A Report on South East Asia MICS-Asia Effort

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					A Report on South East Asia
     MICS-Asia Effort
           Mr. Le Hoang Nghiem
          Dr. Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh

        Asian Institute of Technology


              Vanisa Surapipith

   Air Quality and Noise Management Bureau
    Pollution Control Department, Thailand

              February 14, 2005
                Specifics of Phase II
MICS - Asia Phase II aims at transport and deposition
of sulfur, nitrogen compounds, ozone and aerosols
in East Asia.
           Latitude: 15 South to 60 North,
           Longitude: 75 East to 160 East.
           Period 1: March 1 – 31, 2001
           Period 2: July 1 – 31, 2001
           Period 3: December 1 – 31, 2001
           Period 4: March 1 – 31, 2002.
Emission data

It is expected that all participants will use same emission
inventories of SO2 (anthropogenic and volcanic), NOx,
CO, NMVOC, NH3, BC, OC, PM10 for 2000 (0.5 degree by
0.5 degree, monthly basis) provided by Dr. D. G. Street,
Argonne National Laboratory, and Dr. Jun-Hun Woo, the
University of Iowa.

We have used all the above mentioned emission data.

Soil dust and sea salt emissions, provided by
Prof. Z. Wang, IAP, are not used yet.
Meteorological field
 The reference meteorological fields offered by
 Prof. Z. Wang, IAP using MM5 (1x1 deg) but we could not
 Locate y-coordinate from the dataset in the hard drive.

 Therefore, we run MM5 ourselves using NCEP Reanalysis
 Data of the same time period, which was sent to us by
 Dr.Narisara Thongboonchu of University of Iowa.

Boundary conditions
Observed but not used yet the boundary conditions
prepared by Dr. T. Holloway, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
using a global model (MOZART-2) downloaded from
Monitoring data

 EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in
 East Asia) monitoring data is mainly used for the
 model validations,
Chemistry and Physics in CHIMERE

• The chemical mechanism (MELCHIOR) is adapted from the
original EMEP mechanism.

• Photolytic rates, calculated in clear skies using the TUV
NCAR model are attenuated using liquid water or relative

• Boundary layer turbulence is represented as a diffusion
(Troen and Mahrt, 1986, BLM)

• Vertical wind is diagnosed through a bottom-up mass
balance scheme.

• Dry deposition is as in Emberson et al. (2000). Wet
deposition is included
Aerosol and Numerics in CHIMERE

• A "bin" aerosol model (6 bins by default) is used.
• Aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved using the
• Several aqueous-phase reactions considered
• Secondary organic aerosols formation considered
• Advection is performed by the PPM (Piecewise Parabolic
Method) 3d order scheme for slow species.
• The numerical time solver is the TWOSTEP method.
Current and previous applications

  • Operational air quality forecast over Western Europe.
  • European model intercomparisons
  • European projects on model comparisons of emission
  scenarios impact: CITYDELTA, EURODELTA
  • GMES projects PROMOTE, GEMS
  • Simulations and forecasts over Thailand, China, Italy and
  • Ozone representation using data assimilation.
  • Sensitivity studies using the adjoint model.
  • Many other research projects.
                               Tentative group of model species for CHIMERE model running
      IOWA emission species                                        CHIMERE model species
No.      Major species                             ANTHROPIC                         BIOGENIC   No.
1.       SO2                         SO2                                                        1
2.       NOx                         NO, NO2                                  NO                2
3.       CO                          CO                                                         3
4.       CH4                         CH4                                                        4
5.       NH3
6.       CO2
7.       OC (Organic carbon)
8.       BC (Black carbon)
         NMVOC species
         Ethane C2H6                 Ethane C2H6                                                5
         Propane C3H8
         Butane C4H10
         Pentane C5H12               NC4H10 (all C3+alkane)                                     6
         Other Alkane
         Ethene C2H4                 Ethene C2H4                                                7
         Propene C3H6                Propene C3H6                                               8
         Acetylene C2H2
         Benzene C6H6
         Toluene CH3C6H5
         Xylene C6H4(CH3)2           OXYL (All aromatic species)                                9
         Other Aromatics
         Formaldehyde HCHO           Formaldehyde HCHO                                          10
         Other-Aldehyde              Acetaldehyde CH3CHO                                        11
         Ketone                      Metyl_Etyl Ketone                                          12
         Others                      Isoprene C5H8                            Isoprene C5H8     13
                                     α-Pinene APINEN                          α-Pinene APINEN   14

It is the first attempt of the team to run CHIMERE
for MICS-Asia phase II.

Capabilities to run other models such as Models-
3/CMAQ are also under development.

The try will continue and more extensive results
are expected to be shown in the near future.

Emission database for South East Asia is also getting
developed through SARCS-START project title:

“Estimation of pollutant emissions from biomass-burning
in Mekong River Basin Sub-Region (Thailand, Cambodia,
Laos and Vietnam)”,

led by Dr. Savitri Garivait of the
Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment
(JGSEE), Bangkok.