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					         From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




                     From the
                    Treasures
                        of
                      Arabic
                   Morphology


NOTE : Treasures of Arabic morphology has been
published by Zam zam Publishers           of Pakistan.
Unfortunately the quality of the print is poor and the
publishers have retyped the contents pages with
typing errors. If anyone is prepared to publish the
book in a quality format, kindly contact the author at
alinaam@alinaam.org.za. All comments and criticisms
are welcome. Post your comments to the above email
address.




                          Page 1
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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


    Title             From the Treasures            of   Arabic
                      Morphology

    Author            Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

    First Edition     Safar 1427 A.H.
                      March 2006
                      Academy for Islamic Research
    Published by      Madrasah In’āmiyyah
                      P.O. Box 39
                      Camperdown
                      3720
                      South Africa

    Tel               +27 031 785 1519

    Fax               +27 031 785 1091

    email             al_inaam@yahoo.com




             Copyright © 2006 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior
permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief
quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.


Typeset on Times New Roman 12 and Traditional Arabic 18 by
Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown,
KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.




                          Page 2
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          From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

                           Contents

Introduction                                   10
Some Useful Terms                              11
Arabic Terms                                   12
The Types of Words                             14
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs              15
Positive and Negative                          15
Active and Passive                             15
The Second Category of Verbs                   16
Exercise 1                                     17
Types of Nouns                                 18
The Scales of Verbs                            20
Exercise 2                                     22
The Categories of Triliteral Verbs             23
Exercise 3                                     25
The Perfect Active (           )               26
Exercise 4                                     28
The Perfect Passive (          )               29
Exercise 5                                     33
The Imperfect (      )                         35
Exercise 6                                     38
The Imperfect Passive (           )            39
Exercise 7                                     40
The (         )                                41
Exercise 8                                     44
The (          )                               45
Exercise 9                                     49
The ( ) and ( ) of Emphasis                    50
Exercise 10                                    55
The Imperative ( )                             56
Exercise 11                                    61



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              From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Prohibition ( )                                  61
Exercise 12                                          65
The Derived Nouns (              )                   66
The Active Participle (          )                   66
Exercise 13                                          68
The Passive Participle (             )               69
Exercise 14                                          70
The Elative (        )                               71
Exercise 15                                          73
The (        )                                       74
The Noun of the Instrument (                 )       76
Exercise 16                                          78
The Adverb (         )                               79
Exercise 17                                          81
The Intensive Adjective (                )           82
Exercise 18                                          84
The Categories (    ) of Verbs                       85
The (       ) of (           )                       85
The First (     )                                    85
The Second (             )                           86
The Third (          )                               86
The Fourth (             )                           87
The Fifth (      )                                   88
The Sixth ( )                                        88
Exercise 19                                          90
The (    ) of (        )                             91
Construction of the Derived Nouns                    95
The Abbreviated Paradigm of each (               )   97
(       )                                            97



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         From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 20                                     99
(       )                                       99
Exercise 21                                     101
(        )                                      101
Exercise 22                                     103
(        )                                      103
Exercise 23                                     105
(       )                                       105
Exercise 24                                     110
(        )                                      110
Exercise 25                                     112
(      )                                        112
Exercise 26                                     114
(       )                                       114
Exercise 27                                     117
(          )                                    117
Exercise 28                                     119
(         )                                     119
Exercise 29                                     121
(         )                                     121
Exercise 30                                     123
(        )                                      123
Exercise 31                                      125
Four Root-Letter Verbs                           126
Exercise 32                                      129
The Derived Forms        of   Four   Root-Letter 130
Verbs
(       )                                       130
Exercise 33                                     132
(       )                                       132
Exercise 34                                     134



                          Page 5
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         From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(       )                                      134
Exercise 35                                    136
Other Derived Forms                            137
Exercise 36                                    142
The Seven Categories                           143
Exercise 37                                    146
The Rules of (   )                             147
Rule 1                                         147
Rule 2                                         147
Rule 3                                         148
Rule 4                                         148
Rule 5                                         150
Rule 6                                         151
Rule 7                                         152
Rule 8                                         153
Rule 9                                         154
Rule 10                                        156
Exercise 38                                    156
The Orthography of the Hamzah                  157
The Paradigms of (    )                        158
Exercise 39                                    160
Exercise 40                                    161
Exercise 41                                    163
Discussion of (       )                        163
Discussion of (     )                          164
Exercise 42                                    165
The Rules of ( )                               166
Rule 1                                         166
Rule 2                                         167
Rule 3                                         168
Rule 4                                         169
Rule 5                                         170
Rule 6                                         171


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         From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Rule 7                                         171
Rule 8                                         179
Rule 9                                         184
Rule 10                                        189
Exercise 43                                    193
Rule 11                                        193
Rule 12                                        194
Rule 13                                        195
Rule 14                                        196
Rule 15                                        199
Rule 16                                        199
Rule 17                                        202
Rule 18                                        203
Rule 19                                        204
Rule 20                                        205
Rule 21                                        206
Rule 22                                        207
Rule 23                                        208
Rule 24                                        209
Rule 25                                        210
Rule 26                                        212
Exercise 44                                    213
The Paradigms of ( )                           214
Exercise 45                                    220
The Paradigms of (    )                        221
Exercise 46                                    228
The Paradigm of (       )                      229
Exercise 47                                    240
The Paradigms of ( ) and ( )                   241
Exercise 48                                    250
Exercise 49                                    260
Exercise 50                                    271
Combination of (   ) and ( )                   272
Exercise 51                                    283


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          From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Rules of (     )                                 284
Rule 1                                               284
Rule 2                                               286
Rule 3                                               287
Rule 4                                               288
Rule 5                                               289
Exercise 52                                          290
Exercise 53                                          297
A Combination of (             ),(     ) and (   )   301
Exercise 54                                          303
Special Meanings (             ) of Each (   )       304
The (     ) of (       )                             304
The (     ) of (           )                         304
The (     ) of (       )                             305
The (     ) of (     )                               305
The Derived Categories                               306
The (     ) of (      )                              306
The (     ) of (           )                         309
The (     ) of (           )                         311
The (     ) of (           )                         312
The (     ) of (           )                         314
The (     ) of (           )                         314
The (     ) of (       )                             315
The (     ) of (           )                         317
The (     ) of (               )                     318
The (     ) of (               )                     319
The (     ) of (               )                     320
The (     ) of (           )                         320
The (     ) of (       )                             321



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         From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The (    ) of (     )                          321
The (    ) of (         )                      322
The (      ) of (      )                       322
Application of the Special Meanings            323
Challenging Words                              325
Appendix A - Morphology or Etymology?          352
Bibliography                                   356




                          Page 9
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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




                        Introduction

Arabic Morphology (                  ) is a branch of Arabic
Grammar dealing with word-forms and patterns. It is
highly essential for the incumbent student of Arabic to
learn this science in order to be proficient in the language.
Acquiring an understanding of word patterns is of prime
importance in learning the language.

This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the
important aspects of the subject. If a student has to study
this book thoroughly, he would develop a very good
foundation in this science and it would absolve him of the
need to study any further books on the subject.

The Arabic names of morphologic terms have been
adopted instead of the Urdu forms commonly found in the
text books of Islamic seminaries. Thus I have used the
term (           ) instead of (           ). Similarly, instead

of writing (          ), the correct Arabic form of (         )

has been used while the term (           ) is used instead of

(        ) which is incorrect. This will enable the student to
learn the correct Arabic terms from the initial stages of his
learning.

Included also is a collection of rules of word-changes
which affect many Arabic verbs and nouns. The rules have
been clearly explained with examples and a step by step



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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

method as to how a word is changed from its original form
to its present one.

It is hoped that this book will be beneficial for the students
of Arabic Grammar and Morphology and simplify the path
to understanding the intricacies of the language. Āmīn.

For a detailed discussion on the name of this subject,
whether it is called Morphology or Etymology, refer to
Appendix A at the end of this book.

Some Useful Terms

Conjugation: A paradigm, class, or table of verb forms in
such inflected languages as Latin and French, where
elements are distinguished from each other by patterns of
inflection relating to tense, person, number.1

Declension: A term used to describe the case system of
nouns and other words.2

Inflection: The variation or change of form that words
undergo to mark distinctions of case, gender, number,
tense, person, mood, voice, comparison.3

Linguistics and Philology: The study of language.

Paradigm: pronounced (pa-ra-dime), in grammar, a set of
all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (write, writes,
wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model
for all other words of the same type.4


1
  The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 256, 1992.
2
  Ibid, p. 281.
3
   Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1160.
4
  The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 747, 1992.


                            Page 11
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         From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Arabic Terms

The following are some of the Arabic terms used
frequently in this book. It would be advisable to learn
them thoroughly as they are frequently used throughout
the book.

      Term                        Meaning
                A diacritical point      denoting the sound
                of ‘a’.
                A diacritical point -    denoting the sound
                of ‘u’.
                A diacritical point -    denoting the sound
                of ‘i’.
                A diacritical point -        that serves the
                purpose of joining         two      letters     in
                pronunciation
                A letter having a fathah, e.g. (    )

                A letter having a dammah, e.g. (            )

                A letter having a kasrah, e.g. ( )

                A letter having a sukûn or jazm, e.g. ( )



                The three diacritical points, fathah
                dammah and kasrah are each called a
                harakah
                A letter having a harakah, e.g. (       )



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       From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

              The first root letter of a word, also referred
              to as consonant or radical, e.g. the (      ) of

              (      )
              The second root letter of a word, e.g. the
              (   ) of (      )

              The third root letter of a word, e.g. the ( )

              of (       )
              Word-form denoting the number, gender
              and mood of the verb
              (          ) is the plural of (   ) which refers
              to a category of verbs belonging to one
              class. The first verb of the perfect tense
              (          ) and the imperfect tense (        ),
              are used to indicate the diacritical points of
              the alphabets of the verbs.




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          From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

                 The Types of Words

  Term                   Meaning                     Example
                          word

                             noun

                             verb

          particle – it is dependent on either
          an (      ) or (      ) in conveying its
          meaning

With regards to meaning and tense, a verb is of three
types:

   Term                 Meaning               Example
            Indicates the occurrence of
                                                   – He
            an action in the past tense. It
            is referred to as the perfect did.
            tense in English.
            Indicates the occurrence of
                                                 - He is
            an action in the present or
            future tense. It is referred to doing or he
            as the imperfect tense in will do.
            English.
            a command                             – You
                                            do.




                          Page 14
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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

     Term           Meaning                   Example
               Intransitive – does
                                                    - He is
              not require an object
                                      walking.
              Transitive - requires
                                                      – He is
                   an object
                                      opening the door.

Positive and Negative

       Term         Meaning               Example
                    positive
                                       – He is doing.
                    negative
                                          – He is not doing.

The terms (     ) and (    ) are also used.

Active and Passive

    Term               Meaning                    Example
                active tense – the doer
                                                 – He is doing.
                of the action is known
               passive tense – the doer
                                                  – It is being
                  of the action is not
                        known             done.




                          Page 15
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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Second Category of Verbs

With regard to the root letters (                   ) of a verb, they
are of two types:

           Term          Meaning                Example
                      3 root letters or
                          triliteral
                      4 root letters or
                       quadriliteral

Each of these two types is further divided into two categories:
   (1) (      ) – the (        ) consists of root letters only, without
        any extra letters.
   (2) (          ) - the (       ) has root letters plus extra letters.

This results in the following four categories:

           Term                     Meaning               Example
                          3 root letters only

                          3 root letters plus extra
                          letters
                          4 root letters only

                          4 root letters plus extra
                          letters




                          Page 16
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          From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 1

(1) Determine whether the following verbs have 3 root-
letters or 4 root-letters.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(2) What do the following terms mean:

              Term                      Meaning




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             From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Types of Nouns

(1) There are three types of nouns - (              ):

[a]          , [b]       and [c]             .

(2) The (              – verbal noun) is a word that indicates the

occurrence of an action and is free of tense e.g. (                    ) –
to assist.
(3) The (            ) is a word derived from a verb e.g. (            )–

helper is derived from (         ).

(4) The (            ) is neither a (                ) nor a (      ) e.g.

(       ) – man.


(5) The (               ) and the (                  ) also fall under the

categories of (        ), (           ), (          ) and (          ) like

the (            ). The categories mentioned under the verb like

(        ) etc. also apply to an (        ).

(6) The noun (                ) with regard to its letters can either
have three root letters (triliteral), four root letters
(quadriliteral) or five root letters (quinquiliteral). It is
therefore of six types:
         [1] (           ) e.g. (         ) – a man

         [2] (                 ) e.g. (          ) – a donkey



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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

         [3] (          ) e.g. (        ) – scorpion

         [4] (              ) e.g. (        ) - paper

         [5] (          ) e.g. (          ) - quince

         [6] (               ) e.g. (         )–a
         spider

(7) The scholars of morphology generally deal with the
(        ) because most of the changes (                   ) occur in a

(        ) while few changes occur in an (             ) and none occur

in a (      ).




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                     The Scales of Verbs

The Arabic verb is constructed from a root which usually
consists of three letters called consonants or radicals.
These consonants form a kind of skeleton which
constitutes the verb-stem to which prefixes and suffixes
may be added.

Arabic verbs are mostly triliteral, that is, they are
constructed of three root letters. The simplest form of the
verb is the third person masculine singular of the perfect
tense (                                                    ). In most
dictionaries, all the words derived from a triliteral root are
entered under the third person masculine singular form of
the verb.

In Arabic, there are two main tenses, the perfect or past
tense (            ), denoting actions completed at the time to

which reference is made; and the imperfect (                      ), for
incompleted actions, referring to the present or future
tenses. The present and future tenses are thus expressed by
the imperfect form (               ). The imperative (            ) may
be considered a modification of the imperfect.

To      indicate   patterns   or    type-forms   of      verbs,     the
grammarians use the three letters of the verb (             ), where

the (     ) represents the first radical of the verb, the ( )

represents the second radical of the verb and the ( )
represents the third radical of the verb. This is the scale



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               From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(            ) or standard by which the root letters of a verb are

determined. Accordingly, the word (                      ) is on the scale

of       (      ), (       ) is on the scale of (          ) and (       )

is on the scale of (       ).


The letter that corresponds to the (              ) of the (          ) is

called the (ِ                   ), that which corresponds to the ( ) is

called the (ِ                      ) while the letter corresponding to

the ( ) is called the (ِ              ).

Example: the word (             ) is on the scale of (    ):




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               From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 2

(1) Determine the scales of the following verbs and what
each letter represents. The first one has been done for you.

(a) (      )




The ( ) is the (                     ), the (   ) is the (   ), the

( ) is the (                    ).

(b)       (         )

(c)       (     )

(d)       (             )

(e)       (         )

(f)       (     )

(g)       (                 )

(h)       (             )

(i)       (     )

(j)       (         )



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                 From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

               The Categories of Triliteral Verbs

                             (                       )

(1) The first and third letters of a simple triliteral verb in
the active tense is always vowelled with a fathah (                            ).

The second letter or radical may be vowelled by a (                            ),

(        ) or (         ). The active perfect tense (

               ) of triliteral verbs (                    ) is used on three
scales:
           [a]      e.g. (       )

           [b]      e.g. (           )

           [c]      e.g. (       )

(2) The conjugation of the (               ) and (         ) forms is similar

to the conjugation of (               ).

