A Report on South East Asia
Mr. Le Hoang Nghiem
Dr. Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh
Asian Institute of Technology
Air Quality and Noise Management Bureau
Pollution Control Department, Thailand
February 14, 2005
Specifics of Phase II
MICS - Asia Phase II aims at transport and deposition
of sulfur, nitrogen compounds, ozone and aerosols
in East Asia.
Latitude: 15 South to 60 North,
Longitude: 75 East to 160 East.
Period 1: March 1 – 31, 2001
Period 2: July 1 – 31, 2001
Period 3: December 1 – 31, 2001
Period 4: March 1 – 31, 2002.
It is expected that all participants will use same emission
inventories of SO2 (anthropogenic and volcanic), NOx,
CO, NMVOC, NH3, BC, OC, PM10 for 2000 (0.5 degree by
0.5 degree, monthly basis) provided by Dr. D. G. Street,
Argonne National Laboratory, and Dr. Jun-Hun Woo, the
University of Iowa.
We have used all the above mentioned emission data.
Soil dust and sea salt emissions, provided by
Prof. Z. Wang, IAP, are not used yet.
The reference meteorological fields offered by
Prof. Z. Wang, IAP using MM5 (1x1 deg) but we could not
Locate y-coordinate from the dataset in the hard drive.
Therefore, we run MM5 ourselves using NCEP Reanalysis
Data of the same time period, which was sent to us by
Dr.Narisara Thongboonchu of University of Iowa.
Observed but not used yet the boundary conditions
prepared by Dr. T. Holloway, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
using a global model (MOZART-2) downloaded from
EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in
East Asia) monitoring data is mainly used for the
Chemistry and Physics in CHIMERE
• The chemical mechanism (MELCHIOR) is adapted from the
original EMEP mechanism.
• Photolytic rates, calculated in clear skies using the TUV
NCAR model are attenuated using liquid water or relative
• Boundary layer turbulence is represented as a diffusion
(Troen and Mahrt, 1986, BLM)
• Vertical wind is diagnosed through a bottom-up mass
• Dry deposition is as in Emberson et al. (2000). Wet
deposition is included
Aerosol and Numerics in CHIMERE
• A "bin" aerosol model (6 bins by default) is used.
• Aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved using the
• Several aqueous-phase reactions considered
• Secondary organic aerosols formation considered
• Advection is performed by the PPM (Piecewise Parabolic
Method) 3d order scheme for slow species.
• The numerical time solver is the TWOSTEP method.
Current and previous applications
• Operational air quality forecast over Western Europe.
• European model intercomparisons
• European projects on model comparisons of emission
scenarios impact: CITYDELTA, EURODELTA
• GMES projects PROMOTE, GEMS
• Simulations and forecasts over Thailand, China, Italy and
• Ozone representation using data assimilation.
• Sensitivity studies using the adjoint model.
• Many other research projects.
Tentative group of model species for CHIMERE model running
IOWA emission species CHIMERE model species
No. Major species ANTHROPIC BIOGENIC No.
1. SO2 SO2 1
2. NOx NO, NO2 NO 2
3. CO CO 3
4. CH4 CH4 4
7. OC (Organic carbon)
8. BC (Black carbon)
Ethane C2H6 Ethane C2H6 5
Pentane C5H12 NC4H10 (all C3+alkane) 6
Ethene C2H4 Ethene C2H4 7
Propene C3H6 Propene C3H6 8
Xylene C6H4(CH3)2 OXYL (All aromatic species) 9
Formaldehyde HCHO Formaldehyde HCHO 10
Other-Aldehyde Acetaldehyde CH3CHO 11
Ketone Metyl_Etyl Ketone 12
Others Isoprene C5H8 Isoprene C5H8 13
α-Pinene APINEN α-Pinene APINEN 14
It is the first attempt of the team to run CHIMERE
for MICS-Asia phase II.
Capabilities to run other models such as Models-
3/CMAQ are also under development.
The try will continue and more extensive results
are expected to be shown in the near future.
Emission database for South East Asia is also getting
developed through SARCS-START project title:
“Estimation of pollutant emissions from biomass-burning
in Mekong River Basin Sub-Region (Thailand, Cambodia,
Laos and Vietnam)”,
led by Dr. Savitri Garivait of the
Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment