The Mekong Delta Region

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					            Group 6: Mekong Delta
             Location: Main Room
•   1. Dr. Andrew Wyatt
•   2. Dr. Dao Huy Giap
•   3. Mr. Do Duc Dung
•   4. Ms. Kasina Limsamarnphun          Facilitators:
•   5. Dr. Klaus Schmitt
•   6. Dr. Le Anh Tuan
                                   • 1. Ms. Ruth Mathews
•   7. Dr. Nguyen Hoang Tri
                                   • 2. Ms. Trine Glue Doan
•   8. Ms. Nguyen Thu Huong
•   9. Dr. Pham Trong Thinh
•   10. Mr. Tran Thai Ngoc Thanh
•   11. Mr. Viet Hoang
•   12. Dr. Vo Le Phu
•   13. Ms. Trang Dang Thuy
            Climate Change
               and Gaps

The Mekong Delta Region
     Adaptation Strategies
Structural Measures
Non-structural Measures
Policy Options
       Structural Measures
Dikes construction (coastal areas);
Infrastructure upgrading/climate
  Transportation system
  Housing design system
  Urban infrastructure systems
   (water/wastewater/solid waste
     Non-Structural Measures
Researches on coping strategies (FW
 protected areas, structure of mangroves for
 coastal protection, etc)
Reforestation/plantation schemes
Crop adjustment/re-arrangements
New aquacultural technologies application
 (species with more resilience or salinity
Forecast system capacity;
Public education (awareness raising)
             Policy Options
Integrated Water Resources Management
IZCM/ICAM (Integrated Coastal Area
Land-use planning
   Wetland restoration;
   Mangrove conservation;
   Swamp/marsh/melaleuca
Test new approaches to CC resilience
 (mangrove rehabilitation)
     Gaps and Future Actions
Gaps in Knowledge
Understanding of resilience of natural
 systems to CC
  Mangroves resilience
Lack of synthesis practical study on
 ecosystem functions/services/values
Understanding of costs of socio-economic
 to CC
Full understanding of costs and benefits of
     Gaps and Future Actions
Gaps in Knowledge
How temperature/rainfall patterns change
 will impact on species?
  Predator – prey relationships/food chain/food
Pilot projects to test and evaluate
 adaptation and mitigation measures
Training and educating for capacity
 improvement for managers and local
 people on CC
      Gaps and Future Actions
Gaps in Knowledge
How SLR will impact on seagrass?
Interaction between SLR and increases of
 runoff (from upstream to downstream)?
Understanding of increase of flood
 frequency and flood arrival (earlier arrival)?;
What are economic costs to maintain the
 status quo in infrastructure systems?
     Gaps and Future Actions
Development of Methodology & Tools
Lack of practical methodology informing
 public on CC impacts, which currently
 focuses on academy
Realistic scenarios on
 global/regional/national scales
Details of topographic maps and DTM
Applicable management practices of
 wetland conservation areas
     Gaps and Future Actions
Monitoring systems (regional extreme
 climate events, ect);
Monitoring of land habitats, land cover
Monitoring CC impacts on vulnerable
Natural disaster warning systems
     Gaps and Future Actions
Cooperation and Partnerships
Promote dialogues between policy-makers
 and researchers/academic scholars
Promote partnerships between different
 stakeholders and society bodies at
 different levels
(Mekong) Regional cooperation to share
 data/information on CC
              Next Steps
Maintaining the Working Groups from this
Spending reasonable time to digest,
 modify and prioritize adaptation options;
Setting up network of CC experts to share
 knowledge and information;
Forming IPCC for Mekong Delta Region
 (MPCC- Mekong Panel on Climate
Build on Mekong Delta Forum platform
  Identify core values (critical habitat, species, ecosystem
  services) pertaining to biodiversity conservation in each
                         priority area
• UpperMiddleCoastal Water
  Freshwater Bracksish Saline

  Critical habitats-Swamp forest-Melaleuca -Grassland -Limestone-
  Rice field-Swamp forest-Grassland-Rice field-Swamp forest-Mud
  flats-Grassland-Mangroves-Seagrasses-Coral reefs

  SpeciesEndangered species-Red Crane-Monkey-Migratory and
  non-migratory birds- Reptiles-Migratory and non-migratory birds-
  Migratory and non-migratory birds-Monkey
• Ecosystem servicesRegulatory -water
  purification- flood prevention- pest control-
  aquifer recharge- carbon storage-
• wastewater treatment- nutrient cycling-
• storm protection- coastal erosion prevention-
  supporting fisheries, breeding and nursery
  habitat for fisheries- carbon storage
• Provisioning- food - water- medicinal
  plants- food- water- medicinal plants- food-
  water- medical plants
• Cultural- tourism- future benefits and
  existence value- tourism- future benefits
  and existence value- tourism- future
  benefits and existence value
Identify major changes from development that are
likely to occur in each area over the next decades.
  Describe how these changes will affect the area.
• Drivers of changes and Effect on ecosystems

• Physical Development
  DikesRiver dikes - Ministry plans to build dykes upriver
  to prevent saline inundation.Coastal zone dikes (sea