(3) The imperfect tense (                                   ) of (           ) is

sometimes (             ) e.g. (               ) and sometimes (                )

e.g. (                   ) and sometimes (               ) e.g.       (

          ).

(4) The conjugation of the (                ) and (               ) is similar to

the conjugation of (             ).


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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(5) The (                          ) of (        ) is sometimes (                          ) e.g.

(                ) and sometimes (           ) e.g. (                             ).

(6) The (                              ) of (           ) is only (                        ) e.g.

(           ).

(7) The (                      ) of all three scales is (            ).

(8) The (                      ) of all three scales is (                ).
(9) Based on the above-mentioned facts, there are six
categories (          ) of (                ) which are as follows:

                                                                     (                     )(1)

                                                             (                         ) (2)
                                                                         (             ) (3)

                                                                 (                     ) (4)

                                                                     (                 ) (5)

                                                         (                             ) (6)

(10) There is no rule to specify which verb belongs to
which category (                 ). It is based on (                          ) – as heard
from the Arabs. One can also ascertain which
category a verb belongs to from a dictionary. There are
however certain guidelines which are as follows:
        [a] If the verb belongs to the category of (




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                From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

            ) the second or third letter will be from the (

        )5, e.g. (                       ), (            ), (             ).

            [b] If the perfect (                                    ) is of the form

(           ), the imperfect (                                  ) is generally from the

category of (                           ).

            [c] If the perfect (                           ) is of the form (        ),

the imperfect (                                          ) is generally from the

category of (                      ).

Exercise 3
To which category (                             ) does each of the following verb
belong:
      (1) (               )

      (2) (           )

      (3) (           )

      (4) (                   )

      (5) (                   )




5
    The (            ) are the following six letters:

(                             ).



                             Page 25
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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology


     The Perfect Active Tense (                             )


(1) There are 14 word-forms (              ) of the perfect tense

(                     ). All three diacritical points or vowels

(           ) can be used on the (                ) as is apparent

from the above-mentioned six categories (        ).


(2) The Arab Grammarians usually begin the Perfect (
        ) and Imperfect (                  ) conjugations with the

third person (              ), followed by the second person

(       ) and finally the first person (   ).

(3) Unlike English, Arabic also has a dual form for the
second and third persons. As for the first person, the plural
form is used for both the dual and plural.

(4) Hereunder follow the paradigms of the perfect tense.
Note that the first three froms are for the masculine while
the second three are for the feminine of the third person.
The following six forms are for the second person, the first
three being for the masculine and the second three for the
feminine. The final two forms are for the first person.




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          (Word-form)                 Verb




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Exercise 4

Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect tense (

       ) in table form :

   (a) (            )

   (b) (            )

   (c) (        )

   (d) (            )

   (e) (            )

   (f) (                )

   (g) (        )

   (h) (        )

   (i) (                )

   (j) (        )




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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

The Perfect Passive (                       )


The (                       ) is constructed from the (

          ) in all triliteral verbs (                    ). If we take the

first verb, namely the third person singular form, (                 ), a

(       ) is rendered to the first letter, a (              ) is rendered
to the second letter while the third letter remains in its
original condition. The result is (               ). No matter what the

(         ) of the second letter in the active tense is, in the

passive tense it will always be (           ). Examples:


         Active – (          )             Passive – (         )




Note that the intransitive verbs can be used in the passive tense if
they are used with a particle (         ), e.g.

(       ) – It was taken.




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        From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




         Word-form                    Verb
 singular masculine 3rd person

   dual masculine 3rd person

  plural masculine 3rd person

  singular feminine 3rd person

   dual feminine 3rd person

   plural feminine 3rd person

 singular masculine 2nd person

   dual masculine 2nd person

  plural masculine 2nd person

 singular feminine 2nd person

   dual feminine 2nd person

  plural feminine 2nd person

      singular first person

  dual and plural first person




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 Verb       Pronoun



                                The words (       ) or ( )
                                are    used   for  the
                                negative sense. To use
                                ( ) with (           ), the
                                condition    is   that        the
                                ( ) must be repeated
                                eg.
                                (                        ).

                                The column on the
                                right indicates how the
                                pronouns (               ) are
                                used with the verbs.




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          Word-form                     Verb




Note the Arabic terms used for the different word-forms in
this table.



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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 5

(a) Translate the following sentences:

                                                            (1)
                                                            (2)
                                                            (3)
                                                            (4)
                                                            (5)
                                                            (6)
                                                            (7)
                                                            (8)
                                                            (9)
                                                           (10)

   (b) What is the (           ) of the following verbs:

   [1] (                                              )

   [2] (               )

   [3] (                          )

   [4] (                   )

   [5] (                   )



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[6] (                )

[7] (                            )

[8] (                            )

[9] (                        )

[10] (                   )


(c) Are the following verbs (        ) or (   )?

[1] (        )

[2] (        )

[3] (            )

[4] (    )

[5] (            )




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                        The Imperfect (                    )


The Imperfect (                   ) is formed by adding prefixes and/or
suffixes to the perfect tense. The prefixes can either be any of the
letters (     ). The suffixes may either be ( ), (                ), ( ) or just

( ).

After adding the prefix, the first radical or letter of the verb has
(        ), e.g. the (       ) of (       ) has a sukûn. The second letter
can have any of the three harakât, depending on which category
(      ) the verb belongs to.


In the indicative case (                     ), the final vowel of the third

radical (                ) is (       ) in the singular form of the verb, e.g.

(      ), (      ), (      ) and (        ). For the subjunctive case (

        ), this (         ) is changed to (           ), e.g. (       ), (       ),

(      ) and (          ); while for the jussive case (                  ), it is

replaced by a (             ), e.g. (       ), (    ), (   ) and (           ). The
changes in the singular and dual forms will be discussed later.




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                    Meaning                          Verb
             He is doing or he will do.

     They (2 males) are doing or they will do.

   They (plural males) are doing or they will do.

            She is doing or she will do.

    They (2 females) are doing or they will do.

  They (plural females) are doing or they will do.

      You (1 male) are doing or you will do.

      You (2 males) are doing or you will do.

    You (plural males) are doing or you will do.

     You (1 female) are doing or you will do.

     You (2 females) are doing or you will do.

   You (plural females) are doing or you will do.

               I am doing or will do.

            We are doing or we will do.




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Exercise 6

(1) To which category (              ) do each of the following
verbs belong:
       (a) (            )

       (b) (            )

       (c) (        )

       (d) (            )

       (e) (        )

(2) What is the (       ) of the following words:

                                                    (1)
                                                    (2)
                                                    (3)
                                                    ( 4)
                                                    (5)
                                                    ( 6)
                                                    ( 7)
                                                    (8)




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    The Imperfect Passive Tense (                                )


The (                       ) is constructed from the (

         ) in all triliteral verbs (              ). If we take the

first verb, namely the third person singular form, (             ), a

(       ) is rendered to the first letter which is the (

           ) – sign of the imperfect tense. A (                 ) is

rendered to the         (                ) while the (               )

remains as it is. The result is (           ). No matter what the

(        ) of the (                  ) in the active tense is, in the

passive tense, it will always be (       ). Examples:


         Active – (         )           Passive – (       )




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Exercise 7

(a) Translate the following into English:

                                                        (1)
                                                        (2)
                                                        (3)
                                                        (4)
                                                        (5)

(b) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:
       [1] The door of the school is being opened.
       [2] He is being sent to Madînah.
       [3] The disbelievers will be defeated.
       [4] The car will be left on the road.
       [5] The book will be read today.

(c) Conjugate the following verbs into the (

      ):


           (5)        (4)         ( 3)       ( 2)    ( 1)




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                  The (                    )


The (            ) are: ( ), ( ), (    ) and (     ). When they

precede the (           ), they render (       ) to the following
five words:
                                                             ( 1)
                                                             ( 2)
                                                             ( 3)
                                                             ( 4)
                                                             ( 5)
The (           ) of the following seven words is deleted:

                                                             ( 1)
                                                             ( 2)
                                                             ( 3)
                                                             ( 4)
                                                             ( 5)
                                                             ( 6)
                                                             ( 7)
The following two words remain unchanged:



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                                                               ( 1)
                                                               ( 2)
The word ( ) changes the positive imperfect tense (

      ) to negative (   ) with emphasis.


The paradigms of (          ) – the active tense and (       ) – the

passive tense – when used with the other particles, ( ), (    ) and

(    ) will be the same as was in the case of ( ).
Examples:




Hereunder follow the paradigms of (              ) when used with

the particle ( ).




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Exercise 8

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ):

                                (1)
                                (2)
                                (3)
                               (4)
                               (5)

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (   ):

                               (1)
                               (2)
                               (3)
                                (4)
                               (5)




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                    The (                   )

The (               ) are ( ), ( ), (    ), (            ) and (

     ). When they precede the (                 ), they render (      )
to the following five words:
                                                                   ( 1)
                                                                   ( 2)
                                                                   ( 3)
                                                                   ( 4)
                                                                   ( 5)
The (            ) of the following seven words is deleted:

                                                                   ( 1)
                                                                   ( 2)
                                                                   ( 3)
                                                                   ( 4)
                                                                   ( 5)
                                                                   ( 6)
                                                                   ( 7)
The following two words remain unchanged:
                                                                   ( 1)

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                                                                        ( 2)
The word ( ) changes the positive imperfect tense (

      ) to the negative perfect tense (                 ).


The paradigms of (             ) – the active voice and (            ) – the

passive voice – when used with ( ), (            ), (            ) and (

      ), will be the same as was in the case of ( ).
Examples:




The word (        ) means ‘not as yet’. Thus (               ) will mean ‘he
did not do as yet’.
The (             ) enters all the word-forms of the passive tense

(       ). In the active tense (          ), it is only used in the third

person (       ) and first person (        ) word-forms.


If any of the (                 ) precede a (                  ) whose (




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       ) is a (          ), the (         ) is deleted.
Examples:


   (              Example of        Example of       Example of
                      ( )              ( )                ()
          )




Hereunder follow the paradigms of (               ) when used with

the particle ( ).




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Exercise 9

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using ( ):

                                  (1)
                                  (2)
                                   (3)
                                  (4)
                                   (5)

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (      ):

                                   (1)
                                   (2)
                                  (3)
                                   (4)
                                  (5)




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                   The (      ) and (        ) of Emphasis

               (                       ) – The Energetic Forms


(1) To create emphasis in the meaning of (                         ), the (

       ) is prefixed to it and (                ) or (            ) suffixed to

it. The (            ) is (           ) and is suffixed to all the word-forms

(     ). The (                  ) is (         ) and is not suffixed to the

(    ) and (               ) word-forms.

(2) The letter prededing the (                           ) is (      ) in the
following word-forms:
                                                                          ( 1)
                                                                          ( 2)
                                                                          ( 3)
                                                                          ( 4)
                                                                          ( 5)

(3) The (                     ) is deleted in the following words before

attaching the (                  ):


                                                                          ( 1)


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                                                                               ( 2)
                                                                               ( 3)
                                                                               ( 4)
                                                                               ( 5)
                                                                               ( 6)
                                           _                                   ( 7)

(4) The (        ) of the (         ) is retained while the (               ) itself

becomes (               ), e.g. (          ).

(5) The (      ) of (                ) and the ( ) of (                  ) are also

deleted. The (           ) before the (           ) and the (         ) before the

( ) are retained, e.g. (                ) and (        ).

(6)In the (                ) word-forms, an (               ) is inserted between

the (   ) of (       ) and the (                  ) so that three nûns do not
occur in one place. This will occur in the following two word-
forms:

                                                                               ( 1)
                                                                               ( 2)

(7) The (               ) itself is (             ) in these two words. In short,



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the (          ) is (         ) after (     ) and (        ) in the other
instances.

(8) The (               ) is similar to the (           ) except in the

(    ) and (             ) word-forms. The (               ) is only used

in those words where there is no (            ) before (           ) and
these are eight word-forms.
Once (            ) and (                 ) enter a (              ), its
meaning changes to the future tense.




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        ◘                                 ◘


        ◘                                 ◘
        ◘                                 ◘

        ◘                                 ◘


        ◘                                 ◘
        ◘                                 ◘




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Exercise 10

(1) Conjugate the following verbs using (           ) in the
active and passive tenses:

                                  (1)
                                 (2)
                                  (3)
                                 (4)
                                  (5)

(2) Conjugate the following verbs using (           ) in the
active and passive tenses:

                                  (1)
                                 (2)
                                 (3)
                                  (4)
                                 (5)




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                       The Imperative (                  )


The (                   – imperative second person) is constructed

from the (               ) in the following manner:

(1) The (                              ) – the sign of the imperfect tense -
is deleted.
(2) If the following letter is (                        ), the final letter is

rendered (         ). Example: the verb (             ) changes to (        ).

(3) If the following letter is (                   ), a (                        ) is

inserted at the beginning and the end is rendered (                    ).

(4) If the (                  ) has a (          ), the (                        ) is

rendered a (        ). Example: (            ) becomes (       ).

(5) If the (            ) has a (              ) or (          ), the (

        ) is rendered a (              ). Examples:

(     ) becomes (       ).

(        ) becomes (              ).

(6) The (                     ) is deleted while the (                           )–
the nūn of the feminine plural - is retained. Examples:
(       ) becomes (          ).

(       ) becomes (          ).



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(7) The (                            ) at the end is deleted. Examples:

(     ) becomes (         ).

(     ) becomes (        ).

(          ) becomes (          ).


(8) The imperative of the first and third persons (

                               ) is formed by adding a (        ) at the

beginning of (                          ). This (   ) has the same effect

on the verbs as ( ).


(9) The (                 ) and (                   ) can also be attached

to the (     ) word-forms.


Hereunder follow the paradigms of               (                   - the

imperative active) and (                               - the imperative
passive).




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                                           X




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Exercise 11

Conjugate the imperative (          ) of the following verbs in
the active and passive forms first and then conjugate them
using the (              ) and (          ):

                                   (1)
                                   (2)
                                    (3)
                                   (4)
                                   (5)



                     The Prohibition (            )


(1) The particle ( ) is used before (                       ) to denote

prohibition. It has the same effect as (              ) in changing the
different word-forms.
(2) The (                ) and (               ) can be attached to all

the forms of (      ).




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Exercise 12

(1) Conjugate the prohibition (               ) of the following
verbs in the active and passive forms first and then
conjugate them using the (          ) and (           ):

                                  (1)
                                  (2)
                                   (3)
                                  (4)
                                  (5)

(2) What is the (    ) of the following verbs?


                                                            (1)
                                                            (2)
                                                            (3)
                                                            (4)
                                                            (5)
                                                            (6)
                                                            (7)
                                                            (8)

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           THE DERIVED NOUNS (                                 )

The following six nouns are derived from the verb:
           ( 4)                ( 3)                    (2)                 ( 1)
                                                 (6)            ( 5)

The Active Participle (                   )


The active participle (                ) indicates the person or being

from whom the action emanates, e.g. (                   ) – a person who
listens.
In 3-root letter verbs (              ), the (               ) is formed by

adding an (        ) after the first letter, rendering a (           ) to the

second letter and (        ) to the final letter. Thus, (          ) becomes

(     ). In the dual forms (       ), (       ) and (     ) are attached to

the end, e.g. (          ). For the feminine form, a round ( ) is

inserted at the end. For the masculine plural (                     ), (   ) is

inserted, e.g. (         ), while for the feminine plural (                  ),

the syllable, (      ) is attached, e.g. (              ). There are three
scales for the masculine form and three for the feminine form of
the word.




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In the indicative case (                 ), the (       ) is used with an (      )

while in the accusative and genative cases (                                  ), it

is used with a ( ) preceded by a (               ). The (      ) of the (     ) is

(        ), e.g. (         ) and (         ).


For the masculine plural in (                       ), a ( ) is used while in

(                        ), a ( ) preceded by a (               ) is used. The

(    ) of (     ) is (       ), e.g. (          ) and     (      ).




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Exercise 13

Conjugate the (        ) of the following verbs:

                                                     (1)
                                                     (2)
                                                     (3)
                                                     (4)
                                                     (5)
                                                     (6)
                                                     (7)
                                                     (8)
                                                     (9)
                                                    (10)




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The Passive Participle (                    )


The passive participle (                ) is that entity on which the

action occurs, e.g. (          ) – the thing which is opened. It is

formed by adding a (               ) at the beginning, a ( ) after the

second letter and (         ) at the end. The first root letter (

      ) becomes (       ) while the second one becomes (               ).
The additions for the dual and plural forms are the same as the
(           ). Like the (             ), it also has six word-forms.




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Exercise 14

Conjugate the (         ) of the following verbs:


                                                     (1)
                                                     (2)
                                                     (3)
                                                     (4)
                                                     (5)
                                                     (6)
                                                     (7)
                                                     (8)
                                                     (9)
                                                    (10)




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The Elative (               )


The (             ) is a derived noun that indicates the comparative

or superlative degree e.g. (           ) – more virtuous or most

virtuous. The scale of (        ) is used for this purpose, except for
colours and defects. In the case of colours and defects, the scale
of (      ) is used for (              ) e.g. (     ) – red, (      )–

blind. Tanwīn never enters the end of (                 ). The (

         ) generally renders the meaning of the doer (           ) but

sometimes it can render the meaning of the object (              ), e.g.

(       ) - more famous.


Hereunder follows the paradigm of the (                ):




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Exercise 15

Conjugate the (         ) of the following verbs:


                                                     (1)
                                                     (2)
                                                     (3)
                                                     (4)
                                                     (5)
                                                     (6)
                                                     (7)
                                                     (8)
                                                     (9)
                                                    (10)




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The (               )


The (              ) is a derived noun referring to the permanent

quality of an entity, e.g. (        ) – beautiful. The (                ) on

the other hand describes a temporary quality e.g. (                      ) –
listening at the moment. A person will only be referred to as
(       ) if the quality of (       ) emanates from him whereas the

attribute of (          ) applies to a person all the time.The (

      ) is always intransitive (          ) even though it may be

constructed from a transitive verb (           ). Hence the difference

between (         ) and (        ) is that (      ) indicates a being

listening at the moment while (            ) indicates a being which
permanently has the quality of listening even though there may
be no object. Therefore one can say (                           ), but to say

(                ) is incorrect. The (           ) has six word-forms

like the (               ). For the dual and plural forms, changes are

made to the end as in the (               ).


Hereunder follows the paradigm of the (                    ):




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The (             ) is used on many scales for which there is no

rule. It is based on (   ) – as heard from the Arabs. Sometimes

a ( ), ( ) or ( ) is inserted after the second alphabet, e.g.

(       ), (     ), (     ). Sometimes the root-form remains

intact but a change occurs in the harakāt, e.g. (     ), (      ),

(     ). Some of the more common scales are listed hereunder.

                 Scale   Example      Meaning
                                      handsome

                                       impure

                                        brave




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                                           chaste

                                            thick

                                           empty

                                               free

                                           happy

                                         companion

                                            noble

                                               red

                                           thirsty


The Noun of the Instrument (                   )


The (           ) is a derived noun that indicates the instrument

used for the action. It is formed by adding a (             ) at the
beginning of the root letters. It has three scales.


               Scales

             Examples

             Meanings       needle       fan          key




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The paradigm including the dual and plural cases is as follows:

                         Scales               Examples




Sometimes the underived noun (                   ) is used to denote an
instrument. Different scales are used for this purpose but there is
no rule for arriving at a particular scale. Examples:
(       ) - axe , (     ) – adze6, (       ) - knife.




6
    Adze: kind of axe with arched blade used for shaping wood.


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Exercise 16

(a) Conjugate the (           ) of the following verbs:



       (5 )            (4 )           (3 )         (2 )      (1 )


     (10)              (9 )           (8 )         (7 )      (6 )


(b) Identify the derived nouns in the following sentences:


        .                                                    ( 1)
                              .                              ( 2)
        .                                                    ( 3)
                                  .                          ( 4)
                                      .                      ( 5)
                                             .               ( 6)




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The Adverb (                      )


The (                 ) is a derived noun that indicates the place or
time of the action. If the word indicates the place of the action, it
is called (                  ) and if it indicates the time of the action, it

is called (                  ). It is made by adding a (               ) at the

beginning of the root letters. It has two scales, namely (               ) and

(       ). If the (            ) is (              ) or (                 ) or

(       ), the (                 ) will be on the scale of (            ), e.g.

(       ), (       ) and (       ). If the (        ) is (                ) or

(     ), the (                 ) will be on the scale of        (       ), e.g.

(         ) and (       ).

The paradigm including the dual and plural forms is as follows:



                                                              scale

                                                             example



The (                 ) is often constructed from the underived noun

(       ) on the scale of (           ) to indicate an excess of that object
in that place, e.g.


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(       ) – a place of many lions - derived from (          ) – lion,

(       )– a place of many predators - derived from (                   ) –
predator,
(          ) – a place of many ducks - derived from (            ) – duck.

There are certain words, which according to the rule should have
a(         ) on the (             ), but have been used with a (             )
instead. These may be regarded as exceptions to the rule. The
scholars have written that it is permissible to pronounce these
words with a (          ) as well. These words are:


    Word          Meaning           Word             Meaning
                  place of                       place of assembly
                 prostration
               place of rising                    place of falling

               place of staying                       intersection

                   place of                    place of slaughtering
                slaughtering
                   place of                               east
                 germinating
               place of resting                          west
                  the elbow
                    nostril                      place where one
                                                expects something


Sometimes the (                   ) is used on the scale of (         ), e.g.



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(       ) – antimony bottle, from (     ) - antimony.

The scale of (     ) indicates the place where a thing falls during
the action, e.g.
(      ) – the water which falls during bathing,

(      ) – the dirt which falls off the broom when sweeping.


Exercise 17

(a) Conjugate the (            ) of the following verbs:


                                                            (1)
                                                            (2)
                                                            (3)
                                                            (4)
                                                            (5)
                                                            (6)
                                                            (7)
                                                            (8)
                                                            (9)
                                                           (10)


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The Intensive Adjective (                    )


The (                  ) is a noun that indicates excess in meaning of

the verbal noun e.g. (            ) – one who hits a lot. The difference

between (                  ) and (               ) is that in (             ),
the excess meaning is limited to itself without taking others into
consideration whereas in the (                           ), the excess in

meaning is in comparison to others. Hence (                              ) or

(                ) is in comparison to others while (              ) is not in
comparison to anyone.

In the (                ), there is no difference in gender. Sometimes

a ( ) is added for excess in meaning, e.g. (                      ) – a very

learned man, (                 ) - a very learned woman.


When (       ) is in the meaning of (              ), or (        ) is in the

meaning of (              ), a differentiation is made between the
masculine and feminine forms. Examples:
(          ),(             )

(                ),(             ).

The following scales are the ones most frequently used for




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(           ):

        Scale    Example             Meaning
                                   very cautious

                                very knowledgeable

                                     big eater

                                 shedder of blood

                                     very great

                                   very truthful

                                 one who cuts a lot

                            one who awards many prizes

                                    chatterbox

                                    very strange

                                   very decisive

                             one who habitually laughs

                                      eternal

                                     most holy

                                     very agile




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Exercise 18

(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:
       (1)     He is very agile.
       (2)     This book is very strange.
       (3)     The principal awards many prizes.
       (4)     Abū Bakr is very truthful.
       (5)     She is a big eater.
       (6)     Allāh is very knowledgeable.
       (7)     The king was a shedder of blood.
       (8)     The student is very cautious.
       (9)     His mother is very patient.
       (10) The mujāhid is extremely brave.

(B) What is the scale of the following (         ):

                                                       (1)
                                                       (2)
                                                       (3)
                                                       (4)
                                                       (5)
                                                       (6)
                                                       (7)
                                                       (8)
                                                       (9)
                                                      (10)


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              The Categories (                       ) of Verbs

The (         ) of (           )


You have already learnt that the verbs of (                       ) –three root-

letter verbs – have six categories (                 ) – plural of (   ).


The First (         ): (            )

(            ) – the (                  ) of the (        ) has a (     ) while

the (          ) has a (       ), e.g. (        ) – to help. The abbreviated

paradigm7 of this (         ) is as follows:




7
    The abbreviated paradigm is where the first (            ) of each paradigm
of the active and passive tenses is used.


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The Second (              ):(                      )

(           ) – the (                       ) of the (         ) has a (         ) while

the (            ) has a (         ), eg (               ) – to hit. The abbreviated

paradigm of this (           ) is as follows:




The Third (           ):(              )

(           ) – the (                       ) of the (         ) has a (         ) while

the (            ) also has a (                ), e.g. (        ) – to open. The

condition for this (          ) is that if the verb is          (          )8, the (

        ) or (                ) must be from the (                               ). This

does not mean that every verb which is (                            ) and whose (


8
    (       ) is that word which has no (                            ), two letters of the

same type or (      ) as its root letter.



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        ) or (               ) is from the (                    ), will be from

(           ). The abbreviated paradigm of this (                   ) and the

remaining (            ) is similar to the above-mentioned examples.




The Fourth (            ):(                )

(           ) – the (                ) of the (        ) has a (       ) while

the (            ) has a (     ), e.g. (       ) – to listen.




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The Fifth (       ):(              )

(           ) – the (               ) of the (         ) has a (      ) while

the (          ) also has a (          ), e.g. (      ) – to be noble. The

verbs of this (         ) are intransitive. In this (      ), instead of the

(              ), the (                ) on the scale of (         ) has been

used, e.g. (       ).




The Sixth (        ):(                     )

(           ) – the (              ) of the (         ) has a (       ) while

the (          ) also has a (             ), e.g. (         ) – to ponder.

Besides (          ), no other (                   ) has been used in this

(    ). Acccording to some scholars, the verb (                      ) is also




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from this (         ). However, verbs that are (           )9 or (        )10 have

been used, e.g. (                  ) and (            ). The verb (          ) has

also been used with a (             ) on the (               ) of     (         ),

that is (           ).




9
     A word having a ( ) or ( ) as the (         ).
10
     A word having two (            ).



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Exercise 19

Conjugate the following verbs as done above:

                                                     (1)
                                                     (2)
                                                     (3)
                                                     (4)
                                                     (5)
                                                     (6)
                                                     (7)
                                                     (8)
                                                     (9)
                                                    (10)




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             The (         ) of (                    )
          The Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb

Arabic is extremely rich and copious in derived forms
which extend or modify the meaning of the root form of
the verb, giving many exact shades of meaning. This is a
common feature of Semitic languages and perhaps it
reaches its pinnacle in Arabic.

Derived forms are made by adding letters before or between the
root letters of the simple verb. Accordingly, (      ), which is the
root, means to help. From this verb the following verbs are
derived with differing meanings:

              Verb                  Meaning
                                    to support

                                 to try to help

                          to render mutual assistance

                          to come to someone’s aid

                             to ask for assistance



Another example of derived verbs is (       ) which means to kill.
When extra letters are added to this root, the following meanings
are achieved.




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                   Verb                 Meaning
                                       to massacre

                                     to combat, battle

                               to fight with one another

                                     to risk one’s life


Very few verb roots have all the other derived forms. Some have
only one (like –      to drive away) or two (like               – to sink),
while others have four or five as in the above examples. There is
often a good deal of overlapping of meaning between the forms.

Sometimes the root form is not in use while the derived forms
are used, e.g. (      - to arrange).


The (       ) of (                   ) are twelve in total. They are

formed by adding extra letters to the (                       ) of (

    ). Upto a maximum of three extra letters can be added to a
verb, thus bringing the maximum number of letters of a verb to
six (root letters plus extra letters).

Seven of these (          ) have (              ) at the beginning while

five do not have. Besides (                ), every letter with a (       )

will become (             ) in the (                      ) except for the




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penultimate letter which will be (        ). The (       ) will
remain as it is,
e.g. (       ), (        ).


When ( ) or ( ) are used in the (            ), the (           )

will not be pronounced as will the (   ) of the ( ) and ( ), e.g.

(          ), (     ).




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The 12 (     ) of (           ) are as follows:

                 Example   Extra Letters



                                              no hamza

                                              no hamza




                                              no hamza

                                              no hamza




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Construction of the Derived Nouns

To construct the (                  ) of any (   ) besides (               ),

the (                   ) is modified by adding a (                 ) at the

beginning and making the penultimate letter (                  ) if it is not

already (        ).
Examples:




The (                 ) is like the (                ) except that the

penultimate letter is (        ).
Examples:




The (                 ) of these (        ) is used on the scale of the

(            ). There is neither (               ) nor (                ) in

these (      ). In ordert to express the meaning of the (                  ),




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the words (      ) are added to the (           ) for this purpose, e.g.

(              ) – the means of refraining.


To express the (                ), the word (      ) is used before the

(                ), e.g. (              ) – more refraining. Words like

(     ), (   ) etc. can also be used.




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     The Abbreviated Paradigm (                              ) of Each
                                 (        )




                                                                      11
The sign of (                    ) is a (                         )        in the

(                 ) and (         ) while the (                              ) is

always (             ). The (                        ) of the (              ) is

deleted from the (              ). Thus (              ) becomes (             ).
The remaining word-forms follow the same pattern.

The detailed       paradigms         of       this   verb   are       provided
hereunder.




11
    A hamzah that is not deleted in pronunciation when prefixed by any
letter.



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                                          :
                                    .

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Exercise 20

Conjugate the following verbs:

                       ( 5)          ( 4)          (3)     (2)          ( 1)




The sign of (                  ) is the tashdîd of the (          ) in the

(        ) and (                   ) without a (    ) preceding the (

        ). The (                       ) of this (       ) is also always

(          ).

The (           ) of this (    ) is also used on the following scales:

(     ) e.g. (                );

(     ) e.g. (         );

(       ) e.g. (       );

(       ) e.g. (        ).

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.




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                                            :
                                     .

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Exercise 21

Conjugate the following verbs:

                               (5)          ( 4)    (3)      (2)      ( 1)




The sign of (                  ) is the (           ) after the (         )

in the (                     ) and (                      ) without a (   )

preceding it. The (                            ) of this (    ) is always

(         ).

The (          ) of (             ) is also used on the following scales:

(     ) e.g. (      );

(       ) e.g. (        ).


The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.




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                                              :
                                              .

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Exercise 22

Conjugate the following verbs:

                    (5)           (4)    (3)           (2)     ( 1)




The sign of (              ) is the ( ) before the (         ). This

(    ) is always intransitive (     ).

The detailed paradigms of this verb follow hereunder.




