DAML-S Briefing

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					                          DAML-S
              A DAML+OIL Ontology for Web Services



                                 DAML-S




      Brought to you by the DAML-S Web Services Coalition

                                          Image compliments of Hobbs & Connolly, SRI

McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
                                 DAML-S Briefing
                 DAML-S Web Services Coalition
                               presented by: Sheila A. McIlraith
                             Knowledge Systems Laboratory (KSL)
                                     Stanford University

                                 http://www.daml.org/services/

McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                     DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
                                          *
 DAML-S Web Services Coalition

 CMU: Massimo Paolucci, Terry Payne, Katia Sycara

 BBN: Mark Burstein

 Nokia: Ora Lassila

 Stanford KSL: Sheila McIlraith, Honglei Zeng

 SRI: Jerry Hobbs, David Martin, Srini Narayanan

 Yale: Drew McDermott

 Manchester: Ian Horrocks
   * Founded February, 2001
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                     DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 What is DAML-S?
  DAML-S: A DARPA Agent Markup Language for Services

  • DAML+OIL Ontology for (Web) services

  • AI-inspired markup language:
      • tailored to the representational needs of Services
      • expressive power
      • well-defined semantics
      • ontologies support reuse, mapping, succinct markup, ...

  • Release of DAML-S version 0.5 June,2001
                                 http://www.daml.org/services/

McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                   DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Layered Approach to Language Development
  The first major application of DAML+OIL

                                                                       DAML-SL




                                       DAML-S (Services)      DAML-L (Logic)

                                               DAML+OIL (Ontology)

                                              RDFS (RDF Schema)

                                    RDF (Resource Description Framework)

                                 XML (Extensible Markup Language)


McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                             DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 DAML-S Objectives

       Provide an upper ontology for describing properties &
         capabilities of (Web) services in an unambiguous,
         computer interpretable markup language.

       Desiderata:
         • the ontology of Web services
               • ease of expressiveness
               • enables automation of service use by agents
               • enables reasoning about service properties and
                 capabilities

McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                            DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Automation Enabled by DAML-S
 • Web service discovery
    Find me a shipping service that transports goods to Dubai.


 • Web service invocation
    Buy me 500 lbs. powdered milk from www.acmemoo.com

 • Web service selection, composition and interoperation
    Arrange food for 500 people for 2 weeks in Dubai.

 • Web service execution monitoring
    Has the powdered milk been ordered and paid for yet?
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                    DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Who Will Use DAML-S?
 • Web service providers (e.g., Amazon, Intelink, United Airlines)
                  mark up their services

 • 3rd party Web page designers (e.g., Web Designers)
                  mark up clients’ services

 • 2nd-ary Web service providers (e.g., Travelocity, My Simon)
                  exploit others’ services to create add-on services
                  use/write agent software to find/execute/compose other services

 • Web service end users (e.g., Joe, Analysts)
                  characterize their needs
                  use/write agent software to find/execute/compose services


McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                     DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Upper Ontology of Services




                                 Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne, CMU

McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                        DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Service Profile
   High-level description of a service and its provider
           • description of service (human readable)
           • specification of functionalities service provides
           • functional attributes (requirements and capabilities)


   Profile used for
           • populating service registries
           • automated service discovery
           • matchmaking


McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                             DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Service Profile

                                 AcmeShipping
                                  name          Acme Shipping Ltd.
                                  physicalAddress
                                                3333 Travis Road
                                                Manchester, NH
                                  webURL        www.acmeship.com
                                  email         weship@acme.com
                                  ...




