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					             TECHNICAL BULLETIN

                Volume 1, Number 4



             Efficacy Studies Of




            Verticide™


    A Concentrated Multi-Purpose Germicidal
Detergent and Deodorant For Nonporous Surfaces.


 Designed For Use in Hospitals, Nursing Homes,
        Schools, Veterinary Clinics, And
         Animal Science Laboratories


           Efficacy Study - Verticide™
Description: Verticide™ is a concentrated, multi-purpose, neutral pH, hospital grade
disinfectant detergent which cleans, disinfects and deodorizes in one labor-saving step.
This product has been tested (AOAC Use-Dilution) and proven to be virucidal, fungicidal,
bactericidal and mildewstatic in 400 ppm hard water (calculated as CaCO ) and 5% organic
                                                                               3

serum.


Specifications:

pH:                      7.5 - 8.0
Flash Point:             None
Specific Gravity:        1.00
Dilution:                1:256 (1/2 ounce per gallon)

Active Ingredients:

Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride                                       9.22 %

n-Alkyl ( C 50% C 40% C 10%) dimethyl benzyl
           14       12        10
                                                                         6.14 %
ammonium chloride
                                                          Total:            15.36 %



Verticide™ is Bactericidal against the following Pathogens according to the AOAC
Use-Dilution Test Modified in the Presence of 5% Organic Serum (moderate amount)
and 400 ppm Water Hardness (CaCO equivalent).
                                         3




Utilizing this method, clean, polished stainless steel rings/penicylinders are immersed
in the test inocula (5% organic serum, and the respective test organism in a nutrient broth) for 15
                                                                                             0
minutes at room temperature. The contaminated stainless steel rings are dried at 37 C for
40 minutes. The contaminated rings are placed in test tubes that have 10 mls of the
diluted product (Verticide™) with 400 ppm AOAC synthetic hard water. After 10 minutes,
the rings are placed in recovery/neutralization media. After a 48-hour incubation period,
each tube is examined for growth (+). If the tube shows no growth, it is recorded as ( 0 ).
The neutralization control is a positive control to indicate that the recovery medium will
neutralize carry-over germicide and support growth of less than 100 bacterium/ml. The
phenol resistance is a quality control measure of the resistance of the bacteria against
phenol.




                                                2
                              Efficacy Study - Verticide™
                                          Number of      Number of      Neutralization
Organism                      Sample      Carriers       Positives         Control

Salmonella choleraesuis          A            60                0               +
(ATCC 10708)                     B            60                0               +
                                 C            60                0               +

Phenol Resistance             5 minutes            10 minutes           15 minutes

 1 : 90                              +                              0                    0
 1 : 100                             +                              +                    +

                                          Number of      Number of      Neutralization
Organism                      Sample      Carriers       Positives         Control

Staphylococcus aureas            A            60                0               +
(ATCC 6538)                      B            60                0               +
                                 C            60                0               +

Phenol Resistance             5 minutes            10 minutes           15 minutes

 1 :    60                           +                              0                    +
 1 :    70                           +                              +                    +



                                          Number of      Number of      Neutralization
Organism                      Sample      Carriers       Positives         Control

Pseudomonas aeruginosa           A            60                0               +
(ATCC 15442)                     B            60                0               +
                                 C            60                0               +

Phenol Resistance             5 minutes            10 minutes           15 minutes

 1 :    80                           +                              0                        0
 1 :    90                           +                              +                        +

                                          Number of      Number of      Neutralization
Organism                      Sample      Carriers       Positives         Control

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus      A            10                0               +
(ATCC 23055)                     B            10                0               +

Bordetella bronchiseptica        A            10                0               +
(ATCC 31437)                     B            10                0               +

Chalmydia psittaci               A            10                0               +
(ATCC VR-854)                    B            10                0               +

Enterobacter aerogenes           A            10                0               +
(ATCC 13048)                     B            10                0               +
                                              3
                                          Efficacy Study - Verticide™
                                                                Number of           Number of            Neutralization
Organism                                  Sample                Carriers            Positives               Control
Enterobacter cloacae                         A                       10                 0                         +
(ATCC 23355)                                 B                       10                 0                         +