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                                            :
                                    .

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Exercise 23

Conjugate the following verbs:

                (5)           (4)           ( 3)           (2)             ( 1)




The sign of (                ) is the (    ) after the (         ).

Rule 1

If the (           ) of (                 ) is ( ), ( ), or ( ), the (     ) of

(        ) is changed to ( ). If the (              ) is a ( ), then (        -

assimilation) is compulsory, e.g. (            ) changes to (         ).


If the (            ) of (                ) is ( ), then after changing the

(   ) to ( ), the following three changes are permissible:

(1) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of (                 ) is applied,

e.g. (       ) changes to (         ).




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(2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( ) and then the rule of

(        ) is applied to the (                    ), e.g. (         ) changes to

(        ).
(3) Sometimes the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of
(        ), e.g. (        ).


If the (                ) of (            ) is ( ), then after changing the

(   ) to ( ), the following two changes are permissible:

(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (                    ),

e.g. (         ).

(2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to ( ) and then the rule of

(        ) is applied to the (                    ), e.g. (         ) changes to

(        ).

Rule 2

If the (               ) of (            ) is (      ), (     ), ( ), or ( ), the

(   ) of (           ) is changed to ( ). If the (                ) is a ( ), then

it is compulsory to apply (            ) e.g. (             ) changes to (     ).

If the (               ) of (            ) is ( ), then after changing the

(   ) to ( ), the following three changes are permissible:



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(1) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of (                     ) is applied,

e.g. (       ) changes to (            ).

(2) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (                   ),

e.g. (        ).

(3) The ( ) is changed to ( ) and the rule of (                     ) is applied,

e.g. (       ) changes to (            ).


If the (                 ) of (                ) is (    ) or (    ), then after

changing the (           ) to ( ), the following two possibilities are
permissible:
(1) the verb is left as it is without applying the rule of (                   ),

e.g. (        ) and (             ).

(2) Sometimes the ( ) is changed to (                   ) or (    ) and then the

rule of (          ) is applied, e.g. (              ) changes to (        ) and

(          ) changes to (              ).

Rule 3

If the (             ) of (                 ) is (   ), then it is permissible to

change the (        ) to (    ) and apply the rule of (            ), e.g. (    )

changes to (        ).



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Rule 4

If the (                 ) of (               ) is (     ), (    ), ( ), ( ), ( ),

( ), ( ), ( ), (          ), (    ), ( ), or ( ), then after changing the

(   ) to the same letter as the (                     ), the (       ) of the (    )

is transferred to the preceding letter and the rule of (                      ) is

applied. The (                    ) is deleted, e.g. (              ) changes to

(      ) and (            ) changes to (         ).


(4.2) The (              ) of these verbs - (            ) and (       ) - will be

(        ) and (          ).


(4.3) It is permissible to have a (                   ) on the (            ), e.g.

(                    ) and (                ). The words (                  ) and

(      ) which have appeared in the Qur’ân are from this (                    ).

(4.4) It is permissible to read a (              ) on the (               ) of the

(                  ). Therefore all three harakats are permissible, e.g.

(          ), (         ), (       ).

Some of the detailed                    paradigms      of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                            :
                                     .

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Exercise 24

Conjugate the following verbs:

                      (5)          (4)               ( 3)        (2)           ( 1)




The sign of (                    ) is the repetition of the (                 ) and

four letters after the (                    ) in the (                 ). The (

         ) of this (        ) is always (        ) except in (         ).12

Some of the detailed                  paradigms         of this verb follow
hereunder.




12
     The rules of (     ) will be discussed later.



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                                            :
                                    .

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Exercise 25

Conjugate the following verbs:

                  (5)         (4)        (3)        (2)         ( 1)




The sign of (        ) is the tashdīd of the (            ) and (   )

precedes the (          ) in the (             ).

Some of the detailed         paradigms    of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                              :
                                                  .

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Exercise 26

Conjugate the following verbs:

                    ( 5)                ( 4)       (3)        (2)       ( 1)




The sign of (                   ) is that the (   ) precedes the (          )

in the (                  ) and there is an extra (         ) after the (

       ).

Rule 1

In (            ) and (                 ), when two (     )’s are adjacent to

one another in the (                     ), it is permissible to delete one,
e.g.
(      )                    (       )

(           )               (            ).




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Rule 2

If the (           ) of (           ) and (               ) is (   ), (   ),

( ), ( ) ,( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), (            ), (    ), ( ) or ( ), it is

permissible to change the (     ) into the (              ) and apply the

rule of (     ). In this case, the (                 ) and (    ) require a

(            ) at the beginning. The (                ) and (             )
have been created due to this rule.

Examples:
(     )        (          )     (      )

(     )        (      )         (      )




                                                           _


Some of the detailed          paradigms           of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                              :
                                               .

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Exercise 27

Conjugate the following verbs:

                (5)        (4)          ( 3)       (2)           ( 1)




The sign of (              ) is the extra ( ) and (      ) before the

(          ).

It is permissible to delete the (       ) from the verb (

        ). The verbs (              ) and (           ) mentioned

in the Qur’ân are from this (      ).

Some of the detailed            paradigms     of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                              :
                                 .

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Exercise 28

Conjugate the following verbs:

         (5)               (4)          ( 3)          ( 2)               ( 1)




The sign of (                 ) is the repetition of the ( ) and the

appearance of a ( ) between the two ( )’s. This ( ) has changed

to a ( ) in the (          ) due to the preceding (          ). This (      )

is mostly intransitive (      ).

Some of the detailed               paradigms   of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                              :
                             .


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Exercise 29

Conjugate the following verbs:

                                        (3)        (2)            ( 1)




The sign of (                ) is the repetition of the ( ) and the

appearance of an extra (        ) before the first ( ) in the (

        ). This (    ) changes to a ( ) in the (      ).


The (       ) in this (   ) is similar to the (    ) of (          ).

The verbs of (                ) and (              ) mostly have the

meanings of colours and defects and they are intransitive (       ).

Some of the detailed           paradigms      of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                              :
                                               .


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Exercise 30

Conjugate the following verbs:

                       (4)          ( 3)          ( 2)        ( 1)




The sign of (          ) is the ( ) after the (          ).

Some of the detailed         paradigms     of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                                 :
                                             .


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Exercise 31

(A) Conjugate the following verbs:

                                                       ( 1)
                                                       ( 2)

(B) What is the (    ) of the following words:

                                                       ( 1)
                                                       ( 2)
                                                       ( 3)
                                                       ( 4)
                                                       ( 5)
                                                       ( 6)
                                                       ( 7)
                                                       ( 8)
                                                       ( 9)
                                                      (10)




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                      Four-Root letter Verbs
                         The (         ) of (           )




The sign of (             ) is the presence of four root letters in the

(             ). The (                   ) of this (           ) is (            ).


The rule for the (        ) of the (                        ) is that if the (

       ) has four letters, whether root letters or extra letters, the

(                ) will be (                  ) even in the active tense

(        ), e.g. (       ), (          ), (          ), (      ). If the (

       ) has less than or more than four letters, the (

        ) will be (        ), e.g. (          ), (           ), (        ).


Four-root letter verbs are of three types:
(1) those of genuine four-radical origin, e.g. (                    ) – to translate.


(2) verbs formed by the doubling of a biliteral root, e.g. (                          )–




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to gargle, (       ) – to stammer.

(3) composite roots taken from a familiar phrase or combination
of roots, e.g. (         ) – to say Al-hamdulillāh, (   ) – to say
Bismillāh.

Some of the detailed            paradigms   of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                              :
                                                  .


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Exercise 32

Conjugate the following verbs:

                                                       ( 1)
                                                       ( 2)
                                                       ( 3)
                                                       ( 4)
                                                       ( 5)
(B) What is the (    ) of the following words:

                                                       ( 1)
                                                       ( 2)
                                                       ( 3)
                                                       ( 4)
                                                       ( 5)
                                                       ( 6)
                                                       ( 7)
                                                       ( 8)
                                                       ( 9)
                                                      (10)


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  The Derived Forms of Four-Root Letter Verbs




The sign of (          ) is the extra (    ) before the four root
letters.

Some of the detailed      paradigms       of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                             :
                                   .


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Exercise 33

Conjugate the following verbs:

                ( 5)    (4)          ( 3)         (2)             ( 1)




The sign of (           ) is having four root letters, the repetition

of the second ( ) and the inclusion of (             ) in the (

      ) and (     ).

Some of the detailed          paradigms     of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                                 :
                                             .


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Exercise 34

Conjugate the following verbs:

             ( 5)        ( 4)         ( 3)         (2)             ( 1)




The sign of (            ) is the inclusion of (                ) in the

(            ) and (   ) and the extra ( ) after the     ( ).

Some of the detailed            paradigms    of this verb follow
hereunder.




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                                             :
                                  .


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Exercise 35

(A) Conjugate the following verbs:

                                                       ( 1)
                                                       ( 2)
                                                       ( 3)
                                                       ( 4)
                                                       ( 5)

(B) What is the (    ) of the following words:

                                                       ( 1)
                                                       ( 2)
                                                       ( 3)
                                                       ( 4)
                                                       ( 5)
                                                       ( 6)
                                                       ( 7)
                                                       ( 8)
                                                       ( 9)
                                                      (10)

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                     Other Derived Forms
                The (         ) of (                    )


There are two categories of (          ) here:

(1) (                    )

(2) (                     )


The first category (                    ) has seven (           ):

(1) (         ) – the ( ) is repeated, e.g. (           ) – to don a
shawl.


                                                                 :


(2) (            ) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g.

(        ) – to don a trouser.


                                                            :


(3) (       ) – there is an extra ( ) after the (                    ), e.g.

(        ) – to command. This word can be used as (              ) as well.


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                                                       :


(4) (       ) – there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g.

(       ) – to trim the extra leaves of a plant.


                                                        :


(5) (        )– there is an extra ( ) after the (               ), e.g.

(       ) – to make someone don socks.


                                                            :


(6) (      )– there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. (        ) – to
make someone don a hat.

                                                            :


(7) (      )– there is an extra ( ) after the ( ), e.g. (        ) – to


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make someone don a hat.

                                                                          :


(       )     was        originally    (     ).     (         )   was    originally

(           ). (        ) was originally (           ). These changes will be
discussed later.

The second category - (                                 ) has three groups:

(1) (                     )

(2) (                         )

(3) (                     )


The first group (                      ) has 8 (         ):


(1) (          ) – the extra letters are (        ) before the (    ) and the ( )

is repeated, e.g. (               ) – to don a shawl.


(2) (              ) – the extra letters are (     ) before the (   ) and the ( )

between the ( ) and the ( ), e.g. (                     ) – to don a trouser.


(3) (          ) – the extra letters are (         ) before the (       ) and a ( )



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after the (     ), e.g. (       ) – to be a satan.


(4) (         ) – the extra letters are (     ) before the (     ) and a ( )

after the (     ), e.g. (         ) – to don socks.


(5) (         ) – the extra letters are (     ) before the (     ) and a ( )

after the ( ), e.g. (          ) – to don a trouser.


(6) (         ) – the extra letters are a (    ) and a ( ) before the (    ),

e.g. (          ) – to be poor.


(7) (          ) – the extra letters are a (      ) before the (    ) and a

(   ) after the ( ), e.g. (         ) – to behave like a devil.


(8) (      ) – the extra letters are a (      ) before the (     ) and a ( )

after the ( ), e.g. (         ) – to don a hat.


The conjugation of these (                    ) should be done like

(        ), while the last one, namely, (         ) is like (             ).


The second group, (                     ) has two (         ):

(1) (          ) – The second ( ), the ( ) after the ( ) and the (


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        ) are extra, e.g. (          ) – to walk with the chest and
neck protruding out.

                                                             :



(2) (       ) – The ( ) after the ( ), the ( ) after the ( ) and the

(             ) are extra, e.g. (      ) – to lie on one’s back.



                                                            :


The (          ) of this (          ) – (              ) was originally

(         ). The ( ) was changed to a (           ).


The third group - (                 ) has one (        ):

(         ) – The ( ) after the (       ) and one ( ) is extra, e.g.

(         ) – to strive.


                                                                 :



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In all the word-forms of this (    ), (        ) has been applied and

the changes are similar to those of (     ).




Exercise 36

What is the word-form (       ) of the following words and which

(    ) are they from:


                                                                ( 1)
                                                                ( 2)
                                                                ( 3)
                                                                ( 4)
                                                                ( 5)
                                                                ( 6)
                                                                ( 7)
                                                                ( 8)
                                                                ( 9)
                                                               (10)




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                     The Seven Categories

With regards to the letters of verbs, they fall into seven
categories, namely:


Definitions

        Term              Meaning              Example
                  A word whose root letters do
                  not have a (         ), (           )13
                  or two letters of the same type
                  A word having a (                     )
                  in the (             )

                  A word having a (                     )
                  in the (                 )

                  A word having a (                     )
                  in the (                 )

                  A word having a (                ) as a
                  root letter – a hamzated verb
                  A word having, as its root
                  letters, two letters of the same
                  type
                  A word having two            (
                       ) as the root letters


13
     The (     ) are ( ), (   ) and ( ).


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1) The term (                        ) refers to any verb that contains a

(                  ).

2) If there is a (                        ) in the (               ), it is called

(                ) or (    ), eg (       ).

3) If there is a (                       ) in the (                ), it is called

(                 ) or (       ), e.g. (           ).

4) If there is a (                            ) in the (           ), it is called

(                ) or (      ), e.g. (        ).


5) If the (                          ) has a ( ), it is called (             ) eg

(      ).

6) If the (                    ) has a ( ), it is called (                  ). eg

(      ).

7) If the (                          ) has a ( ), it is called (                 )

eg (        ).

8) If the (                     ) has a ( ), it is called (                      )

eg (        ).


9) If the (                    ) has a ( ), it is called (                   ) eg




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(      ).

10) If the (                  ) has a ( ), it is called (                       ) eg

(       ).


11) If the (                  ) has a (          ), it is called (                 )

eg (         ).

12) If the (                         ) has a (          ), it is called (

       ) eg (       ).

13) If the (                  ) has a (        ), it is called (                   )

eg (        ).


14) (              ) is of two types: (                              ) and (

            ).

15) (                           ) is when the two (                            ) are

separate, e.g. (         ).

16) (                           ) is when the two (                            ) are

adjacent to one another, e.g. (                ).

17) If the (                         ) and (                 ) are the same, it is

called (                       ) e.g. (   ).




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18) If the (   ) and the first ( ) and the ( ) and the second

( ) are the same letters, it is called (                    ) e.g.

(     ).




Exercise 37

Classify the following verbs according to the seven categories:

                                                             ( 1)
                                                             ( 2)
                                                             ( 3)
                                                             ( 4)
                                                             ( 5)
                                                             ( 6)
                                                             ( 7)
                                                             ( 8)
                                                             ( 9)
                                                            (10)




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                      The Rules of (                     )
Rule 1:
It is permissible to change a (                    ), that is alone and

(      ) to correspond to the previous (               ).
That is,
(a) after a (   ), change the (          ) into an (          ).
Example
(      )(head) becomes(        .)


(b) after a (    ), change the (         ) into a ( ).
Example
      (destitute) becomes (         ).


(c) after a (     ), change the (          ) into a ( ).
Example
      (wolf) becomes (        ).

