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Chapter 12 In class

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					Chapter 12 In class

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1. Salvarsan was
A. discovered in the mid-1900's.
B. used to treat syphilis.
C. formulated from the red dye prontosil.
D. first discovered as a product of Penicillium notatum.
E. discovered by Robert Koch.



2. Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other
microorganisms are called
A. antibiotics.
B. narrow-spectrum drugs.
C. semisynthetic drugs.
D. synthetic drugs.
E. broad-spectrum drugs



3. Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed
A. antibiotics.
B. narrow-spectrum drugs.
C. semisynthetic drugs.
D. synthetic drugs.
E. broad-spectrum drugs.



4. Antibiotics are derived from all the following except
A. Penicillium.
B. Bacillus.
C. Staphylococcus.
D. Streptomyces.
E. Cephalosporium.



5. Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include
A. low toxicity for human tissues.
B. high toxicity against microbial cells.
C. do not cause serious side effects in humans.
D. stable and soluble in body tissues and fluids.
E. All of the choices are correct.
6. Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause
A. nephrotoxicity.
B. superinfections.
C. allergic reactions.
D. drug toxicity.
E. All of the choices are correct.



7. Penicillins and cephalosporins
A. interfere with DNA synthesis.
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis.
D. damage cell membranes.
E. block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.



8. Sulfonamides
A. interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan.
B. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.
C. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis.
D. damage cell membranes.
E. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.



9. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have
A. a beta-lactam ring.
B. resistance to the action of penicillinase.
C. a semisynthetic nature.
D. an expanded spectrum of activity.
E. All of the choices are correct.



10. A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is
A. synercid.
B. penicillinase.
C. aztreonam.
D. clavulanic acid.
E. imipenem.
11. Gram negative rods are often treated with
A. penicillin G.
B. vancomycin.
C. aminoglycosides.
D. synercid.
E. isoniazid.



12. This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis
A. penicillin G.
B. vancomycin.
C. aminoglycosides.
D. synercid.
E. isoniazid.



13. Which antimicrobic does not interfere with protein synthesis?
A. aminoglycosides
B. tetracyclines
C. erythromycin
D. trimethroprim
E. chloramphenicol



14. Which of these drugs have the most narrow spectrum?
A. tetracycline
B. isoniazid
C. erythromycin
D. aminoglycosides
E. cephalosporins



15. Antimicrobics that are macrolides
A. disrupt cell membrane function.
B. include tetracyclines.
C. include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin.
D. are very narrow-spectrum drugs.
E. are hepatotoxic.
16. The drug that can cause aplastic anemic, and is used to treat typhoid fever and brain abscesses is
A. chloramphenicol.
B. clindamycin.
C. ciprofloxacin.
D. bacitracin.
E. gentamicin.



17. The antifungal drug that can be used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is
A. nystatin.
B. griseofulvin.
C. amphotericin B.
D. sulfa drugs.
E. metronidazole.



18. The drug used for several protozoan infections is
A. nystatin.
B. griseofulvin.
C. amphotericin B.
D. sulfa drugs.
E. metronidazole.



19. There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because
fungi, protozoa, and helminths
A. do not cause many human infections.
B. are not affected by antimicrobics.
C. are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult.
D. are parasites found inside human cells.
E. because their cells have fewer target sites compared to bacteria.



20. Which of the following is not a mode of action of antivirals?
A. block penetration
B. block transcription and translation
C. inhibit DNA synthesis
D. block maturation
E. bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
21. An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that
A. blocks penetration.
B. blocks transcription and translation.
C. inhibits peptidoglycan cross linking.
D. blocks maturation.
E. bonds to ergosterol in the cell membrane.



22. Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat
A. influenza A virus.
B. HIV.
C. herpes zoster virus.
D. respiratory syncytial virus.
E. hepatitis C virus.



23. Acyclovir is used to treat
A. influenza A virus.
B. HIV.
C. herpes zoster virus.
D. respiratory syncytial virus.
E. hepatitis C virus.



24. The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include
A. bacterial chromosomal mutations.
B. synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure.
C. prevention of drug entry into the cell.
D. alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.
E. All of the choices are correct.



25. A superinfection results from
A. build up of a drug to toxic levels in the patient.
B. the wrong drug administered to the patient.
C. an immune system reaction to the drug.
D. decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species.
E. All of the choices are correct.
26. Drug susceptibility testing
A. determines the patient's response to various antimicrobics.
B. determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics.
C. determines if normal flora will be affected by antimicrobics.
D. determines if the drug is increasing to toxic levels in a patient.
E. None of the choices are correct.



27. Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed
A. antibiotics.
B. narrow-spectrum drugs.
C. semisynthetic drugs.
D. synthetic drugs.
E. broad-spectrum drugs.



28. Which of the following will influence a physician's decision to prescribe an antimicrobial?
A. patient age
B. pregnancy
C. liver function
D. alcohol use
E. All of the choices are correct.



29. All of the following could be reasons why antimicrobic treatment fails except
A. the inability of the drug to diffuse into the infected body compartment.
B. a mixed infection where some of the pathogens are drug resistant.
C. not completing the full course of treatment.
D. a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic.
E. diminished gastrointestinal absorption due to an underlying condition or age.



30. Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including
drugs?
A. liver
B. kidneys
C. gall bladder
D. spleen
E. stomach
31. Why has the United States and Europe banned the use of human drugs in animal feeds?
A. because it makes the animals grow too large
B. because it causes infections in the cows and poultry fed them
C. because it raises the price of the meat too high
D. because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem
E. All of the choices are correct.



32. When a patient's immune system reacts adversely to a drug, this serious side effect is called a
superinfection.
True False



33. A semisynthetic antibiotic is a drug which is chemically modified in the laboratory after being isolated from
natural sources.
True False



34. Species of Bacillus produce bacitracin and the polymyxins.
True False



35. Resistance factor plasmids are transferred to other bacterial cells during transformation, transduction, and
conjugation.
True False



36. The MIC is the smallest concentration of an antimicrobic required to inhibit the growth of the microbe.
True False



37. Drugs that are hepatotoxic cause damage to a patient's kidneys.
True False



38. The Kirby-Bauer test uses an agar surface, seeded with the test bacterium, to which small discs containing a
specific concentration of several drugs are placed on the surface.
True False
39. An antimicrobic with a low therapeutic index is a safer choice compared to a drug with a high therapeutic
index.
True False



40. Ciprofloxacin is used to treat viral respiratory infections.
True False
Chapter 12 In class Key


1. B

2. A

3. E

4. C

5. E

6. B

7. E

8. B

9. A

10. D

11. C

12. E

13. D

14. B

15. C

16. A

17. C

18. E

19. C

20. E

21. B

22. B

23. C

24. E

25. D

26. B

27. B

28. E

29. D

30. A

31. D
32. FALSE

33. TRUE

34. TRUE

35. TRUE

36. TRUE

37. FALSE

38. TRUE

39. FALSE

40. FALSE
Chapter 12 In class Summary

       Category           # of Questions
Talaro - 012 Chapter...        40

				
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