Escherichia coli                               A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 11229)                                   B                     10                   0                      +
                    1
Escherichia coli                     A                     10                   0                            +
(Clinical Isolate)                             B                     10                   0                      +

Fusobacterium necrophorum                      A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 27852)                                   B                     10                   0                      +
                             2
Klebsiella pneumoniae                          A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 13883)                                   B                     10                   0                      +

Listeria monocytogenes                         A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 15313)                                   B                     10                   0                      +

Pasteurella multocida                          A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 7707)                                    B                     10                   0                      +
                                 3
Pseudomonas aeruginosa                         A                     10                   0                      +
(Clinical Isolate)                             B                     10                   0                      +

Proteus mirabilis                              A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 25933)                                   B                     10                   0                      +

Proteus vulgaris                               A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 13315)                                   B                     10                   0                      +

Salmonella choleraesuis                        A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 10708)                                   B                     10                   0                      +

Salmonella enteritidis                         A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 13076)                                   B                     10                   0                      +

Salmonella typhi                               A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 6539)                                    B                     10                   0                      +

Salmonella typhimurium                         A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 14028)                                   B                     10                   0                      +

Serratia marcescens                            A                     10                   0                      +
(ATCC 8100)                                    B                     10                   0                      +

1 - Resistant to the Antibiotics: Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Kanamycin, and Tetracycline.
2 - Resistant to the Antibiotics: Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Chloramphenicol, and Tetracycline.
3 - Reisistant to the Antibiotics: Amikacin, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Cefamandole, Cefazolin, Cefoxitin,
                                                      Chloramphenicol, Kanamycin, and Tetracycline.




                                                                      4
                                          Efficacy Study - Verticide™

                                                              Number of            Number of           Neutralization
Organism                                 Sample               Carriers             Positives              Control

Shigella flexneri                             A                     10                   0                         +
(ATCC 12022)                                  B                     10                   0                         +

Shigella sonnei                               A                     10                   0                         +
(ATCC 25931)                                  B                     10                   0                         +
                                4
Staphylococcus aureus                         A                     10                   0                         +
(ATCC 33592)                                  B                     10                   0                         +
                                5
Staphylococcus aureus                         A                     10                   0                         +
(Clinical Isolate)                            B                     10                   0                         +
                                    6
Staphylococcus epidermidis                    A                     10                   0                         +
(Clinical Isolate)                            B                     10                   0                         +

Streptococcus faecalis                        A                     10                   0                         +
(ATCC 19433)                                  B                     10                   0                         +
                            7
Streptococcus faecalis                        A                     10                   0                         +
(Clinical Isolate)                            B                               10                   0                         +

Streptococcus pyogenes                        A                     10                   0                         +
(ATCC 19615)                                  B                     10                   0                         +

4 - Resistant to the Antibiotics: Gentamicin and Methicillin.
5 - Resistant to the Antibiotics: Cefazolin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, Methicillin, Penicillin,
                                                       Tetracycline, and Tobramycin.
6 - Resistant to the Antibiotics: Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, Methicillin, Penicillin, Tetracycline,
                                                       and Tobramycin.
7 - Resistant to the Antibiotics: Cefazolin, Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin
                                   Methicillin, Tetracycline, and Tobramycin.


                                                     Clinical Significance

Organism                                           Description/Remarks

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus                        Occurs in soil, water, and sewage. A nosocomial infection
                                                   in compromised patients leading to septicemia, meningitis,
                                                   abcesses, and urinary tract infections.

Bordetella bronchiseptica                          Normal resident of canine respiratory tracts, sometimes causing
                                                   "kennel cough". Transmitted by coughing and sneezing.

Chlamydia psittaci                                 Common in domestic mammals. Can cause abortions in
                                                   domestic mammals. Ornithosis (parrot fever) and psittacosis.
                                                   Human chlamydial infections can result from exposure to
                                                   domestic mammals but they are uncommon.


