Yg_ffcnff-t Yoga-lG Basis, Practice & BenefiG $ S. RAMASWAMI, Trutcc, Eritlwwlurlt loga Hndhaa' MADEAS, Yogcna Chirtrsy a derly lifc (dharma). Tbere Padena Vacham wqr thc otter group of Rishir Malam Sarirarya wbo promulgatcd thc Nivrirti Cha Vaidyahena I Marga' rhe way ol ralvation, Yopalarottam Prevaram a frecdom from rcbinh, Muninam sorrow, anC suffering and Patanjalio Praniali ettaiDment ofpeace at heart. Ranatosmi h JanaLa, Yagnavaltya, Kapila and of coursc Patanjali arc l'he term Yoga is bcing forcmorr among them, apart \ry used qrrite extensively thesc fiom thc lcsr known whosc dav" 16 .o"o*pais e variety iombrtal words ariting out of of practices for diffcrcnt crds, intenre Semadhi are ro bc Phyrical cxercirl, mcditationr fourrd il the vast Vaidic certain Lriyas, mcntal attituC." litcrature, cspecially thc towarda work and rcsuttg arc Upanirads. romc of thcm, .'n'idcly propa. PATANJALI gatcd and $iactiscd. Thir THE TWO P TIIS rlty Thc Vcidic religion io seriesof arricles is airncd a Lnown m Arsa. or rhosc of bringing tbe trrditional coD- Of thc rix Vaidic Dstranas, Rirbir. Thc rcriprurcr, 'sccn' cept and practicc of Yoga ar Yoga ir pcrhapc the roo.t or c:prcssed by thc Rishis . formulared by the great Pat- comprcbcnsivc. Yoga, SamI' erc callcd Vcdas. anjali. ya and Vcdanta form a clore Thc Vaidic treclations group of Darranas and rcvcal P at anjal i w e s a R i s h i . A (Deruana) bilongcd to two the hcight of Vaidic wirdom. .Risbi is one who cxprcsle! catcgorirE. Pravritti Merga Ewn rhough rbcrc are somc Truth as expcricnccd by him which cnunciated tbc various minor diffcrcnccs DtDottg (Rahasassaryavachaaaha). Tbc rdigiour ritcs (Kartne) and these systems,onc with o dceP Vcdas contain such crprcr. urociatcd Mantrar, lcading rridy sill bc abtc to cerilY rionl of variors Rirhis, Actu- to worldly happiaco and or- reconcilc rbc apparcnt diffcr' encer. There n no mrstating jali is of a vcry high order an intcgration. thc Bcncral direction of tberc and thc choicc of words is Howcvcr, suffice it to say that cnquirier or thc .imilariry ol' admirablc. The systeB i! all system, basr- erpcrienccr, ell arising out of comprcbensive, Bhowing the cally recoglizc itnmenre absorption in Trurh place, practice atrd the bcnc- that activity is neccssarv tor (Samadhi)r fits of rany sub-systcnr of Yoga and all the constiiucnt Yoga, such ar Gnana, Bhakti' p r inci pl es have a certai n Human happincgr is at its Karma, Kriya, Laya, Hatha. highcst when the pcople havc Mantra, About the Artbot Japa, Raja etc. Thc good health, express then- 195 Sutras have bcen comm- Mr. S.Ramaswami,has been relvcr wcll and havc clear ented upon (Bhashya) in de' studtnt of PnJ Krishnamachatl oinds. Bhartrubari, the great rail by RishiiVyasa and fur. otstt two decades in theory and philoopher and grammarian ther clucidations (Vivarana) :tice of Toga. Aput fron cmpharirer thc necd for thc have been madc by Vacbas Togosanas and Prana2ama, has purity of rhree human acrivi- pati Misra. Another vivara' studi?d fogd texts such as Palan- tics (Trikaranasuddhi) and re- na in the name of Sankara' fo gatulras, Halhryo go!