Yoga-lG Basis, Practice & BenefiG by csgirla


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               Yoga-lG Basis, Practice & BenefiG

                $    S. RAMASWAMI,            Trutcc,   Eritlwwlurlt   loga Hndhaa'   MADEAS,

   Yogcna Chirtrsy a                                                         derly lifc (dharma).   Tbere
             Padena Vacham                                                   wqr thc otter group of Rishir
   Malam Sarirarya                                                           wbo promulgatcd thc Nivrirti
          Cha Vaidyahena I                                                   Marga' rhe way ol ralvation,
   Yopalarottam Prevaram                                                     a    frecdom from rcbinh,
                   Muninam                                                   sorrow, anC suffering and
   Patanjalio Praniali                                                       ettaiDment ofpeace at heart.
               Ranatosmi h                                                   JanaLa, Yagnavaltya, Kapila
                                                                             and of coursc Patanjali arc
    l'he term Yoga is bcing                                                  forcmorr among them, apart      \ry
 used qrrite extensively thesc                                               fiom thc lcsr known whosc
 dav" 16 .o"o*pais e variety                                                 iombrtal words ariting out of
  of practices for diffcrcnt crds,                                           intenre Semadhi are ro bc
  Phyrical cxercirl, mcditationr                                             fourrd il the vast Vaidic
  certain Lriyas, mcntal attituC."                                           litcrature, cspecially thc
  towarda work and rcsuttg arc                                               Upanirads.
  romc of thcm, .'n'idcly propa.
  gatcd and $iactiscd. Thir                                               THE TWO P TIIS
                                          rlty Thc Vcidic religion io
  seriesof arricles is airncd a
                                          Lnown m Arsa. or rhosc of
  bringing tbe trrditional coD-                                             Of thc rix Vaidic Dstranas,
                                          Rirbir. Thc rcriprurcr, 'sccn'
  cept and practicc of Yoga ar                                            Yoga ir pcrhapc the roo.t
                                          or c:prcssed by thc Rishis
. formulared by the great Pat-                                            comprcbcnsivc. Yoga, SamI'
                                          erc callcd Vcdas.
  anjali.                                                                 ya and Vcdanta form a clore
                                             Thc    Vaidic    treclations group of Darranas and rcvcal
    P at anjal i w e s a R i s h i . A    (Deruana) bilongcd to two the hcight of Vaidic wirdom.
.Risbi is one who cxprcsle!               catcgorirE. Pravritti Merga Ewn rhough rbcrc are somc
 Truth as expcricnccd by him              which cnunciated tbc various minor       diffcrcnccs   DtDottg
 (Rahasassaryavachaaaha).           Tbc   rdigiour   ritcs (Kartne) and these systems,onc with o dceP
 Vcdas contain such crprcr.               urociatcd Mantrar, lcading rridy sill bc abtc to cerilY
 rionl of variors Rirhis, Actu-           to worldly happiaco and or- reconcilc rbc apparcnt diffcr'
encer. There n no mrstating jali is of a vcry high order an                      intcgration.
thc Bcncral direction of tberc and thc choicc of words is Howcvcr,                      suffice
                                                                      it to say that
cnquirier or thc .imilariry ol' admirablc. The             systeB i!
                                                                      all system, basr-
erpcrienccr, ell arising out of comprcbensive, Bhowing the
                                                                      cally         recoglizc
itnmenre absorption in Trurh          place, practice atrd the bcnc-
                                                                      that activity is neccssarv tor
(Samadhi)r                            fits of rany sub-systcnr of     Yoga and all the constiiucnt
                                      Yoga, such ar Gnana, Bhakti'     p r inci pl es have         a certai n
    Human happincgr is at its Karma, Kriya, Laya, Hatha.
highcst when the pcople havc Mantra,                                           About the Artbot
                                                Japa, Raja etc. Thc
good health, express then-             195 Sutras have bcen comm-         Mr. S.Ramaswami,has been
relvcr wcll and havc clear ented upon (Bhashya) in de'
                                                                       studtnt of PnJ Krishnamachatl
 oinds. Bhartrubari, the great rail by RishiiVyasa and fur.
                                                                              otstt two decades in theory and
 philoopher and grammarian
                                      ther clucidations (Vivarana)           :tice of Toga.       Aput fron
 cmpharirer thc necd for thc have been madc by Vacbas
                                                                       Togosanas and Prana2ama, has
 purity of rhree human acrivi- pati
                                            Misra. Another vivara'     studi?d fogd texts such as Palan-
 tics (Trikaranasuddhi) and re- na in the name of Sankara'
                                                                                fo gatulras, Halhryo   go!/a'
 fcrs to thrce great Sastras,
                                       charya alsr is availablc.                 , Upunisads Chandog2a,
 viz. Medicinc (Vaidya or
                                                                       Tailhiil a,Sact asaa tat a, I saoas7a
 Chilitsa) Grammer (Pada or
                                       ON'fHE TYORD 'YOGA'                    Gita etc,, Adh2a\ona (chant'
 Vyakarana), and Yoga as thc
                                          The oost common inler'             ) of the whoh of Taithirilo
 rcspcctivc means for the puri.
                                                                                       of Tojur Veda
 fication ofthe rhrec karanas, pretation of the word loga is
                                                                           laii sads, M antraPrusanam etc
 viz. of Body (kaya), Speech integration,           derived from the
                                                                                                     Has ol.
 (vaL) and Mind (Manas)                root Yuj (Yujir Yoge)' Such          from tfu Athalta.
                                       an integration would require
 SUTRA LANGUAGE                        two separatcthings or PrinciP'
                                       les (Tattwa) and a novcmcnr
     And Maharishi Patanjali is between cach oth.r, necessit-
  believcd to have wrirreu rhc ating activity in atllcast eith'
 'trcatisc on thcse rhree sub- er of the two principles. Yoga
 jccts. Lcgend hes it that whcn is, thcrefote, both the mear,s
  an ancient people suffering and tbe actual merger of
  from tbe defilcmcng of thcir leparate Tattwas On this
  activitier' pra).d Ishwara for baris, many yoga sYst€ms
  guidancc, Patanjali in thg have come into vogue-some
  form ol a scrpent fell into Vaidic and some others non'
  tbeir praying arms (Patam f           Vaidic. The conjoining of
  Anjah)and w r o t e       t h c s c Jivatma and Paramatma is
  Sastras, as b cvident in thc Yoga, as per Srimad Bhaga-
  Dhyanarloka appearing in wata. Therc arc other scbools
  rhe beginning of this arti. which proclaim that thc con-
  clc. Thc Yogasastra itsclf is joining ol Prana with APana'
  wrirtcn in crypric aphorisml Sakrhi in Muladhara and Srva
  (Surra) in four ChaPtcrs. in Sahasrara or mind and
  Bcing ured by a grammarian, setf as thc goal of and
   thc Sutra languageof Patan. enunciare lhe means fur such
    power (Saklhi) and thcre is
                                                     in the form of encrgy (Agni),
   'no Tattwa                                                                                      visesha), unaffccted by affiicr.
               without its dirtin-                   air (Vayu) fluid (ep) and
   guishiag characterietics (gun-                                                                  ionr (Llera), dced (kerme),
                                                     solid (Prithvi). lt includcr
   asJ.                                                                                            result of action (vipaka) ot tbo
                                                     ihe 6ve instrumcnts of pcrcep-
                                                                                                  dmirc ficr action (Asrya). tn
                                                    tion         (Gnanendriyas) and
                                                                                                  him arc contained ell poten-
    THA                     PRINCIPLE3               the f,ve inrtruornts of action
                                                                                                  tial Lnowledgc or onnisciencc
              "HREE.                                (Karmendriyas)                and      the (Sarvagna Bijam). He is the
       Patanjali, in the rreaticc on mind (Chirra) which is evcr-
                                                                                                  fi rst teacher (Purwshamguru)
    Yoga, recognizes three dis- ch a n g in g with r h r e c q u a litie s
                                                                                                 but unlimited by tirne. Hc ir
               principles (Tatrwa,1. which arc clarity (piakasa),
    !1",                                                                                         known by the repetition (J8pa)
    Thcy are (i). purusha, (ii) pre- activity (kriya) and inerria
                                                                                                 ofHiisacrcd word Pranava.
   k rit l (iii) f 5 e e y a . I r i s n e c e s- (Sthithi) Ir coutd be observed
                                                                                                 the japa being done by con.
   sary to dilate on thcse thrcc th a t cve n th e m in d ,
                                                                                        wh ich templating on thc Eearing
   a littls rn6yg,                                 could          be misrakcu f o r of rhe mystic
                                                                                                                      syllable. Such
                                                   one'l sclf is actuallv oarr
                                                                                                 con'etnpl ati on reoovcc aII
       Purusha lirerally means thc                 of thc observed ar all rhc
                                                                                                 interference! (antataya) in
   'indwelling p r i n c i p l e r , I r i r mental Eodification (Chitta.                        the path ofYoga.
   als o k nowr r a s t h e o b g e r v r r vr ir h i) in clu d in s) r h e .l _
   (Drasta),                                       exirt - Geli6g, (Asn,iro) are
                      the experiencer                                                            FIVE MENTAL LEVELS
  (Bhok t a), t h e o w n e r ( S w a m i overseen by the indwelline
  or A t ma), t h e l i v i n g e n r i t y Purusha. Prakriri can be oi
                                                                                                     Vrasa, rhe commeotator
  t,! l: i)f int e l t i g e n c e e n e r g y n o u see xce p t to r h c Atm a n
  (Chirhi S ak r h i ) e t c .                     a n d -r h e in d ivid u a l so u l           orr the Sutras, classifieA     mcn"
                                   Accord_                                             Uiva )
  ing to Patanjali, the self                       m a kF s u se o f th is p r in cip le tal levels of humanity into
                                            or               _                                  6ve. At one extremc is rhd
  Arman is toral intelligenc6 elther tor experienccr (Bhoga)
 (Drisimatra) pure                                 or renunciation (Apavarga). Kshipta or demented condi-
                                 lSui'dha.r                                                     tion, which group hcts con.
