Cell Organelle Worksheet Name ______________________________ 1. In what organelle does cellular respiration take place? 2. Name two storage organelles? 3. What is the list of organelles that take part in protein synthesis? 4. How is the nucleus involved in protein synthesis? 5. What organelle is considered a “factory”, because it takes in raw materials and converts them to cell products that can be used by the cell? 6. How does the membrane of the cell differ from the nuclear membrane? What advantages does this difference have for the nucleus? 7. What do ribosomes do? Are they found freely floating in the cytoplasm? OR are they found attached to another organelle? OR both. Explain why this occurs. 8. What does the endoplasmic reticulum do? 9. What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER? What is the ER doing that is different in each case? 10. What are lysosomes? What types of molecules would be found inside a lysosome? 11. Why might a lysosome fuse with or link up with a food vacuole? 12. In what organelle do molecules move from the ER to the Golgi bodies? 13. What is meant by “membrane turnover”? THINK 14. What is a centriole? In what type of cell (plant or animal) is it found? What does it do for the cell? 15. What is the difference between chromosomes and chromatin? What do they each have to do with DNA? 16. What are microtubules? How do they differ from microfilaments? Name two molecules that are considered microfilaments? 17. What is a flagella? How does it differ in size and number from cilia? What is the function of each of these organelles? 18. How is the composition of cilia and flagella different with reference to microtubules? Sketch that difference below. 19. How are basal bodies and centrioles the same? How are they different? What is their function? 20. What organelles are ONLY found in plant cells? Why? 21. What is the cell wall made up of? Is the cell wall selectively permeable? 22. What is the function of the cell wall and what takes the place of that function in animal cells? 23. Which organelle can convert sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen? 24. Which organelle can convert sugar (glucose) and oxygen into ATP (energy molecule), carbon dioxide and water? 25. What is the process in number 23 called? 26. What is the process in Number 24 called? 27. Do plant cells contain mitochondria? Why? 28. What are plastids? 29. What is the difference between a chromoplast and a leucoplast? 30. To which category in Number 29 would a chloroplast belong? Why? 31. What type of vacuole is present in all plant cells? 32. What is the force that is caused by the water taken up by these vacuoles? What purpose does this force serve in the plant? 33. What is the difference between “flaccid” and “turgid” as it pertains to plants? (Look up in the dictionary.) 34. What is the cytoskeleton made up of? 35. Do plants contain a cytoskeleton? Why or why not? If not, what do they contain in place of a cytoskeleton? 36. In what organelle would you most likely find the monosaccharide, glucose? Why? 37. What organelles are responsible for transport of some kind? 38. What is the molecular composition of the cell membrane? How are these molecules arranged in the membrane? 39. What is the value of cell membrane structure of having both polar and non-polar phospholipids ends? 40. What are the different types of functions proteins present in a cell membrane can have? 41. Which part of the cell membrane actually CONTROLS which molecules can enter and leave a cell? 42. Do you think that the membranes around each organelle contain different types of proteins with different types of properties? Why or why not? 43. What is the difference between a cell that is prokaryotic and a cell that is eukaryotic? 44. Which one of those cells in the ancestor of the other? 45. How does the nucleus differ in prokaryotic cells and in eukaryotic cells? 46. What are the two types of nucleic acid molecules found in cells? What is the role/function of each? 47. What is cytoplasm? What is nucleoplasm? Describe what they might each be made up of. 48. How are chloroplasts and mitochondria similar and different? In what cells are they found?