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                           DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Service Profile
  A service is provided by an Actor (service provider)
  E.g., AcmeBookShipping is provided by AcmeShipping




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                           DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Service Profile
  AcmeBookShipping
   providedBy AcmeShipping
    geographicRadius USA
    input CustomerName
           Origin
           Dest
           DelDate
           ...
    output ConfirmationNumber
                        when “successful”
                  ...
    precondition
    effect loc(Goods, Dest, DelDate)
                        when “successful”
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition              DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Upper Ontology of Services




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition   DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Service Model




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition   DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
            Service Model
 Process Model
                                 “How does it work?”
  Each service is conceived as simple or composite process (event/action)

  Associated with each service is a set of inputs, outputs, preconditions and
    effects (function and action metaphor)

  Composite processes are compositions of simple or other composite
    processes in terms of constructs such as sequence, if-then-else, fork,...

  Data flow and Control flow should be described for each composite service

  A black box and glass box view are given of each composite service

  Process model used for:
  • (automated) Web service invocation, composition, interoperation,
     monitoring (potentially together w/ grounding).


McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                 DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Function/Dataflow Metaphor

 Input:                                           Output:
   • customer name                                            • confirmation no.
   • origin                                                   • ...
   • destination
   • weight                       Acme Book        truck available           Y
   • pickup date                                          +         ?
                                 Truck Shipment
   • ...                                          valid credit card          N
                                                             • failure notification
                                                             •…




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                     DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 AI-inspired Action/Process Metaphor
                                                  Output:      • confirmation no.
 Input:                                                        • ...
   • customer name                                Effect:   • goods at location
   • origin                                                     if successful
   • destination                                            • credit card debited...
   • pickup date
   • ...                          Acme Book         truck available              Y
                                 Truck Shipment            +         ?
 Preconditions:                                    valid credit card             N
   • knowledge of
     the input                                               • failure notification
   • ...                                          Output:    •…

                                                  Effect:           <no effect>


McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                      DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Composite Process
Input &                                                                                                                                                                                   Output &
                                                                AcmeTruckShpng                                                                                                             Effects
Preconditions
                                                                                                                                                                                                •
                                                                                                                                                             • confirmation no.
                                                                                                                                                             • ...                            •
•                                                                                                                                                                                               •
    •                                                                                                                                                                                         •
•                                                                                                                                                                                               •
                                                                                                  • customer name          www.acmecar.com
                                                                                                  • location
                                                                                                                                                   ?
    •                                                                                                                                                                                         •
                                                                                                  • car type                book car service
                                                                                                  • dates

•                                                                                                 • credit card no.
                                                                                                  • ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                •
    •                                                                                                                                                                                         •
•                                                                                                                                                            • failure notification
                                                                                                                                                             •…

    •
•
    •
•
    •
•
    •                                                                                                                                                                                           •
•                                                                                                                                                      • confirmation no.
                                                                                                                                                                                      ?       •
    •                                                                                                                                                                                           •
                                                                                                                                                       • ...


•                                                                                                                                                                                             •
    •                                                               • confirmation no.       • confirmation no.
                                                                                             • dates
                                                                                                                      www.acmehotel.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                •
•
                                                                    • ...
                                                                                                                                               ?
                                                                                                                                                                                              •
                                                                                             • room type              book hotel service
                                                                                             • credit card no.

    •                 • customer name
                                                                                             • ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                •
                                                                                                                                                                                              •
                                          www.acmeair.com
                      • flight numbers
                                                                ?
    •
                      • dates             book flight service
                                                                                                                                                       • failure notification
                      • credit card no.
                                                                                                                                                       •…
                      •
                      • ...


                                                                    • failure notification
                                                                    • errror information
                                                                    •…




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                                                                                                                       DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Composite Process
AcmeTruckShpng                             ExpandedAcmeTruckShpng
                                                  Confirm Shipping Region


                                                  N     truck available
                                                               +
               Acme                                    valid credit card
               Truck                                            Y
                                 expands
            Shipping                                      Get Quote
             Service

                                                      Get Shipping Dates


                                                   Book Truck Shipment
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                       DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
                                 expand
  AcmeTruckShpng                          ExpAcmeTruckShpng

McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Upper Ontology of Services




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition   DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Service Grounding (under development)

    • Specification of service access information


    • specifies communication protocols, transport
      mechanisms, etc.