                                                                     5
                               Efficacy Study - Verticide™
                                    Clinical Significance

Organism                           Description/Remarks
Enterobacter aerogenes & cloacae     Can cause bacteremia urinary tract infection, post-surgical
                                   wound infection and other nosocomial infections. Occurs in
                                   water, sewage, soil, dairy products, feces of man and animals,
                                   Most strains resistant to ampicillin.

Escherichia coli                   A nosocomial infection that causes urinary tract infections,
                                   terminal septicemia, "travelers diarrhea", and infant diarrhea.

Fusobacterium necrophorum          Causes hoof rot in cattle, sheep, and horses. May infect man.

Klebsiella pneumoniae              Causative agent of pneumoniae. Causes infant diarrhea and
                                   urinary tract infections.

Listeria monocytogenes             Causes food poisoning, listeriosis, meningitis and abortion.

Pasteurella multocida              Causative agent of fowl cholera. Humans become infected from
                                   dog and cat bites in which abcesses can develop around the
                                   wound and then cause septicemia (blood poisoning).

Pseudomonas aeruginosa             Has ability to survive and multiply in fluids, water and moist
                                   environments found in hospitals. Hospital acquired infections
                                   usually occur to patients having prior instrumentation or manip-
                                   ulative procedures such as urethral catherizations, tracheost-
                                   omies, and intravenous infusions of medications and fluids.
                                   The most important human sources are infected wounds, urine
                                   and lesions producing exudate. Causes infant diarrhea, ocular
                                   infections, burn infections, cystic fibrosis, folliculitis, osteo-
                                   myelitis and malignant external otitis.

Proteus mirabilis & vulgaris       Causes urinary tract infections, infant diarrhea, and respiratory
                                   tract infections.

Salmonella Choleraesuis            Causes gastroenteritis, septicemia, bacteremia, and arthritis.
                                   Most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the U.S.

Salmonella enteritidis             Food poisoning (salmonellosis), septicemia, diarrhea. People
                                   can become carriers.

Salmonella typhi                   Causes typhoid (enteric) fever. Organisms enter the body via
                                   contaminated food and water, invading the intestinal tract.

Salmonella typhimurium             Invades intestinal tissue and enters the blood stream causing
                                   enterocolitis and chronic gallbladder infections.

Serratia marcescens                Can cause cystitis, blood stream and central nervous system
                                   infections. May associated with nosocomial and antibiotic
                                   resistant infections.


                                                 6
                              Efficacy Study - Verticide™
                                   Clinical Significance

Organism                          Description/Remarks
Shigella flexneri & sonnei        Causes bacillary dysentery; characterized by severe
                                  cramping, abdominal pain and diarrhea with blood and mucus.

Staphylococcus aureus             Causes skin infections such as cellulitis, boils, carbuncles,
                                  impetigo, and postoperative wound infections. Can cause food
                                  poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. Both community and
                                  hospital acquired infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis,
                                  meningitis, pneumonia, and osteomyelitis.

Staphylococcus epidermis          Causes bacteremia, infective endocarditis, peritonitis associ-
                                  ated with dialysis and predominantly genitourinary tract infec-
                                  tions.

Streptococcus faecalis            Group D occurs in the neonatal period. Anatomical defect
                                  in the central nervous system, neurological intervention,
                                  endocarditis, urinary tract infections may lead to meningitis.

Streptococcus pyogenes            Beta-Hemolytic Group A. Transmission from person to person
                                  usually from close contact by an asymptomatic carrier colonized
                                  in the nasopharynx, skin, vagina, or rectum. It may be trans-
                                  mitted by contaminated food. Causes pharyngitis, tonsillitis,
                                  sinusitus, arthritis, etc. After five weeks of pharyngeal infection,
                                  rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, or impetigo may occur.


