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Duff - The Trial on

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Duff - The Trial on

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									                            Contents
Preface                                                                  v

1. Introduction: Theorising the Criminal Trial                          1
      1.1. The Trial Under Attack                                       1
      1.2. Why Develop a Normative Theory of the Criminal Trial?        4
      1.3. Methodology                                                 10

Part I: The Criminal Trial and its History                              15

2. Normative Conceptions of the Trial in Historical Perspective        17
     2.1. Introduction                                                 17
     2.2. The Trial in History, i: From Proof to Trial                 22
     2.3. The Trial in History, ii: The Altercation Trial
     C.1400-C.1700                                                     29
     2.4. The Trial in History, iii: The Adversarial Trial 1700-1900   40
     2.5. The Trial in History, iv: The Adversarial Trial in
     the Late Twentieth Century                                        50

Part II: The Criminal Trial and its Values                              55

3. Truth and the Trial                                                 61
     3.1. Simple Instrumentalism and the Trial                         62
     3.2. What Truth?                                                  70
     3.3. Why Does Truth Matter?                                       78
     3.4. Truth, Proof and Knowledge                                   87

4. Truth and Communication in the Trial                                 93
     4.1. Instrumentalism and the Rule of Law in the Trial              93
     4.2. The Defendant’s Participation                                 97
     4.3. Excluding Improperly Obtained Evidence                       102
     4.4. Evidence of Bad Character and Criminal Record                110
     4.5. Hearsay and Orality                                          116
     4.6. Truth and Calling to Account: Some Problems                  119

5. Calling to Answer                                                   127
     5.1. Introduction                                                 127
     5.2. Responsible Citizens                                         130
     5.3. Calling to Answer and Calling to Account                     142
     5.4. The Modes of The Trial                                       149
     5.5. The Implications of The Institutional Setting of the Trial   153
viii Contents

Part III: Applications, Implications and Further Questions        163

6. Why Call to Answer? The Trial and Criminal Justice             165
    6.1. Introduction: How Important is the Criminal Trial?       165
    6.2. Guilty Pleas and Plea Bargaining                         169
    6.3. Punishments Without Trials                               180
    6.4. Diversions from the Criminal Process                     184
    6.5. Non-Criminal Regulation                                  189

7. Communicative Participation                                    199
     7.1. Introduction                                            199
     7.2. What Is Participation?                                  201
     7.3. The Defendant’s Participation and the Role of Counsel   203
     7.4. Participation of the Complainant                        213
     7.5. Judgment and Participation                              217
     7.6. Participation and Communication                         220
     7.7. Conclusion                                              223

8. The Principle of Integrity                                     225
     8.1. Introduction                                            225
     8.2. The Foundation of the Integrity Principle               227
     8.3. The Application of the Principle                        241
     8.4. Conclusions                                             256

9. The Public Character of the Trial                              259
     9.1. Introduction                                            259
     9.2. Why Public Justice?                                     262
     9.3. The Public Hearing                                      271
     9.4. Issues in Public Justice                                281
     9.5. Conclusions                                             285

10. The Limits of the Criminal Trial: Security, Truth and
Reconciliation                                                    287
     10.1. Introduction                                           287
     10.2. Trials and Security                                    290
     10.3. Trials, Truth and Reconciliation                       294
     10.4. Reconciliation and Restoration                         300
     10.5. Conclusion                                             305



References                                                        307

Index                                                             327

								
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