The Cell Game - Cell Basics & History
1. Explain the theme correlation of structure and function without using either word. The way a cell
    is shaped and its parts allow it to do its specific job.
2. What is the study of structure? Anatomy
3. What is the study of function? Physiology
4. What are membrane-bound structures found in plant cells called? plastids
5. What plastid can be found in tomatoes? Chromoplast
6. What plastid can be found in Elodea? Chloroplast
7. What plastid stores starch in potatoes? Leucoplast
8. What is the indicator for starch? Iodine
9. What are three structures both animal and plant cells have? nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm
10. What are two differences between plant and animal cell structures? Plants have cell walls and a
    large vacuole, they are boxy (animals are irregularly shaped)
11. Which type of cell does not have its DNA stored in a nucleus? Prokaryotic
12. What are the only organisms that are prokaryotic? Bacteria
13. Which type of cell has all the organelles including a nucleus? Eukaryotic
14. Who discovered cells while looking at a piece of cork? Robert Hooke
15. What scientist concluded that all animals have cells? Theodor Schwann
16. What scientist concluded that all plants have cells? Matthais Schleiden
17. What scientist developed the microscope and used it to look at pond water where he saw little
    “animacules?” Anton von Leeuwenhoek
18. What scientist stated that all cells come from other cells? Rudolf Virchow
19. What are the three parts of the cell theory? All living things are composed of one or more cells,
    the cell is the basic unit of structure and function of organisms and cells come from other cells
20. As a cell grows, what increases faster - volume or surface area? Volume
21. Why are cells small? So they can obtain and excrete substances quickly
The Cell Game - Organelles
1. What is the difference between flagella & cilia? Flagella are long tails, cilia are short hairs
2. What is the structure that makes the ribosomes? Nucleolus
3. What organelle assembles amino acids to make proteins? ribosomes
4. What organelle transports proteins and lipids within the cell? endoplasmic reticulum
5. What organelle makes lipids? Smooth ER
6. What organelle packages proteins and lipids preparing them for export? golgi bodies
7. What cell structure carries proteins and lipids to the cell membrane? vesicles
8. Where does cellular respiration take place in the cell? mitochondria
9. Where does photosynthesis take place in the cell? chloroplasts
10. What organelle stores water and nutrients? vacuole
11. What organelle plays and important role in cell reproduction? centrioles
12. Are centrioles found in plant or animal cells? animal cells only
13. What organelle contains enzymes that digest worn out cell parts, toxins and invaders? lysosome
14. What organelle is responsible for converting hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen?
15. What enzymes are found in peroxisomes? peroxidase
16. Which structure is composed of protein and is found through the entire cell giving it support?
17. What is the difference between vacuoles in plant and animal cells? plants cells have a large
    central vacuole and animal cells have many smaller ones
18. Why do scientists think mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA? They were once
    unicellular organisms living independent of larger cells.
The Cell Game - Membrane Structure
1. What two scientists determined the structure of the cell membrane? Singer and Nicholson
2. Why is the membrane referred to as a fluid mosaic? Flexible, constantly moving collection of
    smaller parts organized into a larger structure
3. What is the main job of the cell membrane? maintain cellular homeostasis by regulating what
    goes in/out
4. What characteristic of the membrane allows it to control what crosses? selective permeability
5. What are the most numerous molecules in the cell membrane? phospholipids
6. What molecule provides strength to the membrane and prevents it from freezing? cholesterol
7. Which part of the phosholipid molecule is hydrophobic (nonpolar)? the tails
8. What are three types of integral proteins? marker, receptor, transport
9. What type of protein is an antigen? marker
10. What type of protein is an antibody? receptor
11. People with A type blood will make what antibodies? B antibodies
12. If a person is Rh positive, does that mean they have the Rh antigen or not? have it
13. What is the first white blood cell to respond to a virus? macrophage
14. What type of lymphocyte cruises around looking for infected cells and popping them? killer T cells
15. What type of cells make antibodies? B cells and plasma cells
16. What is the job of helper T cells? stimulate killer T cells and activate B cells forming plasma cells
17. How do vaccines work? They are viral antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies
18. What type of membrane protein receives signals from hormones such as glucagon and insulin
    and neurotransmitters in nerve cells? receptor
19. When glucagon connects with a receptor protein, what follows? cyclic AMP carries the message
    into the cell activating enzymes that break down glycogen into glucose
20. When insulin connects with a receptor protein what is the response? opens transport proteins so
    that glucose can enter cells
21. What are two common ways psychoactive drugs work? prevent reabsorption of
    neurotransmitters or imitate neurotransmitters
22. What happens to the number of receptors on nerve cells when a drug is taken for a period of
    time? decreases
23. What drug prevents the reabsorption of neurotransmitter dopamine? cocaine
24. Which drug imitates enkephalins (substances that block pain)? narcotics (morphine)
25. Which drug imitates the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in muscle cells? nicotine
The Cell Game - Membrane Function 1
1. What is the random motion of molecules called? Brownian motion
2. What are the 2 main factors that determine where substances cross the membrane? size and
3. What type of molecule goes through bilayer? small and uncharged
4. State two molecules that go through the bilayer. Oxygen and carbon dioxide
5. What type of molecule goes through transport proteins? larger OR charged
6. Give three examples of molecules that travel through transport proteins. glucose, amino acids,
    ions (Na+, K+, Cl-)
7. What is the difference between passive and active transport? active uses energy, passive
    usually goes WITH the concentration gradient (hi > lo), active usually goes AGAINST the
    concentration gradient (lo > hi)
8. What is the amount of substance in a given area referred to as? concentration
9. An uneven distribution of substance across a membrane is a… concentration gradient
10. When molecules are evenly spread out, yet continue to more across the membrane, what
    condition exists? dynamic equilibrium
11. Give two examples of substances that move by diffusion? oxygen, carbon dioxide
12. What is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen? hemoglobin
13. When carbon dioxide diffuses into red blood cells what happens so that it can’t diffuse right back
    out on its way to the lungs? converted into carbonic acid which breaks into ions… ions can’t
    easily diffuse across the membrane
14. What is the name of the enzyme that converts carbon dioxide into carbonic acid? carbonic
15. Carbon dioxide (due to its acidity) changes the shape of hemoglobin causing it to release oxygen
    faster to tissues that need oxygen. What is this called? Bohr effect
16. What is the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion? diffusion occ urs through
    the bilayer with smaller, uncharged substances, facilitated diffusion occurs through channel
    (transport) proteins with larger or charged substances.
17. What molecules are transported through facilitated diffusion? amino acids, glucose, ions
The Cell Game - Membrane Function 2
1. What process is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane? osmosis
2. What type of solution will cause a cell to shrink as water leaves? hypertonic
3. What type of solution will cause an animal cell to burst when too much water enters? hypotonic
4. What is the term that refers to an animal cell popping? lyse
5. When a plant cell is full of water, it is … turgid
6. A plant cell that has lost most of its water is… plasmolyzed
7. Osmotic pressure in plants is called? turgor pressure
8. What is the part of the kidney that performs the work? nephron
9. Which is the job of the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule? to filter materials
10. Filtration in the nephron occurs based on what property? size (selective permeability)
11. The renal tubule reabsorbs glucose, water and ions using what process? facilitated diffusion
12. What is the job of the collecting duct? to return water to the blood
13. What process occurs in the collecting duct? osmosis
14. What type of environment surrounds the collecting duct? hypertonic
15. The collecting duct is permeable to what three substances? urea, salt, water
16. Calcium pumps are found in which two cell types? root cells, muscle cells
17. Proton pumps are essential to what process? chemiosmosis
18. What type of pump is found in nerve cells? sodium-potassium pumps
19. What two types of transport occur in nerve signal conduction? active and facilitated diffusion
20. What type of channels allows the passage of two materials? coupled channel
21. When a cell swallows a huge molecule, what process is occurring? endocytosis
22. What type of molecules move across the membrane by endo or exocytosis? huge ones
23. Give an example of a specific molecule that exits the cell by exocytosis. Insulin
24. When a macrophage engulfs a virus, what process is seen? endocytosis

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