                          nnnnn
Rule 2
If a hamzah mutaharrik (                                 ) appears before a

(       ) that is (        ), it becomes necessary to change the

(      ) letter to the corresponding (                       ).

Examples


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      becomes

      becomes

      becomes            .
                               nnnnn

Rule 3
(3.1) It is permissible to change a (                ) that is (     )

and is preceded by a (          ) to a ( ).
Example
      becomes

      is the plural of          which means a perfume holder.

(3.2) It is permissible to change a (                ) that is (     )

and is preceded by a (            ) into a ( ).
Example
    becomes         .
                               nnnnn

Rule 4
(4.1) If two (               )’s are (            ) and one of them is

(          ), then it is permissible to change the second (          )

into a ( ).
Example




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         can also be read as         .

If there are two (                )'s which are (             ) and none of

them are (                     ), then it is necessary to change the

second (          ) into a ( ).


Examples
i)           will be read as

ii)          will be read as


(        ) originally was (              )(              of          ). The

    ( ) which comes after (                        ) will change into a

    (        ). It becomes (                  ). Now there are two (

              ) and one of them is (                ) . The second (          )

changes into a ( ) becoming (                          ) (according to the

rule of              - rule       4.1). (         ) can also be written as

              . The (             ) on the ( ) is                 (difficult to

pronounce). Therefore it is removed and                       (               )

remains. Now due to (                                         ) (the coming

together of two [                  ] letters), the (              ) is deleted.




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We are left with             which can also be read as       .

Step by Step
                                  (       )(        )

         (       )                    (    )

                              nnnnn

Rule 5
If a (        ) comes after the ( ) or ( ) that are                 and

     or if a (         ) comes after the ( ) of (                ), it is

permissible to change the (                    ) into the letter that

precedes it and then (                ) (incorporation of one letter
into another) is made.


Example of ( )




The word (           ) is the (           ) of (        ).

Example ( )

                                                         .




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Example of

                                                                    .


The word (                 ) is the (                     ) of (             ) which is

the (       ) of (     ) - meaning axe.

                                  nnnnn

Rule 6
If there occurs a (             ) after the (         ) of                   and before

a ( ), the (               ) changes to (                          ) and the ( )

changes to (          ).
Example
The word (             ) is the plural of (          ).

The word (                 ) was originally (                 ). The ( ) which

comes after the (                ) of (         ) as the second last letter,

changes into a (                ).14     It becomes (                   ).    Now we

have two (                              )’s and one of them is (                     ).

The rule of (                 ) applies, whereby the second (                         )

changes into a ( ) and becomes                                . Now there is a


14
     This refers to rule no. 18 which you will read under the rules of         .


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(            ) after the (           ) of           and it is before a ( ). It

changes to (                          ) and the ( ) changes to (                ). The

word becomes (                ).


NOTE: This law is compulsory (                      ).

Step by Step



                                     nnnnn

Rule 7
If a (           ) is (              ) and it comes after a (                 ) that is

not a (                   ) nor is it (                  ) , then the (           ) of

the (         ) is given to the letter preceding it.


This law is permissible (                     ).
Examples
1) In the word (                   ), the (        ) of the (         ) is given to

the ( ) and the (             ) is then deleted. It becomes

(       ).

2) In the words                       the (        ) of the (             ) is given to

the ( ) and the (            ) is then deleted. It becomes


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(          ).

3) In the words                           the (               ) of the (     ) is

transferred to the ( ) and the (                        ) is then deleted.     It

becomes (               ).

                                 nnnnn

Rule 8
The rule of (                   ) is compulsorily applied to all the

(         ) (verbs) of (            ) and (            )(

         ).


Example
In (      ) the (            ) of the (            ) is given to the ( ) and the

(       ) is deleted. It becomes (            ).

NOTE:
It is permissible to apply this rule to the (                                      )
(derived nouns) too.
The (                 ) can be read as (             ) or (     ).

The (            ) can be read as (       ) or (        ).

The (            ) of the (         ) of (             ) is given to the ( ) and




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then the (         ) is removed leaving (          ).

The (                 ) can be read as (          ) or (       ).

                                  nnnnn

Rule 9
If a (                          ) is preceded by a (                ) letter, then

both (                              ) and (                            ) are both
permissible.
9.1 (                      ) is to read the (             ) between its (         )

and the (          ) of the (                 ) corresponding to its

(hamza’s)             .

9.2 (                        ) is to read a letter between its (              ) and

the (             ) of the (                            ) corresponding to the

preceding (           ).

(        ) is also known as               .

Examples
When (              ) is made on the word (              ), then in both

(                  ) and (          ) the (             ) will be that of (       )

and (       ).

In the word (              ) if (                            ) is made, then the



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(      ) will be between (            ) and ( ). If (                       ) is

made, then the (           ) will be between (          ) and

(    ).

In the word (     ) if (                  ) is made, then the

(      ) will be between (            ) and ( ). If (                       ) is

made then the (        ) will be between (             ) and (    ).


(9.3) If there is a (                                 ) after (        ), it is

permissible to apply (                      ) only. (                       ) is
not permissible in this case.

Examples

[1] In the word (          ), the (      ) is (          ). Therefore the

(     ) will be read between the (                   ) of the (   ) and the

(     ).

[2] If (   ) is read with a (             ), the (       ) will be read

between the (          ) of the (          ) and (       ).

[3] If (   ) is read with a (              ), the (       ) will be read

between the (          ) of the (          ) and ( ).




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Rule 10

If a (                ) comes before a (      ) as in the word

(        ), then it is permissible to apply the rule of

(        ) (Rule 4). Thus, (     ) will be read as (           ).

It is also permissible to make (                 ), whether (        ) or

(    ).

It is also permissible to bring an (         ) between the two

(        )’s and read it as (    ).

                                nnnnn

Exercise 38

(1) Apply rule no.1 to the following words:

                                                 (3)           (2)   ( 1)

(2) Which rule applies to the word (           ) and how?

(3)Analyse the changes to the word (           ).

(4) Apply the rule of (           ) to the word (         ).

(5) What can (          ) also be read as?




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The Orthography15 of the Hamzah

The following rules are general guidelines with regards to
how a hamzah is written:
(a) Hamzah is invariably written over or under an alif at
the beginning of a word, e.g. (                 ), (    ) and (       ).
(b) When the initial hamzah is followed by an alif of
prolongation (long vowel                             ), the latter is replaced by a

madd over the initial alif, e.g. (               ) for (      ).
(c) The hamzah tends to be written over the semi-
consonant (                                    ) corresponding to the vowel

(         ) of the preceding letter.
Examples:
(      ), (          ), (      ), (        )


(d) Where the previous consonant has a (                                      ), the
hamzah           tends         to     be   written     over    the   semi-consonant
(                    ) coinciding with its own vowel (               ).
Examples:
(             ), (          ), (      )

This rule is applied for (                                    ) instead of (c) above.

Thus, (                 ) is written with a ( ) and (                  ) with a ( )
without dots.


15
     the correct spelling


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                 The Paradigms of (                    )




Analysis of the changes

(1) The (       ) of this (       ) is (        ) which is an exception

from the normal method of constructing the (                   ). (         )

was originally (       ).

(2) Similarly, the (          ) of (                 ) is (           ). It is

necessary to delete the (       ) from both (     ) and (     ).

(3) In the verb, (                 ), it is permissible to delete the

hamzas and to retain them. Therefore, both (                           ) and

(           ) are correct to use. If the verb is used at the
beginning of the sentence, it is more eloquent to delete the



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(     ), e.g. it is stated in a hadîth, (                                   ).
(4) If the verb is used in the middle of the sentence, then
most often the hamzah is retained, e.g. The Qur’ânic verse,
(                         ).

(5) In the word-forms of (                                    ) of this (        ),

besides the singular first person (                                  ), the rule of

(     ) has been applied. The same rule applies to the

(               ) and (                 ).

(6) The rule of (        ) applies in the (            ).

(7) The rule of (                ) applies in the (                               )

except for the singular first person (                        ).

(8) In the singular first person (                                 ) of (

           ) and the (                  ), the rule of (      ) applies.

(9) In the plural (            ) of (                       ), the rule of (      )
applies.
(10) In the singular first person of the (                                       ),

the rule of (       ) applies.




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Exercise 39

(a) Conjugate the following verbs:
                                                           ( 1)
                                                           ( 2)

(b) What is the paradigm of the (                          ) of

(     )?

(c) What is the paradigm of the (                          ) of

(   )?

(d) What is the paradigm of the (                          ) of

(    )?

(e) How has the word (      ) changed from its original?




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Analysis of the changes

(1) The changes of this (             ) are similar to those of (

          ) except for the imperative (        )–(          ) – where the

rule of (       ) applies.

(2) The other (              ) of (                  ) follow the same
pattern.



Exercise 40

Conjugate the following verbs:
                                                                     ( 1)
                                                                     ( 2)

(b) What is the paradigm of the (                                   ) of

(    )?

(c) What is the paradigm of the (               ) of ( )?

(d) What is the paradigm of the (                    ) of (    )?

(e) How has the word (           ) changed from its original?




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Analysis of the changes

(1) The rule of (            ) applies in the (                  ),

(           ) and (         ).

(2) The rule of (       ) applies in the (         ).

(3) The rule of (     ) applies in the (                ).

(4) The rule of (            ) applies in the (                  ),

(           ), (             ) and (          ).




Analysis of the changes

(1) Conjugate all the verbs of (                             ) like

the conjugations of (       ) and (     ).




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Exercise 41

Conjugate the following verbs:
                                                                       ( 1)
                                                                       ( 2)
                                                                       ( 3)

(b) What is the paradigm of the (                                      ) of

(      )?

(c) What is the paradigm of the (                  ) of ( )?

(d) What is the paradigm of the (                      ) of (    )?

(e) How has the word (             ) changed from its original?




Discussion of (                     )


(1) The rule of (                 ) or (          ) applies to all the verbs

of (        ) of (                                   ). Note that this rule
is optional.
(2) The rule of (            ) applies to the (            ) and (      ) of

(                            ).

(3) (          ) is from (                  ), (                  ) is from



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(         ), (           ) is from (          ), (            ) is from

(         ).

(4) In the imperative (                 ), after applying the rule of

(        ), the (                    ) is deleted. Therefore (         )

becomes ( ), (              ) becomes (            ), (     ) becomes

(    ) and (     ) becomes ( ).

The conjugation of the imperative second person (

                  ) form is as follows:




Discussion of (              )


(1) In most of the word-forms of (                        ), the rule of

(       ) or (        ) applies, e.g. (       ).

(2) The rule of (      ) applies to (                            ), e.g.




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(    ).

(3) The rule of (                               ), that is the rule of

(       ) applies to all the word-forms of (        ) and (

          ). Accordingly, in the words (     ) and (            ), the

hamzah can become (                ), in the words (    ) and (

           ), the hamzah can become ( ) and in the words (           )

and (           ), the hamzah can become ( ).


Exercise 42

Conjugate the following verbs:

                            ( 6)                                  ( 1)
                            ( 7)                                  ( 2)
                            ( 8)                                  ( 3)
                            ( 9)                                  ( 4)
                           (10)                                   ( 5)




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                           The Rules Of (                )
Rule 1
(1.1) The ( ) which appears between (                                     )16

which is (          ) and the (                       ) which is (              ),
falls off.

Example
The word           becomes            .

Every ( ) that comes between the

(                              ) and the (            ) which is

(            ), the ( ) falls off, on condition that either the

(          ) or the (           ) is from the (                    )17.
Example
The word            becomes               .

Note:
Every (                     ) on the scale of (                ) follows this
rule.
                                  nnnnn



16
                        are the following letters
17
     The                 are the following letters:



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Rule 2
If a (       ) is on the scale of (       ) and its (              ) is a

( ), that ( ) is deleted and the (                ) is given a

(        ). A ( ) is then added at the end of the word.

Step by Step Example




Note:
If the (           ) has a (            ) on its (               ), for example

in the word (       ), the (                   ) of the (             ) can also

be given a (       ).

Step by Step Example
The word (      ) the (        ) of (              ).




Note:
It is also permissible to read (         ) as (         ).

                               nnnnn




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Rule 3
(3.1) If a (              ) is not (     ) and is preceded by a

(       ), it changes into a ( ).

Example
The word                 changes to      .

Exception
The word (                   ) will remain unchanged, because the ( )

is           (      ).


(3.2) If (                  ) is not (            ) and it is preceded by a

(      ), the ( ) changes into a ( ).
Example
The word (           ) changes to (          ).

Exceptions
The word (         ) remains unchanged because the ( ) is

(       ).

(3.3) If an (              ) is preceded by a (             ), it will change

into a ( ).




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              From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Step by Step Example




(3.4) If an (         ) is preceded by a (                   ), it will change

into a ( ).

Example
The plural of (             ) is (          ). This changes to

(          ) because the (           ) is preceded by a (        ).

                                nnnnn

Rule 4
If the (           ) of (                ) is a (       ) or

(          ), the ( ) or ( ) will change into a (           ) and

(          ) will be made, that is, both the (                      )’s will be
assimilated.


Step by Step Example of (                           )




Step by Step Example of (                           )




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                              nnnnn

Rule 5

(5.1) If at the beginning of a word there is a (                          ), it

is permissible to change it into a (            ).

Examples
(            – plural of            ) changes to (              ). (This is an

example of an        ).

(         – the [                   ] of             ) changes to

(        ). (This is an example of a            ).


(5.2) If (                 ) appears at the beginning of a word, it

is permissible to change it to a (         ).


Example
(       – swordbelt) can be read as (                 ).


(5.3) If a (               ) appears in the middle of a word, it is

permissible to change it into a (          ).

Example
(     ) can be read as (       ).



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Rarely is a (               ) changed into a (      ).

Examples
(      - one) can be read as (         ).

(     – a lazy woman) can be read as (            ).

                                nnnnn

Rule 6
When two (                        ) come together at the beginning of

a word, it is compulsory (                       ) to change the first ( )

into a (       ).
Example
(          ) is read as (        ) (This is the plural of      ).

(           ) is read as (           ). This is the (                    ) of

(      ).
                                nnnnn


Rule 7
(7.1) If ( ) or ( ) (                ) is preceded by a             , the ( )

or ( ) is changed into an (           ).




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Examples
Example of a (                    ) in the middle of a (         ):

(    ) changes to (      ).

Example of a (                     ) in the middle of a (        ):

(   ) changes to (      ).

Example of a (                ) at the end of a (        ):

(    ) changes to (      ).

Example of a (                     ) at the end of a (      ):

(     ) changes to (         ).


Example of a (                ) in an (        ):

(     ) changes to (          ).

Example of a (                     ) in an (        ):

(    ) changes to (          ).


Conditions for the above rule

This rule only applies if the following conditions are met:

[1] The ( ) or (                   ) must not be in the place of the

(                  ). Therefore this rule will not apply to the word




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          - the ( ) is in the place of the (             ) and the

(   ) is a (                 ). It will also not apply to (      )

because the ( ) is in the place of the (                         ) of (

     ).

It will also not apply to              - ( ) is in the place of the

(              ) of (           ).


[2] The ( ) or ( ) must not be in place of the (                          ) of

a word which is (                   ). (        is that word which has two

                    ). Therefore this law will not apply to the word

(           ) . Here ( ) is in the place of the (                     ). The

law will also not apply in the word (                    ). Here ( ) is in

the place of the (             ).


