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Productivity

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					TECHNOLOGY


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               Productivity
A university President has observed that education
  is one
of the few areas that has not improved productivity
   in
decades. He indicated that since Harvard, one of
  the
oldest and most prestigious universities in America
  was
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established, the teaching model has been one
     The Beginning of Change
With the advent of distance learning and the
development of powerful new teaching and learning
technologies, rapid technological changes are now
  taking
place in continuing education operations. There are
  still
significant points of resistance such as tradition,
accrediting, faculty members and student
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  perceptions of
Failure to Automate Effectively

One of the most significant factors that prevents
 effective
use of the new technologies is the tendency to
  merely
automate old systems, without considering how
  new
systems can maximize learning by using totally new
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methods.
Changing Administrative Systems
 Changes in program delivery systems are also
 creating significant changes in administrative
 systems including:

   1. on-line capabilities
   2. marketing
   3. registration
   4. payment methods
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    Administrative Technology
Many technologies contribute to the efficiency of CE
activities. These include:
  1. automated management systems
  2. voice mail
  3. facsimile (FAX)
  4. wireless telephones

Creative people find ways to use all of these tools in the
operation of the CE program. For example, specifically
selected classes can be marketed by FAX.
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    Lifelong Learning Systems
Integrated software systems are making significant
contributions to CE operations. These systems are often
referred to as lifelong learning systems. Some of the
   essential
elements of the packages include:

* A registration module that handles all registration
   options
  such as on-line, mail, and telephone

* A marketing module
                                                        7
      Lifelong Learning Systems
Lifelong Learning (continued)

* A financial module that includes accounting, financial
   analysis reports, tracking and evaluation

* A mail module of mail lists and mail processes

* A participant module with participant information,
   including financial history and participation by course

* A course module providing data for marketing staff,
   registration staff, and/or the customer                   8
      Lifelong Learning Systems
Lifelong Learning (continued)

* An instructor module including specific information such
   as
  personal, financial, evaluation, and course history

* A location and facilities module

* Other modules designed for a specific applications

Many of these modules have previously been used, but
  the new
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systems now have the capacity to move data from one
      Technology Impacts the
      Organizational Structure
Adoption of such a system now only leads to changes in
the way we typically do things but eventually, will lead
to changes in the organization structure. For example,
   as
more activities become technology based, more staff
  will
be needed to provide technical support. These positions
often become professional positions. Another side effect
is an increased need for additional technical training for
                                                           10
the entire staff.
Program Delivery Technologies
The rapid changes in program delivery technologies are
   in the
process of restructuring higher education as a whole,
including continuing education. These technologies
   have
changed what were once local captive markets to open
markets for programmers worldwide. They have created
   a
buyer’s market for many types of programs. Institutional
service areas have expanded from a small radius to
   virtually                                           11
         Changing Investment
             Strategies
Dynamic CE programs are frantically trying to determine
  the
required investment in hardware and programming
  software
to effectively compete in the future. For example, a
   typical
electronic classroom may cost over $100,000. This
   contrasts
significantly with a room with desks, a blackboard and
   chalk.
                                                         12
       Changing Competition
Another serious side effect of the new technologies is
   the
entry of new players in the traditional continuing
   education
arena. The new technologies have opened the door for
   profit
oriented organizations from the communication,
entertainment, and business fields to compete with
universities for continuing education customers.

Individuals with expertise in program development for    13
              Improved Learning
These new delivery systems allow us to more effectively serve existing
markets and reach new markets. They also present opportunities for the
improvement of instruction by incorporating advanced presentation
systems. Kozma and Johnston described eight ways in which instructional
technology can support and improve learning. These included:


1. Enabling active engagement in the construction of knowledge
2. Making real world situations available
3. Providing representations in multiple modalities (e.g. 3-D, auditory,
    graphic, and text)


                                                                           14
                 Improved Learning
Improved Learning (continued)



4. Drilling basic concepts for mastery
5. Facilitating collaborative activity among students.
6. Seeing interconnections among concepts through hypertext
7. Learning to use the tools of scholarship
8. Simulating laboratory work



                                                          15
       Web-Based Instruction

This mode of instruction will eventually fulfill the
promise of offering training any place and any
  time.
In its most complex form, it offers almost all of
  the
forms of effective presentation such as video,
  text,
and voice in real time and virtual time. It also    16
           The Necessity of
          Team Development

