The Cell Cycle Chapter 11 Name ________________________________________ Vocabulary • ________________: structures in the cell that contain the genetic information (DNA) passed from one generation to the next • _________________: made of DNA and protein; material that chromosomes are made of • _________________: there are two of these in each chromosome; identical to one another • Centromere: where the _______________are attached on each chromosome • Centrioles: two tiny structures located in ___________near the nuclear envelope • Spindle: a meshlike structure that helps move the chromosomes apart. This develops from the________________. • ____________________: the process by which the nucleus of the cell is divided into two nuclei - each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent cell • ______ _____________: the process by which a cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This includes the processes of interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis. The Cell Cycle • During the cell cycle, the cell grows and develops, prepares for division and divides to form two daughter cells that will then begin the cycle again. 1. Interphase: • The period between cell divisions • G1 = gap 1 - time of cell growth and development • S = DNA synthesis - DNA replication occurs • G2 = gap 2 - creation of organelles and materials necessary for cell division 2. Prophase: • Beginning of Mitosis • Longest phase • Chromosomes become visible • _________________separate from each other and move to opposite sides of the nucleus • Condensed chromosomes attach to the fibers of the spindle at a point near the centromere of each chromatid • ____________________ disappears and nuclear envelope breaks down 3. Metaphase: • Shortest phase of Mitosis • Chromosomes move and _____ ____across the center (or__________) of the cell 4. Anaphase: • Begins when the ________________split, causing the sister chromatids to separate • Separated chromosomes travel along the spindle to the two ______of the cell • Ends when movement of chromosomes stops 5. Telophase: • Final phase of Mitosis • Nuclear envelope reforms around the chromatin at each end / pole • Spindle begins to break down • ______________ becomes visible in each daughter nucleus 6. Cytokinesis: • The division of cytoplasm into two individual yet identical cells • In animal cells, the cell membrane moves inward until cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts • In plant cells, a cell plate forms between the two nuclei and then turns into a new cell wall The cell cycle includes steps ____ thru _____. Mitosis, the division of the nucleus, involves steps _____ thru ______. Stages of the cell cycle.
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