[3] The ( ) or ( ) must not come before the (                             ) of

(               ). Therefore this law will not apply to the word

(          ), since there is a ( ) before the (             ) of (           )

and in the word (                     ), since there is a ( ) before the

(    ) of (             ).




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[4] The ( ) or ( ) must not come before a (                               ).

Therefore this law will not apply to the word (                            )

because the ( ) is before a ( ) which is not a (

         ). It will also not apply in the word (                  ) because

the ( ) after the ( ) is not a (                          ). Also in the

word (           ), the ( ) is before an (            ) which is not a

(             ).

Objection
In the words (          ), (         ), (          ) and (            ), the

( ) and ( ) were not supposed to be changed to (                           )

because they came before a (                        ), but yet this rule
has been applied.

Answer
The ( ) in these words is a separate word and it is the

(     ) of the (          ), while the (     ) is not (       ), therefore

the ( ) or ( ) changes to (         ) and then falls off due to

(                  ).




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Step by Step Examples
       (          )


            (             )


            (             )


           (          )


[5] The (                     ) or (        ) must not be before (

                ), for example, the word (            ).     The ( ) or

(                ) must also not be before (               ), for example,
the word
(          ).

[6] The word must not have the meaning of a colour or
defect, for example,
(    ) (to be one-eyed),

(     ) (to have a crooked neck).


[7] The word must not be on the scale of (                  ), (      ) or

(    ), for example

(      )–(            ) – example of ( ). [meaning – rotation]




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               From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(        )–(        ) example of ( ). [meaning – flowing]

(           ) – (           ) example of ( ). [meaning – name of a
spring of water]
(           ) – (           ) example of ( ). [meaning – to walk

arrogantly – from               ]

and (            )–(          ) example of ( ). [meaning – weaver –

plural of         ]


[8] The word must not be from (                                    ) having the

meaning of (                    ). For example, the word                    (in

the meaning of                      ) and                (in the meaning of

      ). Both words mean to take in turns.


(7.2) If after such an (              ) (which has been changed from

a   or    ), there is a (        ) letter, the (        ) falls off.

Examples


[1] In the word (               ), the first ( ) changes to (              ). It

becomes (           ). Here (         ) has come before a (                   ).

The (       ) falls off and it becomes (           ).




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[2] In the word (                    ), the first ( ) changes to an (                 ).

Due to the (                ) coming before a (                    ), it is deleted. It

becomes (              ).


(7.3) If such an (                   ) has come before a (                         ) of

(                      ), even if the (            ) is (          ), the (         ) is
deleted.

Examples
1. The word (                  ) changes to (                    ). Now we have an

(         ) before (                      ) of (                    ). Therefore it is

deleted. It becomes (                ).


2. The word (               ) changes to (             ). There is a (

             ) after the (            ). Therefore the (                ) is deleted. It

becomes            .


(7.4) In the (              ) of (                          ), from (

           ) until the end, if the word is (                                ), whether

the (                    ) has a (             ) or (            ), after deleting the

(       ), the (             ) is given a (            ).




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Example in which (                ) has a (                )


(       ) changes to (           ). The (          ) is now deleted because

it is followed by a (               ). It becomes (                  ). The ( ) is

now given a (                ) because it is (                                      ). It

becomes (        ). The word (      ) is from the (              ) of (        ).


Example in which (                ) has a (                )




The word (        ) is from the (      ) of (         ).


(7.5) In the (                                    ), from (

         ) till the end, after deleting the (                  ), if it is (

       ) or there is a (            ) on the (                      ) in (

      ), the (           ) is given a (          ).


Example in which (               ) has a (                 )


In the word (         ), the (                  ) is preceded by a (                   ).

Therefore the ( ) changes to (                    ). It becomes (                      ).



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The (         ) is deleted. It becomes (                  ). Now the (    ) is

given a (       ). It becomes (        ).


Step by Step Example of (                               ) with (      )




The word (      ) is from the (     ) of (         ).


                            nnnnn

Rule 8

(8.1) If the letter before ( ) or ( ) is (                     ), the (      )

of the ( ) or ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter.

Example


[1] In the word (           ), the (                ) of the ( ) which is a

(        ) in this case, is given to the ( ). It becomes (                  ).

(This is an example of                      ).



[2] In the word (        ), the (                ) of the ( ) is given to the

(   ). It becomes (          ). (This is an example of


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    ).


(8.2) If the (       ) is a (       ), the ( ) or ( ) is changed

into an (    ).

Examples


[1] In the word (       ), the (      ) of the ( ) is given to the

( ). It becomes (       ). Now due to the (        ), the   ( ) is

changed into an (    ) becoming (     ).




[2] In the word (      ), the (      ) of the ( ) is given to the

(   ) becoming (      ). Now due to the (          ) of the (   )

the ( ) changes into an (    ), thus becoming (    ).




Remember

The conditions applicable to Rule 7 apply to Rule 8 as
well.

(8.3) If such a ( ) or ( ) is followed by a (           ), in the



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case of (       ) and (        ), the ( ) or ( ) will be deleted.


Example of (                    )


In the word (                ) because of (                      ) the ( )

is deleted. It becomes (            ).


Example of


In the word (                  ), the ( ) is followed by a (             ),

therefore the ( ) is deleted. It becomes (            ).


(8.4) If a ( ) or ( ) is followed by a (                   ) and preceded

by a (           ), the (        ) (which was originally        or    ) is
deleted.

Examples

(           ) changes to (               ). After the (       ) is deleted,

it becomes (          ).

(            ) changes to (              ). After the (       ) is deleted,

it becomes (         ).
Important



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This rule (Rule 8) does not apply to the words (                       )
because condition number one has not been fulfilled.
In the words (             ) and (         ), the rule is not applied

because of condition number 2 - (              ).


The words (        ), (         ) and (             ) remain unchanged

because of the fourth condition - (                   ).


However, the ( ) of the (                       ) is an exception to

condition number 4. Despite there being a (                      ), the

(      ) of the ( ) or ( ) will still be given to the previous letter.


Example of (                    )

In the word (           ) which is the (               ) of (    ), the

(       ) of the ( ) is still transferred to the ( ). It becomes

(         ). Due to (                       ), the first ( ) is deleted.

It becomes (       ).




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Example of (                       )



In the word (            ) which is the (                     ) of (         ), the

(        ) of the ( ) is transferred to the (                  ).   It becomes

(        ). Due to (                              ), the ( ) is deleted and it

becomes (          ). Since the corresponding             (            ) of ( )

is a (      ), the (     ) is given a (         ). It becomes (        ).

Exception

In the words                   (to be one-eyed),                    (to have a

crooked neck),                     (black),          (white) and
(black), due to condition number 6 (i.e.                            having     the
meaning of a colour or defect), no change occurs.

The aforementioned rule (Rule 8) does not apply to (

         ), that is those words on the scale of (                            ); or

(               ), like (                 and              ); and words that

are (                  ), like (         and        ).

                                   nnnnn




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Rule 9

(9.1) If there is a ( ) in the (           ) of (                   ),

the preceding letter is made (            ) and the (         ) of the

( ) is transferred to the preceding letter.              Then the ( )

changes to ( ).

Example 1

                                                     .

Example 2




(9.2) If there is a ( ) in (                     ) in the place of the

(           ), the preceding letter is made (               ) and the

(         ) of the ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter.
No other changes are made.

Example 1


In the word (        ) the (       ) is made (           ). It becomes

(   ). Now the (       ) of the ( ) is transferred to the




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(   ), thus becoming (    ).




Example 2


In the word (            ) the (    ) is made (     ). It becomes

(          ).   The (           ) of the ( ) is transferred to the

(   ). It becomes (        ).




(9.3) It is also permissable to retain the (             ) of the

preceding letter and to make the ( ) or the ( ) (           ). In

this case the ( ) changes to ( ).

Examples




(9.4) It is also permissible to pronounce these words with



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(         ). (         ) means to pronounce a (                      ) in such a way

that it has the effect of another (                           ).    For example in

the word (            ), the (                 ) of the ( ) is pronounced in

such a way that it has the fragrance of a (                   ).


Similar is the case with the (                  ) of (        ). The (          ) of

the (     ) will have the effect of a (                       ). The condition for
this rule is that changes must have taken place in the
(                ) form of the verb. Therefore, the word (                         )

will remain unchanged because the (                                  ) form of this

word, namely (            ) was unaffected by any change.


(9.5) In (                     ), if the (          ) is (         ) in

(                    ), after the ( ) is deleted in the

(                   ), the (                 ) is given a (        ) from the

(       ) of (                           ) until the end (i.e.

                           ).




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Step by Step Example




(9.6) In (                 ), whatever the (             ) may be, or that

(                 ) where the (                ) is (               ) in the

(                     ), after deleting the ( ), the (                   ) is

given a (        ) from the (        ) of (                           ) until

the end, that is, (                                       ).


Example of (                 )



Example of such a (                     ) wherein the (                   )

is (         )




Note that the forms of (                ) and (                ) are now the

same. However the (               ) - original form of each one will
be different:




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                                 Original Form   Changed
                                                 Form

    (                   )

    (               )

    (                   )

    (               )

    (                   )

    (               )


Note:
In the (          ) of (                   ), the transferring of the

(          ) is not according to this rule i.e. rule number 9, but

is due to rule number 8 (the rule of              ). Therefore the

rule of (        ) and (           ) will not apply.   For example

(       ) becomes (         ).

                            nnnnn




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Rule 10
(10.1) If the (                    ) of the following word form’s

(          ) is ( ) or ( ), it becomes (            ) if it is preceded

by a (       ) or a (     ):

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.


Examples


(        ) becomes (     ) – example of (                )

(        ) becomes (     ) – example of (            )


If the ( ) or ( ) of the (                 ) is preceded by a (      ),

it becomes (       ) in accordance with the rule of (        ).

Examples


(         ) becomes (          ) – example of (              )

(        ) becomes (      ) – example of (                   )




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(10.2) If a word has a ( ) preceded by a (                        ) and

followed by another ( ), that ( ) falls off.


Example of ( )

In the word                 (                         ), before the ( )

there is a (             ) and after the ( ) there is another ( ).

Therefore, the first ( ) is made (              ) and the second one

falls off due to (                ). It becomes (         ).


If a ( ) is preceded by a (                 ) and followed by another

( ), the first ( ) becomes (                  ) and the other ( ) is

deleted because of (                   ).


Example of ( )


In the word          (                           ) there is a (       )

before the ( ) and it is followed by a second ( ).

Therefore the first ( ) becomes (                   ) and the second

( ) falls off. It becomes (       ).


(10.3) If a ( ) is preceded by a (               ) and followed by a


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( ), the preceding letter is made (              ) and the (               )

of the ( ) is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the

( ) changes into a ( ) and falls off due to (

         ).

Example


In the word (             ) the ( ) is preceded by a (                ) and

followed by a ( ), therefore the preceding letter ( ) is

made (           ) and the (         ) of the ( ) which is a (             )

is transferred to the preceding letter, the ( ). It therefore

becomes (             ). Due to the preceding (                   ), the ( )

changes into a ( ). Now due to (                                  ) the ( )

is deleted. It becomes (        ).


(10.4) If a ( ) is preceded by a (              ) and followed by a

( ), the preceding letter is made (            ) and the (              ) of

the ( ) is given to the preceding letter. Then the ( )

changes into a ( ) and falls off due to (                    ).




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Example


In the word (            ), the ( ) is preceded by a (         ) and

followed by a ( ). Therefore, the preceding letter ( ) is

made (          ) and the (        ) of the ( ) which is a (      ),

is transferred to the preceding letter ( ). It becomes

(         ). Due to the preceding (           ), the ( ) changes to

( ). It becomes (             ). Now due to (                     ),

the ( ) is deleted. It becomes (       ).

Further Examples

      (     –                   ) becomes        .

      (     –                  ) becomes         .


Step by Step




                              nnnnn



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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Exercise 43

(a) Identify the rules or changes of (         ) in the following
words:

                          ( 6)                                 ( 1)
                          ( 7)                                 ( 2)
                          ( 8)                                 ( 3)
                          ( 9)                                 ( 4)
                         (10)                                  ( 5)


Rule 11
If a ( ) appears in the place of the (                    ) after a

(      ), the ( ) changes into a ( ).
Example
In the word (          ) the ( ) appears in the place of the (

         ) after a (         ). Therefore the ( ) changes into a

( ). It becomes (       ).


The same change occurs in (       ), (    ) and (    ).




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Rule 12

If a ( ) is in the place of the (            ), preceded by a

(     ), the ( ) changes into a ( ).


Example
In the word        , which is (                          ) of (

       ) from the masdar (          ), meaning intellect, the ( ) is

in the place of the (               ), preceded by a (            ). The

( ) changes into a ( ). It becomes (    ).

                            nnnnn




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Rule 13

(13.1) If a ( ) comes in the place of the (                            ) preceded

by a (             ) in the (             ), it changes into a ( ), on

condition that (         – a change) occurred in the (            ).

Examples


1. The word            (which is the                of       ) was originally

       .

2. The word                    (which is the                 of               ) was

originally         .


However, the word (            ) which is the (          ) of (        ) of

(                      ) remains unchanged, because no (                          )

occurred in the (       ). The (     ) is (    ).


(13.2) The same (                ) occurs if a ( ) comes in place of

the (            ) of a word that is (              ), on condition that ( )

is (       ) in the (                    ) or (          ) took place in the

( ) of the (              ).




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Examples
1. The word              (the        of the word            ) changes

to           . This is an example of a (         ) in which the ( ) is

(       ).

2. The word            (the         of the word          ) changes to

        . This is an example of a (          ) in which the ( ) is

changed in the original (from         to    ).

                              nnnnn

Rule 14
(14.1) If a ( ) or ( ) which are are not changed from any
other letter, come together in one word, which is not
(                   ) (on the scale of           ) and the first of the

two, namely the ( ) or ( ) is (            ), then the ( ) changes

into a ( ). Then (            ) is made and the preceding (           )

is changed into (       ).

Examples


1. In the word               , ( ) and ( ) come together, and the

first of the two i.e. the ( ) is (               ). Therefore the ( )

changes into a ( ), thereby becoming (                     ).    After



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(      ) is made, it becomes (         ).


2. In the word (                 ), ( ) and ( ) come together, and

the first of the two i.e. the ( ) is (              ). Therefore the ( )

changes into a ( ), thereby becoming (                           ). After

(         ) is made, it becomes (           ). The (         ) of the ( )

is changed to a (           ), thereby becoming (      ).


3. In the word (                ), (which is the            of

          ), the ( ) and ( ) come together, and the first of the

two i.e. the ( ) is (              ). Therefore the ( ) changes into a

( ) becoming                  . After (        ) is made, it becomes

(         ).    The (          ) of the ( ) is changed to (              )

thereby becoming (               ). It is also permissible to read the

( ) with (              ) corresponding with the (               ) of the

(    ), that is (      ).


(14.2) The (                  ) of (                             – to take

refuge) is (        ). The ( ) changes to a ( ). It becomes            , .

Because this ( ) has changed from a (                  ), rule 14.1 will



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not apply.

Another example where this rule will not apply is the word
(        ). No change occurs because it is (                ).


If the ( ) and ( ) are in different words, no change will
occur.