/a' fcrs to thrce great Sastras, charya alsr is availablc. , Upunisads Chandog2a, as viz. Medicinc (Vaidya or Tailhiil a,Sact asaa tat a, I saoas7a Chilitsa) Grammer (Pada or ON'fHE TYORD 'YOGA' Gita etc,, Adh2a\ona (chant' Vyakarana), and Yoga as thc The oost common inler' ) of the whoh of Taithirilo rcspcctivc means for the puri. of Tojur Veda fication ofthe rhrec karanas, pretation of the word loga is laii sads, M antraPrusanam etc viz. of Body (kaya), Speech integration, derived from the Has ol. (vaL) and Mind (Manas) root Yuj (Yujir Yoge)' Such from tfu Athalta. an integration would require SUTRA LANGUAGE two separatcthings or PrinciP' les (Tattwa) and a novcmcnr And Maharishi Patanjali is between cach oth.r, necessit- believcd to have wrirreu rhc ating activity in atllcast eith' 'trcatisc on thcse rhree sub- er of the two principles. Yoga jccts. Lcgend hes it that whcn is, thcrefote, both the mear,s an ancient people suffering and tbe actual merger of from tbe defilcmcng of thcir leparate Tattwas On this activitier' pra).d Ishwara for baris, many yoga sYst€ms guidancc, Patanjali in thg have come into vogue-some form ol a scrpent fell into Vaidic and some others non' tbeir praying arms (Patam f Vaidic. The conjoining of Anjah)and w r o t e t h c s c Jivatma and Paramatma is Sastras, as b cvident in thc Yoga, as per Srimad Bhaga- Dhyanarloka appearing in wata. Therc arc other scbools rhe beginning of this arti. which proclaim that thc con- clc. Thc Yogasastra itsclf is joining ol Prana with APana' wrirtcn in crypric aphorisml Sakrhi in Muladhara and Srva (Surra) in four ChaPtcrs. in Sahasrara or mind and Bcing ured by a grammarian, setf as thc goal of Y..ga and thc Sutra languageof Patan. enunciare lhe means fur such power (Saklhi) and thcre is in the form of encrgy (Agni), 'no Tattwa visesha), unaffccted by affiicr. without its dirtin- air (Vayu) fluid (ep) and guishiag characterietics (gun- ionr (Llera), dced (kerme), solid (Prithvi). lt includcr asJ. result of action (vipaka) ot tbo ihe 6ve instrumcnts of pcrcep- dmirc ficr action (Asrya). tn tion (Gnanendriyas) and him arc contained ell poten- THA PRINCIPLE3 the f,ve inrtruornts of action tial Lnowledgc or onnisciencc "HREE. (Karmendriyas) and the (Sarvagna Bijam). He is the Patanjali, in the rreaticc on mind (Chirra) which is evcr- fi rst teacher (Purwshamguru) Yoga, recognizes three dis- ch a n g in g with r h r e c q u a litie s but unlimited by tirne. Hc ir principles (Tatrwa,1. which arc clarity (piakasa), !1", known by the repetition (J8pa) Thcy are (i). purusha, (ii) pre- activity (kriya) and inerria ofHiisacrcd word Pranava. k rit l (iii) f 5 e e y a . I r i s n e c e s- (Sthithi) Ir coutd be observed the japa being done by con. sary to dilate on thcse thrcc th a t cve n th e m in d , wh ich templating on thc Eearing a littls rn6yg, could be misrakcu f o r of rhe mystic syllable. Such one'l sclf is actuallv oarr con'etnpl ati on reoovcc aII Purusha lirerally means thc of thc observed ar all rhc interference! (antataya) in 'indwelling p r i n c i p l e r , I r i r mental Eodification (Chitta. the path ofYoga. als o k nowr r a s t h e o b g e r v r r vr ir h i) in clu d in s) r h e .l _ (Drasta), exirt - Geli6g, (Asn,iro) are the experiencer FIVE MENTAL LEVELS (Bhok t a), t h e o w n e r ( S w a m i overseen by the indwelline or A t ma), t h e l i v i n g e n r i t y Purusha. Prakriri can be oi Vrasa, rhe commeotator t,! l: i)f int e l t i g e n c e e n e r g y n o u see xce p t to r h c Atm a n (Chirhi S ak r h i ) e t c . a n d -r h e in d ivid u a l so u l orr the Sutras, classifieA mcn" Accord_ Uiva ) ing to Patanjali, the self m a kF s u se o f th