Programmers for this mode of instruction require all
  of
the traditional program planning skills and added
  skills
in operating systems such as e-mail, Web
   browsers, Web
search engines, Web site development and editing,
  and
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presentation systems. Few current programmers
            Cost Effectiveness
The new management skill that is required is the ability
  to
build and coordinate the efforts of these teams. Another
  factor
is that teams are expensive. Therefore, the cost of new
program development is astronomical. One estimate is
  one
month of development time per hour of instruction. It
  can
only be justified if it is assumed that large numbers of   18
participants can be attracted to the program within a
                  Marketing
After the program has been developed, the next hurdle
   is to
market it to a very large regional or global market. Few
universities have an image that is recognized globally
   and can
attract the large numbers of participants needed to
   cover the
investment in the program. This has led to consortium
activities like the Western Governor’s University and the
Southern Regional Education Board’s “Electronic
   Common
Market” in an attempt to be large enough to reach an 19
    Consolidation of Providers
The large investments required and necessary global
marketing may eventually result in a few large
   operations
being the sole providers of this type of programming.
Individual CE operations may be reduced to purchasing
wholesale and marketing these programs and traditional
program development of custom programs to limited
audiences. Another related role for university CE
   operations
may be the sorting and evaluation of the mass of new
                                                      20
programs available and providing consultation and
            Student Support
The Web necessitates new systems of student
  support
and administrative services. In some ways, these
services may even be more accessible than on-
  campus
services. Some institutions have programmed
outstanding virtual campuses with every service
  well
                                                    21
defined and an alternative personal contact via a
   Interactive Video Instruction
The technology is based upon compressed video, either
  two
way or one-way, with an audio return from the students.
It requires a significant up-front investment and
    generates
high operating costs. Program development costs are
relatively low because instructors can teach in much the
   same
way they have taught in the past.
This delivery system has both local and global             22
     Re-Inventing Universities
This methodology may eventually reshape the
  nature of
universities. In most states, public universities are
  now
tied together through landlines. This makes it
   possible
for instructors to teach to multiple campuses and
multiple classrooms. If this practice continues, there
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could eventually be only one interconnected
          Economies of Scale
At the global level, this mode of instruction can
  be
relatively economical for short courses and
  seminars
that attract relatively large audiences. Similar to
Web-based instruction, effective global
  marketing
becomes a problem. This has led to
  partnerships
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between institutions that provide a broad
        Presentation Systems
The impact of new and powerful presentation
  systems
are not limited to courses by distance. When
  used
effectively, they are having a major impact upon
individual instruction. CE programmers should
encourage and support their use in CE classes.
However, this will require additional investment in
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equipment and possible modification of facilities.
           Components of the
            New Investments
The investment includes the acquisition of video
projection systems, computers, screens, and
  support staff
training. With the emphasis on visual presentations,
facilities may need adjustments in lighting and
  removal
of sight line barriers. One of the early issues to be
resolved is whether the equipment will be portable
                                                   26
  so it
    Principles of Good Practice
The Southern Regional Education Board, through their
Electronic Common Market (ECM) has developed the
following, Principles of Good Practice:

Basic Assumptions
1. The program or course offered electronically is provided
   by or through an institution that is accredited by a
   nationally-recognized accrediting body and authorized to
   operate in the state where the program or course originates.

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        Principles of Good Practice
Basic Assumptions (continued)



2. The institution’s programs holding specialized accreditation
   meet the same requirements when offered electronically.

3. The institution may be a single institution or a consortium of
   institution.

4. These principles are generally applicable to degree or
   certificate programs and to courses offered for academic
   credit.
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        Principles of Good Practice
Basic Assumptions (continued)



5. It is the institution’s responsibility to review educational
   programs and courses it provides electronically and certify
   continued compliance with these principles.

6. Participation in the Electronic Common Market will be
   coordinated by the appropriate state agency or organizations
   in the state where it is offered.

7. Institutions offering programs or for-credit courses are
   responsible for satisfying all in-state approval and
   accreditation requirements before students are enrolled.       29
        Principles of Good Practice

Basic Assumptions (continued)



8. Participating states agree to accept, in addition to other state
   regulations or policies, certification of compliance with the
   Principles of Good Practice by the offering institution and
   the state where the offering institution is located.

9. Priority shall be given in enrolling students for ECM courses
   and programs who are otherwise qualified residents of the
   SREB region.
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   Curriculum and Instruction
Each program or course of study results in learning
  outcomes
appropriate to the rigor and breadth of the degree or
certificate awarded.

* A degree or certificate program offered electronically
   is coherent and complete.

* The course provides for appropriate interaction
   between faculty and students and among students.
                                                           31
      Curriculum and Instruction
Curriculum and Instruction (continued)



* Qualified faculty will provide appropriate supervision of
  the program/course that is offered electronically.

* Academic standards for all programs or courses offered
  electronically will be the same as those for other
  programs or courses offered at the institution where the
  programs originate.

* Student learning in programs delivered electronically
  should be comparable to student learning in programs
  offered at the campus where the programs originate.
                                                          32
          Institution Context
           and Commitment
Role and Mission


* The program is consistent with the institution’s
   role and mission.

* Review and approval processes insure the
   appropriateness of the technology being used to
   meet program or course objectives.

                                                     33
 Students and Student Services
* The program or course profiles students with
   clear, complete, and timely information about
   the curriculum, course and degree
   requirements, nature of faculty/student
   interaction, assumptions about technological
   competence and skills, technical equipment
   requirements, availability of academic support
   services, and financial aid resources, and costs
   and payment policies.                          34
  Students and Student Services
Student Services (continued)

* Enrolled students have reasonable and
  adequate access to the range of student
  services and student rights to support their
  learning.


* The institution has admission/acceptance
   criteria in place to assess whether the student
   has the background, knowledge, and technical
   skills required to under-take the               35
   course/program.
  Students and Student Services
Student Services (continued)




* Advertising, recruiting. and admissions
  materials clearly and accurately present the
  program and the services available.




                                                 36
              Faculty Support
* The program provides faculty support services
   specifically related to teaching via an electronic
   system.

* The institution assures appropriate training for
   faculty who teach using technology.

* The program provides adequate equipment,
   software, and communications to faculty for
   interaction with students, institution, and other
                                                        37
   faculty.
      Commitment to Support

* Policies for faculty evaluation include appropriate
   recognition of teaching and scholarly activities
   related to programs or courses offered
   electronically.

* The institution demonstrates a commitment to
   ongoing support, both financial and technical,
   and to continuation of the program or course for
   a period sufficient for students to complete a
   degree or certificate.                           38
   Evaluation and Assessment

* The institution evaluates program and course
   effectiveness, including assessment of student
   learning outcomes, student retention, and
   student and faculty satisfaction.

* At the completion of the program or course, the
   institution provides for assessment and
   documentation of student achievement in each
   course.
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      Evaluation and Assessment
Eval. & Assmt. (continued)



* Program or course announcements and electronic
   catalog entries provide appropriate information.

* Common standards based on the Principles of
   Good Practice are used to evaluate courses and
   programs offered through ECM.


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