• Changes in hydrological regimes, though it should be
  noted that the impact of dikes is highly variable
  depending on the location. By blocking development of
  mangrove in response to the SLR.Port and water
  transportationChanged water flow and hydrological
  regimes. Impacts of high-speed boats on soil erosion.
• Tourism and supporting infrastructureLand reclamation
  for industrial activity, related to river dredging and extract
  of sand Losing wetland areas and fragmentation of
• Urbanisation in coastal zoneLosing wetland areas and
  fragmentation of ecosystems. Coastal tourism
• Exportation of sand and gravelRiver bank erosion, and
  increase in invasive species. Industrial development
  (saw mill, thermal energy plants)Water quality.
• Expansion road networksHabitat fragmentationGas
  pipeline development
• River channel alteration (river channel networks,
  dredging etc) for navigation
• Changed flow regimes and river bank erosion
• Continuing crop changes and diversification
• Abandoned shrimp farms being converted to rice fields
• Expansion of irrigation systems for agriculture
• Land use change – conversion of natural
  ecosystems for aquaculture and food
  production (rice)
• Habitat fragmentationAgricultural practices
  and overuse of pesticides, herbicides, and
• Water quality
• Socio-Economic
• ‘Natural’ migration from rural areas to urban areas for
  employment, including migration both from within the
  Delta, and to the industrial zone
• Food including rice export policy
• Forest policy and fire management policy
• Industrialization through ‘industrial zones’
• Water quality
• Population growth
• Increased pressure on resources and demand for
  housing development and construction materials
  (cement from limestone, river sand),
• Poor, disjointed, sectorial land use planning and policy – will
  Vietnam proceed to more integrated planning? Uncertain, but
  hopeful that it will.
• Poor conservation area planning, degrading conservation areas
• Ineffective, inadequate management of wetlands
• Changing value sets e.g. regarding wetlands as ‘wasted lands’
• Improved capacity in policy arena due to next generation leaders
  taking a more progressive, sustainable approach to development
  and conservation
• Changing preferences and increased standards of living placing
  increased pressure on resources
• Political Improved empowerment of people and
  safeguarding of rights to own, use, and manage
  natural resources
• Change in structure of agriculture -transition
  from smallholders to more corporate, large scale
• Sectoral shift
• Labour force changes
• Human health
Physical impacts influenced by
• River erosion
• River dredging and changing channels for navigation, transportation
• Mining of sand and gravel for export and housing construction
• Impacts of high-speed boats on soil erosion
• Coastal erosion
• Loss of mangroves
• Loss of wetlands
• land reclamation for industrial development
• Loss of biodiversity and habitat fragmentation
• Expansion of road networks
•   Increase in invasive species
•   River alteration
•   Declining water quality of rivers
•   Industrial development (saw mill, thermal energy plants)
•   Increased sedimentation from upstream developments
    (road networks, other..?)
•   Industrial pollutions from expanding ‘industrial zones’
•   Declining water quality in estuary?
•   Decreased water availability - from decreased water
    flows due to altering rivers and flow regimes
•   Change in hydrological cycle
Identify species, harbitats and ecosystem services
likely to be most sensitive to the combined effects
                        of CC
• Freshwater

• BrackishThere will be habitat shifts along this continuum, for
  example freshwater will become increasingly brackish .
• Freshwater food source relationship between predator/prey,
  including freshwater birds, reptiles and amphibians .- increased
  invasives- increased insect pests that will affect agriculture - -
  flowering triggers for pollination- increased invasive species
  displacing endemic species (e.g. reduced Dissolved Oxygen (DO_
  that will favour some introduced pest species like sucker fish)-
  increased incidence of fire- fish migration cues- distribution and
  density of bird species- impact on fisheries?- protected areas e.g .
  bird sanctuaries as U Minh Thuong and U Minh Ha, . - Grasses Kim
  Giang, Ha Tien
• Saline- impact on coral reefs- seagrasses
• Precipitation- altered precipitation- Flooding
  changes (duration and frequency) - food source
  relationship between predator/prey, including
  freshwater birds, reptiles and amphibians. -
  rainfall distribution patterns will change, and this
  is most serious in the start and end of the year. -
  fish migration cues- acid soils increase – drying-
  distribution and density of bird species
• Sea level rise- increased salinity- prolonged inundation
  and flooding (even during the dry season)- becomes
  more saline- disturbance of ecological relationships-
  impact on high biodiversity - wetlands will be lost-
  inundation- seagrasses
• Storms - Mangroves Rhizaphora species in particular–
  will be affected as the stems are susceptible to
  breakage.- Severe erosion leading to loss of plants-
  Saline intrusion- seagrasses
• Glacial melt- increased river flow and flooding
•   Knowledge Gaps
•   - Impact of sea level rise on sea grasses.
•   - What is the ecosystem resilience? Need to do further modeling to assess
    the ability for species to adapt, for example what are the possible species
    shifts into different ecological niches?
•   - How will CC impact on coral reefs

•   Uncertainties
•   Impact of climate change on mudflats? The extent of mudflat retreat
    depends upon what development occurs to restrict mudflat shifting in
    response to climate change. Communities living on mudflats are well-
    adapted to living in coast, and will be able to adapt quite easily to sea level
•   Dialogue between scientists and policy-makers: What will the policy on dike
    construction around HCMC be? There are currently plans to construct dikes
    to protect the city, but there is also a growing awareness of the importance
    of preserving mangroves for natural storm protection.
•   Impacts of climate change on Ecosystem Services
•   Food production (rice)
•   - temperature changes and saline intrusion
•   Water availability
•    - dry season rain water
•   - saline intrusion
•   Carbon Storage
•   - loss of mangroves
•   Storm protection
•   - loss of mangroves
•   Erosion prevention

•   Melaleuca forests will be affected by more fire
•   Aquifer storage
•   Water purification
•   Flood prevention
•   Nutrient Cycles
•   - sea level rise causing less nutrients for phytoplants
•   Fish/aquatic food

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