk (100 Meg/250)
CD/DVD Drive
   A compact disk
containing information
or interactive
applications that can
be accessed by the
computer.
Battery
   Maintains in the
memory the
preferences needed by
the computer; control
panel settings, time,
etc.
External Components for the
Computer
 Monitor
 Keyboard
 Speakers
Monitor
   a component, CRT,
connected to a
computer, used for
viewing data.
Keyboard
   The operator’s
back to the computer;
an input device
   a palm-sized, button-
operated device that
can be slid over a
desktop, moving a
wheel or ball, used to
move the cursor on a
CRT to any position.
Speakers
   an electroacoustic
device, often housed
in a cabinet, that is
connected as a
component in a
computer system, its
function being to
make speech or music
audible.
The History of Computers

http://library.thinkquest.org/22522/index.html

```
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