  and nonchanging; howcver, is The dichotomy (Vivetai if
  eonsarain€d to oversee thc                       Atm ic p o wcr ( ch itisa L th i) n d centration. There are then
                                                                                                those who are in the covcred
 preseniation of rhe mind m e n ta l p o we r ( ch ir r a r a kth i)is
                                                                                               or tofallt infatuated rtagc
 (Chitra Vrirhi). In normal ttre greatestrevctarion of the
                                                                                               (Muda). Such pcople do not
 ex is renc c , t h c r c f o r c , e r e n Upanisadic philosophies, and
 though Purusba ig differenr                      is of immense practical urc ro admit evcn the reparate ehF
                                                                                               stenccof the distinct indwell.
 from rhe engulfing miod, it is r h e sp ir ir u a l a sp ir a n t.
                                                                                               ing        intelligtnce     principle
 not entirely frcc ofit.                                                                      (Purusha) or the all - pervad-
                                                                                                ing unlioited cosrbic princi.
                                                      Unlike sankya' erpccially ple, Iswara. They live by thc
     Prakriti or creared prin
                                                  the Niriswara Samkya philo'                  dictates ofthe gcnsesand 'thc
 ple is rhe **ra.-            oririr"l'
i*,ogy.-, u* rii"ilil.1                          sophers'        Yogarecognizer          rhe undiffercnriating mind arrd
                                                                                               are affiictcd. The third, rhc
      "*p,.,,,htu';;;";;;: t'lT::.:l ;':;"'i;. ;:*:
It includcs everytbins rhc
                                                                                              restlcarstage (viLshipta) is onc
                                                                                              in wtiich tbc individual lean8
 obscrvcr (Drashra) exp-cricn- ;;;;;,;J;::"",iJ                                    i"*""",
                                                 even though. ro gea                          towards realizing his truc
            J, is rhe phenomenal the term-is-b.-yo"n"ja hang of                 -rf,.
world,Eadc upofitsfivebasic                                                            .orn. natrtre, but ir constanrly dls.
                                                 prehension of many minds, tractcd by the srnrcs rind a
glojt asPggts (Panchabhur4)
oI spacc (Akasa), and mattei,                                  l"wera    miod afiicreil by acquircdhr.
                                                 is one speiial pur*.t a(,pu"urU" biti (Samrlara) arisirit
                                                                                                                              out of
                                                in    a    state   of    restletsness.   remains undis-
bcginninglessprevious karmas.
                                                However,       when they take up         turbcd by sen-
Thcy altcrnate bctwccn seve-
                                                thc     practicc  of Yoga,   they        ses or gamskaras.
ral cxpericnces (Bhoga) and
                                                are     known      as    Yogaruda,       This      is called
renunciation (lpavarga). This
                                                those wanting       to   .trcad the      Nirodha
rpiritual restlerlness discer'ir                                                                    stage and is the     ul-
nible in. all who are dissatis'                 path of Yoga.                            timate    objective
                                                                                                           of Yogasas.
ficd with mundane and Phen-                     SAMADHI         : TWO      KINDS         tras as propounded by Pa an-
omenal existence. Such pe:-                                                              iali. This Nirooha is beyond
                                                     Two  othcr   levels,   which
ple do occarionally get inlo                                         are    called       the five arimatc mental statcs
                                                fall into    Yoga
n s t at eof t ot a l a b s o r p t i o n i n                                            (Ckittavrithi)      in which   the
                                                focussed (Ekagra)        and un'
a higher principte or a statc                                                            m ind ex i s ts al l thr ough Ii fe.
                                                affectcd or protected (Niro-
of Samadhi. but such experi-                    dha).   These actually   lead            What     are those normal     men-
chces are few and far between                   to two kinds of samadhi, one             tal  s tates , w hi c h the Yog
and according to Vyasa will                     in which the m ental ener qies
                                                                                         tr ans c ends   to r eac h N l r o-
not come undef the term                         arc absorbed in a single item
                                                                                         dha?      W hat   then    happens
Yoga. Without the grace of                      or  object.        The   other           to Chitta and Purusha?     Are
 lshwara and practite of ren-                    Samadhi  is one in whieh the            there Yoga    benefits   other
unciation, they continue to be                   mental energy (Chittasakthi)            than the transcendental?


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