    • E.g., SOAP, HTTP forms, Java RMI, RPC, etc.




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                       DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Review: Upper Ontology of Services




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition        DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Exploiting Ontologies of Services
                                           Service


                            Shipping                 Purchase


AirShipping                      BoatShipping          BuyTicket                 BuyBook

             TruckShipping



      AcmeTruckShipping                         BuyAirTicket       CongoBuyBook
                                                BuyConcertTicket       AmazonBuyBook



McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                          DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
    Related Work
   Related Industrial Initiatives
      • UDDI                   • ebXML
            • WSDL                     • .Net
            • XLANG                    • Biztalk, e-speak, etc
   These XML-based initiatives are currently complementary to DAML-S.
   DAML-S intends to build on top of these efforts exploiting increased
   expressiveness, semantics, inference that enables automation.

   Related Academics Efforts
      • Process Algebras (e.g., Pi Calculus)
            • Process Specification Language (Hoare Logic, PSL)
            • Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL)
            • Business Process Modeling (e.g., BMPL)
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                    DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Tools and Applications
DAML-S provides a means of describing Web services.

It’s just another DAML+OIL ontology
       all the tools and technologies that exist for DAML+OIL are relevant

Some DAML-S Specific Tools and Technologies:
  Extending DAML-S: DAML-S Coalition (security, symbol grounding, …)
  Discovery, Matchmaking, Agent Brokering: CMU, SRI (OAA), Stanford KSL
  Automated Web Service Composition: Stanford KSL, BBN/Yale/Kestrel,
                                     CMU, MIT, Nokia, SRI
  DAML-S Editor: Stanford KSL, SRI, CMU (profiles), Manchester
  Process Modeling Tools & Reasoning: SRI, Stanford KSL
  Service Enactment /Simulation: SRI, Stanford KSL


McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                   DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Challenges
Technical Issues
        • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model
        • Laundry list of unaddressed & resolved issues
            (SRI & CMU will mention some this afternoon)
            (some will be mentioned in Breakout tomorrow)

Connecting with Industry Initiatives & with User Community
        • need to connect DAML-S with industry initiatives
        • need people in industry (& in DAML) to mark up services with DAML-S
        • concern: industry’s lack of adoption of RDF

Tools availability
        • DAML+OIL reasoner
        • DAML-S editor
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Challenges
Technical Issues
        • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model
        • Laundry list of unaddressed & resolved issues
messages, synchronization, conversation protocols, exceptions and transaction,
multiple participants, scripts, unification/binding, constraints, ontologies of processes,
service grounding, ...

Connecting with Industry Initiatives & with User Community
        • need to connect DAML-S with industry initiatives
        • need people in industry (& in DAML) to mark up services with DAML-S
        • concern: industry’s lack of adoption of RDF

Tools availability
        • DAML+OIL reasoner
        • DAML-S editor
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                          DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Challenges
Technical Issues
        • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model
        • Laundry list of unaddressed & resolved issues
            (SRI & CMU will mention some this afternoon)
            (some will be mentioned in Breakout tomorrow)

Connecting with Industry Initiatives & with User Community
        • need to connect DAML-S with industry initiatives
        • need people in industry (& in DAML) to mark up services with DAML-S
        • concern: industry’s lack of adoption of RDF

Tools availability
        • DAML+OIL reasoner
        • DAML-S editor
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 We Want Your Input!
  Status: DAML-S version 0.5 released June, 2001.
  Please get involved!
           Break-out Session (Friday)

           *** Try DAML-S for your application *** give feedback ***

           DAML-S version 0.5 and related papers
                                 http://www.daml.org/services/
           mailing list
                                 www-ws@w3.org (technical discussions)
                                 daml-services@daml.org (announcements)
McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                                   DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01
 Acknowledgements

• Slides created by Sheila McIlraith, KSL Stanford

• Page 1 graphic created by Jerry Hobbs & Kelli Connolly, SRI

• Ontology images created by Terry Payne, CMU




McIlraith for DAML-S Coalition                       DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

				
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