Verticide™ is Effective against the following Fungi according to the AOAC
Fungicidal Test, modified in the presence of 5% Organic Serum (moderate amount),
                                                     0
and 400 PPM Water Hardness (CaCO equivalent) at 20 C. Temperature.
                                       3




                                                    Distilled Water          Inoculum
Organism                          Sample            Exposure Time Exposure Time
                                                    5 MIN.   10 MIN.       15 MIN.   5 MIN.   10 MIN.       15
MIN.


Trichophyton mentagrophytes            A            +         0               0          +              0
0
(ATCC 9533)                            B            +         0               0          +              0
0

Phenol Resistance

1 : 60                                              +          0       0
1 : 70                                              +          +       +




                                                7
                             Efficacy Study - Verticide™

                                                        Distilled Water          Inoculum
Organism                              Sample            Exposure Time Exposure Time
                                                        5 MIN.   10 MIN.       15 MIN.       5 MIN.   10 MIN.   15
MIN.

Candida albicans                          A             +        0         0             +       0       0
(ATCC 10231)                              B             +        0         0             +       0       0



                                       Clinical Significance


Organism                              Description/Remarks

Candida albicans                      Asexual budding yeast that is a normal flora of the throat.
                                      Causes vaginal infections.

Trichopyton mentagrophytes            A fungus that is the common cause of athlete's foot.
(interdigitale)




Verticide™ is Mildewstatic ; This claim supported by performance as
determined by CSMA Fungal/Mold/Mildew Activity Method #24, modified in the
presence of 5% Organic Serum (moderate amount) and 400 PPM Water Hardness
(CaCO equivalent).
        3




                                                    Number of Treated Tiles                     Number of treated
Tiles
                                               Positive (+) for growth                      Positive (+) for growth
Organism                     Sample             over total tiles (10)                    over total tiles (10)

Aspergillus niger               A                       0/10                                     10/10
(ATCC 6275)                     B                       0/10                                     10/10



                                       Clinical Significance

Organism                              Description/Remarks

Aspergillus niger                     Organism specific for EPA mildewstatic claim. May cause
                                      aspergillosis, pneumonia, skin infections, ear infections.




                                                    8
                                    Efficacy Study - Verticide™

Verticide™ is Virucidal against the following Viruses, according to the
Virucidal Qualification Test, modified in the presence of 5% Organic Serum
(moderate amount) and 400 PPM Water Hardness (CaCO equivalent).
                                                              3




Using this method, the mixture (virus, Verticide™, serum and hard water) is
inoculated onto a hard surface in quadruplicate, allowed to dry, and then exposed
to the Verticide™ which has been diluted to the proper ratio and modified as
stated above. Neutralization and cytotoxicity controls are performed. To achieve a
virucidal claim, one must demonstrate a 3 log reduction (titer) on two sample batches
                                                       10

above the cytotoxicity produced by the product alone. The results show that
Verticide™ offers a wide range of virucidal effectiveness against RNA, DNA,
and viruses that have protein coats (enveloped).

                                         Genetic                             Titer Reduction
Organism                                Material            Envelope             (Log )
                                                                                    10




Adenovirus, Type 4                         DNA                         no                5.5, 5.5
(ATCC VR-4, Strain RI-67)

Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus            RNA                       yes                          6.0,
6.25
(ATCC VR-22), (Avian IBV)

Canine Distemper Virus                     DNA                         yes                          3.5,
3.5
(ATCC VR-128)

Canine parvovirus                          DNA                         no                5.0, 5.0
(ATCC VR-2006)

Feline Leukemia Virus                      RNA                         yes                          4.5,
4.75
(ATCC VR-717, Strain FL-237)

Feline Panleukopenia Virus                 DNA                         no                4.5, 4.5
(ATCC VR-648)

Feline Picornavirus                        RNA                         no                5.0, 5.0
(ATCC VR-649)

Herpes Simplex Type 1 (HSV 1)              DNA                         yes                          7.5,
7.5
(ATCC VR-733 Hominis)

Herpes Simplex Type 2                      DNA                         yes                          6.5,
6.5
(HSV 2), (MS Strain)