Example
(1)           – the ( ) will not change into a ( ).


(2)                               - the ( ) of the word (        ) and

the ( ) of the word (            ) are in different words and will
therefore remain unchanged.

                            nnnnn




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Rule 15

If a word is on the scale of (                  ) and it has two ( )’s at

the end of the word, then both the ( )’s are changed into

( ) and (         ) is made. The (                ) of the preceding letter

(                 ) is changed into (                    ) and it is also

permissible to give the (                 )a(       ).


Example
The word (        )-(              of       ) is on the scale of (         ).

Therefore, according to the above rule, both the ( )’s are

changed into ( ). It becomes (                  ). Then (          ) is made

thereby becoming (           ). After changing the (                 ) of the

preceding letter into (                 ), it becomes         .    It is also

permissible to read it as      .

                             nnnnn

Rule 16
(16.1) If there is a ( ) in the (                        ) of an     (      )

preceded by a (             ), the (            ) will be changed into a

(         ) and the ( ) into a ( ).              The ( ) is then made




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(      ). Due to (                  ), the ( ) is deleted.

Example
In the word (          ) -(        of            ), the ( ) is on the (

         ) of an (         ) preceded by a (              ). Therefore the

(       ) will be changed into a (                    ) becoming (        ).

Then the ( ) changes into a ( ), thereby becoming (                       ),

which can also be written as (                     ). After ( ) is made

(           ), due to (                          ), the ( ) is deleted. It

becomes (        ) which can also be written as (        ).

Step by Step Example


                                        (         )


(16.2) The law of (16.1) will also occur on a                     , which

is from (            ) and is (             ).


Example
The word (                 ) undergoes the following changes,

eventually becoming (         ).



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(16.3) The law of 16.1 will also occur on a (                   ), which

is from (            ) and is (              ).
Example
The word (                     ) undergoes the following changes,

eventually becoming (           ).




(16.4) If a ( ) comes in the (                    ) of an         and is

preceded by a letter which has a (                  ), the (         ) is

changed into a (          ).

Example
The word (         )- (        of       ) changes to (         ) , which

can also be written as (              ). The ( ) is made (          ) so

it becomes (          ). Due to (                           ), the ( ) is

deleted. It becomes (                ), which can also be written as




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(        ).

Step by Step Example




                               nnnnn


Rule 17
(17.1) If a ( ) or ( ) comes in the place of the (                 ) of

a word which is (                     ), the ( ) or ( ) changes into a

( ), on condition that change took places in the (      ).


Examples
1. The word (              ) changes to (     ). (Changes took place

in its        from     to      ).

2. The word (              ) changes to (     ). (Changes took place

in its        from    to      ).


(17.2) Sometimes the (                      ) is deleted as in the case

of (          ) which was originally (        ). This word is used in




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the Qur’ân: (                               )


Exception

In the word (          ) the ( ) will not change into a (                ) because no

change took place in the           (                 ).

                               nnnnn

Rule 18
If a (        ) or (        ) or (                 ) appears after the (         ) of

(         ), it changes into a (       ).


Examples
1. The word (                ) changes to (                      ) - (        of the

word           ). This is an example of ( ).

2. The word (                 ) changes to (                     )-(          of the

word           ). This is an example of ( ).

3. The word (            ) changes to (                    )-(           of the word

         ). This is an example of (                  ).

Exception
The (          ) of the word (                  ) is (            ). Although the

( ) is original, it changed into (                        ). This is an exception


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to the rule.
                            nnnnn

Rule 19
If a ( ) or ( ) comes at the end of a word after (                           ),

they change into a (             ). This rule applies to all kinds of

words, namely           ,    ,        ,         and           .


Examples of

i.                                (example of            ) – (          means
supplication).
ii.                               (example of              ) - (        means
pleasing appearance).


Examples of

i.                           (        of        )

ii.                              (         of            , which was originally

       ).

i.                                (        of       ).




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Examples of

i.                                (example of )

ii.                               (example of     )

                              nnnnn

Rule 20

(20.1) If a ( ) comes in the fourth position or later in a

word and it is not preceded by a (                ) or a (            ), it

changes into a ( ).


Examples
1. The word (               ) was originally (               ). The ( ) is

in the fourth position of the (            ), thus it changes into a

( ).

2. The word (           ) was originally (              ). The ( ) is in

the 4th position of the (      ), thus it changes into a ( ).

3. The word (                ) was originally (                ). The ( )

is in the sixth position of the (           ), thus it changes into a

( ).




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(20.2) The plural of (              ) is (          ), which originally

was (           ). In this word, the ( ) is in the sixth position.

It changes into a ( ) and (                    ) is made. It becomes

(         ). The rule of (           ) (Rule number 14, example 2)

is not applicable here because the ( ) has changed from

an (      ). The (         ) of this word is (              ). In Rule 14,

the condition was that the ( ) or ( ) must not be changed
from another letter.
                              nnnnn

Rule 21
(21.1) The (          ) that comes after a (            ) changes into a

( ).
Examples
1. The word (                 ) was originally (                 ) - (the

[              ] of                          ). The (        ) is preceded

by a (    ), thus it changes into a ( ).

2. The word                   - (                  ) of (           ) was

originally (            ). The (        ) is preceded by a (            ),

thus it changes into a ( ).




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(21.2) The (            ) that comes after a (            ) changes into a

( ).
Example
The word                        (plural of               ) was originally

              . The (           ) is preceded by a (                ), thus it

changes into a ( ). It becomes (                 ).

                                nnnnn

Rule 22
If there is an (                ) before the (         ) of (             ) or

(                    ), it changes into a ( ).

Example


    i.    The (      ) of (        ) is (         ). The end of the word

      (      ) has an (         ) which does not accept a       (           ).

      Therefore, the (        ) is changed into ( ).

    ii.   The (      ) of (      ) is (       ). Here also the the (         )

      of (        ) is changed into ( ).

                                  nnnnn




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Rule 23
If ( ) appears as the (                    ) of either a plural on the

scale of (       ) or it appears in the feminine adjective on the

scale of (     ), the preceding letter is given a (         ).
Examples
1. The word (               ) (plural of              and         ) was

originally           .    The ( ) appears as the (                     ) of

(       ), thus the preceding letter is made (                    ).     It

becomes (       ).

2. The word (                 – meaning ‘to walk arrogantly’) was

originally (             ). The ( ) appears as the (             ) of the

feminine (                 ), thus the preceding letter is made

(        ). It becomes (          ).


Note:
This rule is like an exception to Rule 3 where the ( )

changes to ( ). Instead of changing the ( ) to ( ), the ( )

is maintained and the (                    ) which is the preceding

(       ), is changed to (       ).




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The (                       ) falls in the category of (                ), that
is, a noun not having any descriptive qualities.
Examples
(            ) -    the (           ) of (           ). It was originally

(        ) - purer. The ( ) is changed to ( ).

(             ) – the (             ) of (           ). It was originally

(         ) - (more intelligent). The ( ) is changed to ( ).


Step by Step Examples




                                  nnnnn

Rule 24
If a (             ) comes on the scale of (              ) and the (

    ) is a ( ), the ( ) will change into a ( ).


Example
The word (            ) was originally (       ), the (             ) is a ( ),

thus it changes into a ( ) thereby becoming (                  ).
                                nnnnn
Rule 25


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The rule for words on the scale of (           ) or (          ), is that if

they end in ( ), and are (         ), [that is, they are neither (

       ) nor (      )], then in (                            ), the ( ) is

deleted. The (         ) is now read with tanwīn.

In (              ), the word will remain (             ).

Example of (        ), that is, they are neither (                   ) nor

(         ): (      ) changes to (        ).




If they are (      ), the ( ) becomes (          ) in

(                     ) and in (                        ), the ( ) will be

(        ).

Examples: (           ) changes to (           ) or (          ).




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All words having (              ) preceded by a (   ) follow this

rule. Such words are called (              ).
Examples:




Step by Step




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                             nnnnn

Rule 26
(26.1) If a ( ) comes in place of the (                     )of (          ) in a

word which is either (                     ) or (                   ), it changes

into a ( ).


Examples

  i.   The word (       ) was originally (            ). A ( ) comes in place

   of the (             ) of (        ). Thus it changes into a ( ). It

   becomes (        ). This is the (                   ) from (                 )

   – to be near, [            ].

 ii.   The word (          ) was originally (              ). A ( ) comes in

   place of the (                 ) of (            ). Thus it changes into a

   ( ). It becomes (         ). This is the (                       ) from (

               )- to be high, [               ].




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Exception
If this word is a (         ), it remains unchanged e.g.          (a
female warrior).

(26.2) If a ( ) comes in place of the (               ) of a word on

the scale of (     ), it changes into a ( ).

Example
The word (         ) was originally (    ). A ( ) comes in place of

the (            ) of this word. Thus it changes into a ( ).



Exercise 44

(a) Apply the rules of (      ) to the following words:


                            ( 6)                                ( 1)
                            ( 7)                                ( 2)
                            ( 8)                                ( 3)
                            ( 9)                                ( 4)
                           (10)                                 ( 5)




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                  The Paradigms of (             )




Analysis of the changes

(1) The verbs of (                ) are used in all the (          )

except (          ).

(2) The ( ) of (                        ) has been deleted due to

rule no.1 – the rule of (    ).

(3) The ( ) of the (              ) has been deleted due to rule

no.2 – the rule of (    ).

(4) In (                     ), the ( ) can be changed to (        )

according to rule no. 5 – the rule of (              ). Accordingly,

(       ) can be pronounced as (        ). The same applies to the



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feminine of the (                            ) – (           ) can be

pronounced as (        ).

(5) The broken plural - (                     ) of the (

        ) which is (            ) was originally (          ). The first

( ) is changed to a (           ) according to rule no. 6 - the rule

of (      ).

(6) The ( ) of the (                    ) has changed to ( ) according

to rule no. 3 – the rule of (      ).

(7) However, the ( ) is unchanged in the dimunitive (

          ) of the (                )–(            ) and in the (

         )–(            ), because the reason for the change is not

found, namely the ( ) and a preceding (            ).




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Analysis of the changes

(1) In this (         ), the only change that has occurred is in

the (                      ) where the ( ) has changed to a ( )

according to rule no. 3 – the rule of (      ).




Analysis of the changes

(1) In the imperative (                   ) - (        ) , the ( ) has

changed to a ( ) according to rule no. 3 – the rule of

(       ). The same rule applies to the (              )–(

                 ).

(2) In the word (            ), the ( ) has changed to a (           )

according to rule no. 6 – the rule of (           ).



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(3) It is permissible to change the ( ) to a (          ) in (    )

– the (                                           ) and in (     )–

the broken plural of the (                   ).

There is no other change in this (    ).




Analysis of the changes

(1) In both the above-mentioned (                 ), the ( ) of the

(            ) has been deleted due to rule no.1 – the rule of

(        ). The changes in the other words are similar to (

    ).




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Analysis of the changes

(1) The changes in this (      ) are similar to those of (

   ).




Analysis of the changes

(1) According to rule no. 4 – the rule of (       ), the ( ) and

( ) have changed into (      ) and have been assimilated into

the (   ).




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Analysis of the changes

(1) In both the paradigms, the ( ) has changed into ( )

according to rule no. 3 – the rule of (   ).




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Exercise 45

(a) Conjugate the following verbs:

                                                       ( 1)
                                                       ( 2)
                                                       ( 3)
                                                       ( 4)
                                                       ( 5)
                                                       ( 6)
                                                       ( 7)
                                                       ( 9)
                                                      (10)




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                  The Paradigms of (               )




There is no change in the words (              ) and (           )

because they were originally (           ). No change occurred

in (           ) because of the exception in rule no. 8, namely

that the ( ) should not be followed by an (   ).

Hereunder follow the paradigms of the (                    ) and

(           ). All other verbs which are (             ) from this
(      ) follow the same pattern.




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                         :

                             :




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                            :

                                :




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                           :

                               :




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Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to the words from (     ) till (          ).

(2) Rule no. 7.4 applies to the words from (              ) till (      ) in

the (                ).

(3) Rule no. 9 applies to the words from (     ) till (       ).

(4) Rule no. 9.5 applies to the words from (              ) till (      ) in

the (               ).


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(5) In the paradigm of (              ), rule no. 8.1 applies to all the
words, while rule no. 8.2 applies to all the words of
(        ).

(6) The imperative (               ) is made from (            ). After

deleting the (                          ), the last letter is rendered

(         ). The ( ) is deleted due to (                        ) – two
sâkins coming together.
(7) Where the (                              ) no more remains, the

deleted letter returns as in the paradigms of (                       ),

e.g. (        ).

(8) Rule no. 17 applies to the paradigm of (                          ),

e.g. (        ).

(9) Rule no. 8 applies to the paradigm of (                           ),

e.g. (         ).




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Exercise 46

(a) List the detailed paradigms (                       ) of the
following verbs:

                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)

(b) Name the word-forms (   ) of the following verbs:



                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)




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                  The Paradigm of (                   )




Analysis

The (                     ) and (               ) have become similar
after changes were made. However, the original form of
each word is different. The original form of the (

           ) was (            ) while the original form of the (

        ) was (      ).

Hereunder follow the paradigms of this (         ).




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                             :

                                 :



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                                  :

                                      :



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                               :

                                   :



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Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7.1 applies to all the words from (               ) till

(    ).

(2) Rule no. 9 applies to all the words of (              ).

(3) In the (                 ), rule no. 8 has been applied.

(4) Rule no. 17 applies to the (           ).




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To distinguish between the (             ) of (              ) in which the

(       ) is deleted and the (         ) of (            ), one will notice

that in (         ), besides the (                ) and (                   ),

the (             ) remains in all the words. Examples:

(                                                            ). The (

            ) returns in the words attached to (                        ) and

(             ) as well. Examples: (                     )

However, in (                        ), the (                     ) is deleted
from all the words. Examples:
(                                                    )


Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of (                 ).




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Analysis
(1) The forms of the (                           ) and (                     ) have

become the same, namely (                           ). However, the original

form of each word is different. The (                                        ) was

(       ) while the (                           ) was (             ). Note that the

(               ) is also the same as the (                               ) as in all

other (       ) of (                       ).

(2) The verbs of the perfect tense (                           ) in the form of

(                      ) and (                                 ) are the same as

the (                            ) and (                                   ) of the

imperative (           ), that is (             ) and (             ). However, the

originals of the (               ) were (                 ) and (           ) while

the originals of the (            ) were (                 ) and (           ). The

(       ) is constructed from the (                       ) which is (             ).

Therefore the ( ) is (                ).




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This (      ) is similar to (      )–(                ).




Analysis

(1) The word (               ) was originally (                  ). Rule no. 8

is applied and it changes to (           ).

(2) Rule no.8 and rule no. 3 have been applied to (                          )

which was originally (             ).

(3) The word (                  ) has been changed due to rule no. 8

to (        ).

(4) The change in (             ) is similar to that of (           ).

(5) The (                    ) is deleted from the (             ), (    ) and

(                ), e.g. (                                  ).



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(6) When (              ) or (                 ) is attached to the (   )

or (     ), the deleted letter returns, e.g.

(                         ).




This (      ) is similar to (         ).




The changes of this (           ) are similar to those of (     ).




