Computer Applications Introduction to Computers by zzz22140

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									Computer Applications
Introduction to Computers




        By: Richard W. Lipham - Waltrip High School
The Operating System
   an executive program that controls
    execution of all other programs and
    operations of all system components such
    as the disk drive, and printer.
Operating System Platforms

     PC




                    Apple Macintosh
Operating Systems
   Macintosh       PC
   Mac OS 9        Windows XP
   Mac OS 8        Windows 2000 ME
   Mac OS 7.5      Windows 98
   Mac OS 7.1      Windows 95
                    Windows NT
                    Windows 3.x
                    DOS
                    Linux
                    Unix
Internal Components of the
Computer
 CPU - Central Processing unit
 Mother Board
 Memory Chips
 Power Supply
 Hard Drive
 Disk Drive
 CD/DVD Drive
 Battery
CPU - Central Processing unit
   the system component that
    contains within "memory"
    the executing program and,
    following instructions,
    causes arithmetic, logical,
    and input/output operations
    to be performed; also called
    "processor".
The Processor uses digital data known as
binary numbers
 Bit - a single binary number. It is either
  a 1 or a 0.
 Byte - 8 bits.
 Kilobyte - 1024 bytes.
 Megabyte - 1,000 kilobytes
 Gigabyte - 1,000 megabytes
The Binary System
 The binary system based on powers of 2. In
  the binary system, only the digits 0 and 1
  are used. Thus, the first ten numbers in
  binary notation, corresponding to the
  numbers:
 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,      5, 6, 7, 8,           9
 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000, 1001
Megahertz/Gigahertz
 is the speed at which the processor operates.
 Hertz is a unit of frequency, equal to 1 cycle
  per second. The term is combined with
  metric prefixes to denote multiple units
  such as the kilohertz (1,000 Hz), megahertz
  (1,000,000 Hz), and gigahertz
  (1,000,000,000 Hz).
Mother Board
   a rigid, slotted board
    upon which other
    boards that contain the
    basic circuitry of a
    computer or of a
    computer component
    can be mounted.
Memory Chips- RAM
   Random Access Memory.

   Ram is the section of
    memory that is accessible
    to the computer user, used
    to run applications etc.
RAM allocation
  64 Megabytes of ram
                        Available memory to
                        run programs




                        The system uses this
                        much.
RAM allocation
       64 Megabytes of RAM
                             Available memory to
20.3
                             run other programs
                             An open application
15.9                         uses RAM


27.8                         The system uses this
                             much.
Memory Chips- ROM
   Read Only Memory
    These chips have
    etched in them the
    instructions that tell
    the computer how to
    run. ROM is the
    section of memory
    reserved for system
    use only.
Power Supply
   a device that provides
    power to electronic
    equipment, computers,
    etc.
Hard Drive
   A hard drive is a high-
    capacity storage
    device with much
    faster access time than
    a flexible diskette.
Disk Drive
   An electromechanical
    device for recording
    and retrieving data
    from a diskette; an
    input/output device.
   3 1/2” floppy disk (1.44
    Meg)
   ZIP disk (100 Meg/250)
CD/DVD Drive
   A compact disk
    containing information
    or interactive
    applications that can
    be accessed by the
    computer.
Battery
   Maintains in the
    memory the
    preferences needed by
    the computer; control
    panel settings, time,
    etc.
External Components for the
Computer
 Monitor
 Keyboard
 Mouse/Trackball/Touch pad
 Speakers
Monitor
   a component, CRT,
    connected to a
    computer, used for
    viewing data.
Keyboard
   The operator’s
    communication link
    back to the computer;
    an input device
Mouse/Trackball/Touch Pad
   a palm-sized, button-
    operated device that
    can be slid over a
    desktop, moving a
    wheel or ball, used to
    move the cursor on a
    CRT to any position.
Speakers
   an electroacoustic
    device, often housed
    in a cabinet, that is
    connected as a
    component in a
    computer system, its
    function being to
    make speech or music
    audible.
The History of Computers




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