                                                   9
Human Immunodeficiency Virus                  RNA                                yes                              3.0,
3.0
(HIV-1), (Strain HTLV III RF)

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus       DNA                                yes                              8.0,
8.0
(ATCC VR-793)

                                 Efficacy Study - Verticide™
                                           Genetic                                      Titer Reduction
Organism                                  Material                 Envelope                 (Log )10




Influenza Virus Type A                        RNA                                yes                              8.0,
8.0
(ATCC 68-H3N2), A/Hong Kong

Porcine parvovirus                            DNA                                no                    4.5, 4.5
(ATCC VR-742)

Pseudorabies Virus                            DNA                                yes                              5.5,
5.5
(ATCC VR-135)

Rabies Virus                                  RNA                                yes                              4.5,
4.5
(ATCC VR-138)

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)             RNA                                yes                              4.0,
4.0
(ATCC VR-26)

Rubella Virus                                 RNA                                yes                              5.0,
5.0
(Strain M-33)

Transmissible Gastroenteritis                 RNA                                yes                              3.5,
3.5
(ATCC VR-763)

Vaccinia Virus                                DNA                                yes                              7.0,
7.0
(Strain IHD)

                                           Clinical Significance

Organism                                  Description/Remarks

Adenovirus, Type 4                        Causes less than 5% of acute respiratory diseases. It is spread
                                          from person to person.

Avian Infectious Bronchitis               An acute, rapidly spreading viral respiratory chicken infection.

Canine Distemper                          A highly contagious disease among dogs causing fever, gastro-

                                                       10
                                        intestinal and respiratory problems.

Canine Parvovirus                       Causes diarrhea, vomiting, fever, loss of appetite in dogs.
                                        Obtained in food or water consumed by dogs.

Feline Leukemia Virus                   This virus is demonstrated in cats with lymphosarcoma. It
                                        appears in the mouth of infected cats and is passed from cat to cat.

Feline Panleukopenia                    Feline calicivirus is the synonym. Produces a respiratory disease,
                                        conjunctivitis and vesiculation in the mouth of cats.

Herpes Simplex Type 1                   Virus causing fever blisters and canker sores caused by colds.




                                    Efficacy Study - Verticide™
                                         Clinical Significance

Organism                                Description/Remarks
Herpes Simplex Type 2                   Causes lesions on penis, urethra, vulva, vagina, and skin of
                                        buttocks.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus            Causes severe damage to the human immune system often
                                        leading to death. The virus which causes AIDS infects white
                                        blood cells and T-helper cells that play key roles in the body's
                                        immune system.

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis       Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. If occurs with
                                        bacterial infection may cause bronchial pneumonia. May invade
                                        the placenta and fetus via maternal blood stream causing
                                        abortions and still births. Causes encephalitis in 2-3 month old
                                        calves, also oral & gastric necrosis in newborns.

Influenza Virus, Type A/HK              Virus that causes the flu. An acute respiratory disease that
                                        occurs in epidemic form. Transmitted from person to person via
                                        aerosol route (coughing and sneezing).

Pseudorabies Virus                      Causes an acute viral infection of the central nervous system in
                                        mammals, primarily in swine.

Porcine Parvovirus                      Thought to produce abortions in swine.

Rabies                                  Virus that enters the human body via animal bites. Symptoms
                                        begin with partial paralysis, which becomes more general, then
                                        hydrophobia (fear of water) sets in when throat muscle spasms
                                        occur and air ducts become hypersensitive. If untreated, the
                                        patient will go into a coma and die.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus             A paramyxovirus that is the principal cause of pneumonia and
                                        bronchiolitis in small children and infants. Transmitted from
                                        person-to-person by droplet and aerosol from the respiratory
                                        tract. Highly contagious.

                                                     11
Rubella Virus                   Causes German Measles.

Transmissible Gastroenteritis   Causes profuse diarrhea and vomiting and dehydration in swine.
                                High mortality in first month of newborn. Outbreak generally
                                in early spring and winter.

Vaccina                         Pox virus used for vaccination of man for immunity against small
                                pox.




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