is p r in cip le tal levels of humanity into or _ 6ve. At one extremc is rhd Arman is toral intelligenc6 elther tor experienccr (Bhoga) (Drisimatra) pure or renunciation (Apavarga). Kshipta or demented condi- lSui'dha.r tion, which group hcts con. and nonchanging; howcver, is The dichotomy (Vivetai if eonsarain€d to oversee thc Atm ic p o wcr ( ch itisa L th i) n d centration. There are then a those who are in the covcred preseniation of rhe mind m e n ta l p o we r ( ch ir r a r a kth i)is or tofallt infatuated rtagc (Chitra Vrirhi). In normal ttre greatestrevctarion of the (Muda). Such pcople do not ex is renc c , t h c r c f o r c , e r e n Upanisadic philosophies, and though Purusba ig differenr is of immense practical urc ro admit evcn the reparate ehF stenccof the distinct indwell. from rhe engulfing miod, it is r h e sp ir ir u a l a sp ir a n t. ing intelligtnce principle not entirely frcc ofit. (Purusha) or the all - pervad- WARA ing unlioited cosrbic princi. Unlike sankya' erpccially ple, Iswara. They live by thc Prakriti or creared prin the Niriswara Samkya philo' dictates ofthe gcnsesand 'thc ple is rhe **ra.- oririr"l' i*,ogy.-, u* rii"ilil.1 sophers' Yogarecognizer rhe undiffercnriating mind arrd are affiictcd. The third, rhc u,,d- io. "*p,.,,,htu';;;";;;: t'lT::.:l ;':;"'i;. ;:*: It includcs everytbins rhc restlcarstage (viLshipta) is onc in wtiich tbc individual lean8 obscrvcr (Drashra) exp-cricn- ;;;;;,;J;::"",iJ i"*""", even though. ro gea towards realizing his truc J, is rhe phenomenal the term-is-b.-yo"n"ja hang of -rf,. ".t... world,Eadc upofitsfivebasic .orn. natrtre, but ir constanrly dls. prehension of many minds, tractcd by the srnrcs rind a glojt asPggts (Panchabhur4) oI spacc (Akasa), and mattei lccordrngtopat..i.li, l"wera miod afiicreil by acquircdhr. is one speiial pur*.t a(,pu"urU" biti (Samrlara) arisirit out of in a state of restletsness. remains undis- bcginninglessprevious karmas. However, when they take up turbcd by sen- Thcy altcrnate bctwccn seve- thc practicc of Yoga, they ses or gamskaras. ral cxpericnces (Bhoga) and are known as Yogaruda, This is called renunciation (lpavarga). This those wanting to .trcad the Nirodha rpiritual restlerlness discer'ir stage and is the ul- nible in. all who are dissatis' path of Yoga. timate objective of Yogasas. ficd with mundane and Phen- SAMADHI : TWO KINDS tras as propounded by Pa an- omenal existence. Such pe:- iali. This Nirooha is beyond Two othcr levels, which ple do occarionally get inlo are called the five arimatc mental statcs fall into Yoga n s t at eof t ot a l a b s o r p t i o n i n (Ckittavrithi) in which the focussed (Ekagra) and un' a higher principte or a statc m ind ex i s ts al l thr ough Ii fe. affectcd or protected (Niro- of Samadhi. but such experi- dha). These actually lead What are those normal men- chces are few and far between to two kinds of samadhi, one tal s tates , w hi c h the Yog and according to Vyasa will in which the m ental ener qies tr ans c ends to r eac h N l r o- not come undef the term arc absorbed in a single item dha? W hat then happens Yoga. Without the grace of or object. The other to Chitta and Purusha? Are lshwara and practite of ren- Samadhi is one in whieh the there Yoga benefits other unciation, they continue to be mental energy (Chittasakthi) than the transcendental? .<.
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