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Exercise 47

(a) List the detailed paradigms (                       ) of the
following verbs:

                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)

(b) Name the word-forms (   ) of the following verbs:



                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)




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          The Paradigms of (              ) and (            )




Analysis of the changes

(1) The verbs of (                 ) and (                       ) do not

come on the (     ) of (    ).

(2) The ( ) in the (              )–(             ) and in the (

         )–(         ) is deleted due to rule no. 7. If these words

are used with ( ) or as a (             ), the (         ) is retained,

e.g. (                                       ).

(3) The ( ) in the word (          ) has changed to (              ) as in

the (      ).

(4) In the plural of the (                   ) – (           ) and the



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plural of the (                        ) – (       ), rule no. 25 has been
applied.
(5) In the word (             ) which is the plural of the (

     ), the ( ) has changed to a ( ) due to rule no. 20.

(6) Rule no. 26 has been applied to (              ).

(7) In the words (               ) and (                 ), the (      ) has

changed to a ( ) due to rule no. 22. This applies to all the

words which are (                     ) of the (                    ) and the

(                   ) of the (                          ), whether the words

are (       ), (     ) or (      ).




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                             :

                                 :



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                               :

                                   :



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                               :

                                   :



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Analysis
(1) Rule no. 7 has been applied to (      ).

(2) If an (       ) is changed from a ( ), it is written in the

form of an (       ), e.g. (     ). If the (      ) is changed from a

( ),it is written in the form of an ( ), e.g. (    ).

(3) If an (       ) is deleted due to (                         ) or

(        ), if ( ) is attached or the word is (                ), the


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(       ) will be written in the form of a ( ) in all three cases

–(                                 ), e.g. If the word (            ) has

( ) attached to it or it is (                    ), the (      ) will be

written in the form of a ( ) e.g. (                                     ),

(                                      ) and (

               ). According to the grammarian, Sībawayh, in

(                  ), the (                       ) will be written in the

form of an (     ), e.g. (                ).

(4) In the dual form (                 ), the ( ) remains unchanged

because it appears before the (        ) of (      ).

(5) From (            ) till the end, all the words are in their
original form.
(6) In the (                      ), rule no. 11 has been applied to

all the words whereby the ( ) changes to ( ). In the word

(    ), the ( ) is deleted.

(7) In words like (           ), the ( ) has become (               ) due

to rule no. 10.1. In (          ), (             ) and (        ), the ( )

is deleted due to rule no. 10.2 and 10.3. Besides the (

        ) and all the forms of (               ), all the remaining words



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are unchanged.
(8) The plural masculine word-forms are the same for the
masculine and feminine, namely (                 ) and (         ).

(9) In the (                           ), the ( ) has changed to ( ) due

to rule no. 20, e.g. (         ).

(10) The (                           ) and (                           ) have

the same word-forms, namely (                               ). However, the

original form of the (                                                 ) was

(        ) while the original form of the (                                  )

was (           ).

(11) In words like (                     ), due to the (         ) at the end,

the effect of the ( ) is not visible.

(12) If at the time of (                                    ), the first sâkin

letter is a (          ), it is deleted. If it is not a (        ), the ( ) is

rendered a (             ) and the ( ) a (           ), e.g. (          ) and

(       ).
(13) Rule no. 11 has been applied to all the words of
(                      ). Rule no. 10 applies to (           ). The rules of

(                    ) mentioned previously apply to it.

(14) Only (           ) has been applied to the (                ).



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Exercise 48

(a) List the detailed paradigms (                       ) of the
following verbs:

                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)

(b) Name the word-forms (   ) of the following verbs:



                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)




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Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of this verb.




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                             :

                                 :



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                               :

                                   :



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                               :

                                   :



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Analysis

(1) The (             )–(           ) is (                ) if the verb

is (     ).

(2) When the word (                     ) is used with ( ) or as a

(       ), the (    ) reverts, e.g. (        ),(     ).

(3) Rule no. 25 applies to (      ) and (     ).



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(4) Rule no. 7 has been applied to (                             ) whereby the

( ) has changed to an (              ).

(5) In the broken plural (                        ), the ( ) was changed to an

(           ) and was thereafter deleted due to                     (

            ).

(6) In the words (              ) and (               ), the ( ) was changed to

an (       ) due to rule no. 7.

(7) In the words (               ) and (              ), the (     ) was deleted

due to (                        ).

(8) Rule no. 10 has been applied to (                   ).

(9) Rule no. 10 has also been applied to (                              ), (   ),

(        ), (            ), (        ), (             ), (       ). After changes
were made in the singular feminine second person -
(        ) – it became like the plural feminine second person.
(10) Rule no. 7 has been applied to the passive tense verbs
like (          ) etc.

(11) In the word (              ), the ( ) was made sâkin and then

deleted due to (                             ).

(12) In the word (                          ), the harakah of the ( ) was




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transferred to the preceding letter, the ( ) was changed to

( ) and then deleted.
(13) Rule no. 14 has been applied to all the words of
(           ), e.g. (   ).




Analysis

(1) The same changes as (               ) have occurred in the
active tense of this verb. The other words are affected in
the same way as (            ).

(2) As an exception to the rule, the rule of (     ) has been

applied to the word (        ).




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The verbs of this category are very similar to those of
(          ).




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Exercise 49

(a) List the detailed paradigms (                       ) of the
following verbs:

                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)

(b) Name the word-forms (   ) of the following verbs:



                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)




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In this category of verbs, the rules of (            ) have been

applied to the (            ) while the rules of (        ) have

been applied to the (               ). Most of the paradigms

are similar to those of (     ).




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                             :

                                 :



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                               :

                                   :



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                               :

                                   :



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Analysis

(1) The ( ) of (           ) and all the other verbs has been

deleted due to the rule of (    ).

(2) The rule of (              ) has been applied to the ( ) of

(    ).

(3) The imperative ( ) was constructed from (           ). After



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deleting the (                     ), the last letter which is a

(           ) was deleted. It became ( ).




The paradigms of this category is similar to (      ).




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The ( ) of the verbal noun (         ) changed to ( ) due to

rule no. 16. In (                       ) it is deleted due to

(                ).




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Exercise 50

(a) List the detailed paradigms (                       ) of the
following verbs:
                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)

(b) Name the word-forms (   ) of the following verbs:



                                                            ( 1)
                                                            ( 2)
                                                            ( 3)
                                                            ( 4)
                                                            ( 5)




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             Combination of (               ) and (        )




The paradigms of this verb are similar to those of (            ).

The rules of (        ) have to be applied to the (        ) while the

rules of (      ) apply to the ( ). Wherever there is a conflict of

the two, the rules of (            ) will be given preference. For

example, (       ) was originally (        ). It required the rule of

(     ) to change the (     ) to (      ), whereas the rules of (    )
required the transferring of the harakah to the preceding letter.
Preference was awarded to the latter.

Similarly, (       ) was originally (         ). The rule of (       )

required changing the (        ) to (      ). However, the rule of

(     ) of transferring the harakah was preferred. It became

(     ). Thereafter, the second hamzah was changed to ( ) due to

the rule of (     ). It became (      ).




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This (       ) is similar to (       ). The above-mentioned rule has

to be considered here as well. Consequently, in the word (           ),

the rule of (      ) is given preference to the rule of (   ). The rule

of (      ) applies to (    ).




The rules of (             ) apply to the hamzah while the rules of

(        ) apply to the ( ).




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This paradigm is similar to (     ).




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As mentioned previously, the rule of (   ) is compulsory in the

verbs of this (   ). Hereunder follow the detailed paradigms of
this verb. Since it is a very common verb and many rules have
been applied to it, it should be thoroughly learnt.




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                             :


                                 :



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                               :

                                   :



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                               :


                                   :



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Analysis
(1) The verb (        ) was originally (    ). The rule of (     ) is

first applied after which the ( ) is changed to (       ) due to rule
no. 7. This change applies to all the word-forms except the dual
form in which only the rule of (           ) applies. In the plural
masculine forms and the singular second person feminine, the
(      ) is deleted due to (               ).

(2) In words like (            ), no visible change has taken place

because the (       ) does not accept any harakah.

(3) The (       ) is deleted from words like (       ) because of the

( ).


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(4) In words like (          ), the ( ) reverts in place of the (        )

because the latter cannot accept a harakah. The (                        )

requires a (      ) before it.

(5) In (       ), due to (                    ) between the ( ) and the

( ), and the ( ) is not a (        ). Therefore a (    ) is rendered to it

to indicate the deletion of the ( ).

(6) The imperative ( ) is constructed from (            ). After deleting

the (                ), the (      ) is deleted from the end. It becomes

( ).

(7) The imperative (            ) was originally ( ). The (              )

which was deleted due to a (              ) now reverts. However, the

(       ) was not capable of upholding a harakah. Hence, the ( )

which changed into (            ) reverts so that it can carry the (     )

which the (          ) requires before it. It becomes (       ). In (    )

and (      ), the ( ) and ( ) are rendered a dammah and kasrah

respectively because they are not (               ). A harakah is not

permissible on a (      ). The dammah indicates the deletion of the




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( ) from the original while the kasrah indicates the deletion of a

( ).




(1) The remainder of the paradigm is similar to (                  ).

(2) The verb (                  ) which is (                            ) can

be from (              ) or (          ). A letter from the (               )

is present in the (                 ). The (     ) of the (               ) is

not visible. In the verbs before (             ), the ( ) was changed to

(      ). The original of the (          ) could therefore be either (

          ) or (                ). The question arises as to why the verbs

from (      ) till (      ) have been rendered a kasrah. The answer to

this is that if this verb is from (              ), the kasrah of the (

        ) indicates the kasrah of the (                   ). If this verb is

from (             ), the kasrah of the (                     ) indicates the

deleted ( ) as in (        ).



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(3) In the imperative (         ) and the words affected by (          ) like

(         ), the hamzah can be changed to ( ). In (               ) and (

     ), the hamzah can be read as an (            ). The (            ) will
however remain and not be deleted because the hamzah is a root
letter. In (               ) the (            ) is not deleted.

(4) The hamzah of (             ) and (        ) cannot be changed to ( )

and then (           ) be applied because the ( ) is an original letter.

Therefore the rule of (              ) cannot be applied here as this is not

a(              ).

(5) The ( ) of (             ) and similar words is not changed to a

hamzah because it is a root letter. The rule of (             ) only applies

to a (          ) or (         ).


Exercise 51
(a) List the detailed paradigms (                                  ) of the
following verbs:
                               ( 4)                                     ( 1)
                               ( 5)                                     ( 2)
                                                                        ( 3)



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                          The Rules of (                   )

  Rule 1
  If there are two letters of the same type (                          ) or they

  are similar (                 ) and the first is (               ), it will be

  assimilated into the second letter.             That is, (           ) will be
  applied.
  This rule applies whether the letters are in the same word
  or in two separate words.

  Examples of (              ) in the same word

 i.                           (Example of [                ] letters, that is “ ”)

ii.                           (Example of [                ] letters, that is “ ”)

iii.                                     (Example     of       [                     ]

         letters, that is “ ” and “   ”)


  In the case of (                ), the first letter is changed into the second

  letter before (         ) is applied. In the above example, ( ) is changed

  to (     ) first, and then the two (     )’s are assimilated. However, the ( )
  is still written, although not pronounced.




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Examples of (                ) in two words




Exception


In two words, if the first word is a (             )1, the letters will not be

assimilated, that is, (            ) will not be applied.

Example




However, if the (                ) is in the same word, (             ) will be
applied.

Example



                                   nnnnn




1
    A(      ) is either a ( ) preceded by a (   ), a ( ) preceded by a (   ) or
a(       ) preceded by a (   )


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Rule 2
If two letters of the same type are (                        ), and the letter

preceding the first (                   ) is also (          ), the first letter

will be made (                ) and then the two letters will be assimilated,

that is, (        ) will be applied.



Example




2nd          1st letter
letter




                 1st letter


   2nd
   letter

However, if a noun (             ) has a (      ) on the (                  ), the

letters will not be assimilated. In this case, (        ) will not apply.




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Example




                                    nnnnn

Rule 3
If the letter preceding the first (                     ) is (           ) and not a

(    ), the (            ) of the first letter will be given to its preceding letter

and then (          ) will be applied.


Example




                    (         ) preceding letter

                (       ) first letter
        (       ) second letter




                                                   (                 )

                                                   (             )


Exception
This rule does not apply to the words of (                   ).



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Example
                (No change is made.)


                                     nnnnn

Rule 4

If the preceding letter is a (                     ), without transferring the

(                   ), the first letter will be made (           ) and both will

be assimilated, that is, (              ) will be applied.

Examples


                    (                     ) of (             )

          1st
    2nd




                (                     ) of (             )




                                     nnnnn




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Rule 5

If after applying (                ), there is a (             -pause) due to

(          ), or there is a (            ), the following are permissible in
the second letter:

    i.         – because it is the lightest letter (                  ).

    ii.          – whenever any (            ) letter is rendered a harakah, it is

    rendered a kasrah. The rule is (                                         ).

    iii.              – (no         takes place).


Example

The (               ) of (       ) is:




If the preceding letter (                     ) is (           ), then (          )
is also permissible.

Example




When the final letter has (                 ), either because of a suffix, or

because it is in the jussive case (                    ) or it is the imperative



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(        ), the two letters must be written separately, e.g. (      ) and

(       ).

When the final letter is (            ) – it is vowelled – the two are

coalesced.18 This does not apply to the (                ) – verbal noun,

where the (          ) interposes between the two final letters, e.g.

(        ).

Exercise 52

(1) Which rule has been applied to the word (                      ) and
how?
(2) Explain the rule applied in the word (               ).

(3) Analyse the rule applied in the word (          ).

(4) Apply rule no. 4 to the word (        ).
(5) What are the different ways of reading the imperative
singular form of the following words?

                                                                     ( 1)
                                                                     ( 2)
                                                                     ( 3)


18
     joined and made into one.


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Analysis
(1) Rule no. 2 has been applied to (   ).

(2) In the words (     ), (   ) and (            ), rule no. 3 has been
applied.
(3) Rule no. 4 has been applied to (      ), (      ) and (   ).

(4) In the imperative and prohibition (                 ), rule no. 5 has
been applied.

Hereunder follows the detailed paradigms of this verb.




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                             :


                                 :



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                               :


                                   :



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                               :


                                   :



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Analysis
(1) From (       ) till the end, no (        ) of the first ( ) applies

because the second radical is (         ).

(2) However, from (        ) onwards, (          ) applies because the

( ) and (     ) are (                    ) – close in source of
pronunciation.
(3) Rule no. 5 has been applied to (          ) etc.




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Exercise 53

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail:

                                                             ( 1)
                                                             ( 2)
                                                             ( 3)
                                                             ( 4)
                                                             ( 5)


(2) What is the word-form (      ) of the following words:



                                                             ( 1)
                                                             ( 2)
                                                             ( 3)
                                                             ( 4)
                                                             ( 5)




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In this (     ), the (                 ), (              ) and (

            ) have become similar in form but the original of

the (                    ) was (                   ) while the (

        ) and (              ) was (          ).




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The rules of (        ) have not been applied in these two
paradigms.




Wherever (        ) has been applied in this (   ), it is due
to rule no. 4.




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    A Combination of (                 ), (         ) and (      )




Analysis
(1) The rules of (             ) apply to the hamzah while the

rules of (             ) apply to the doubled letters (              ).

At the time of conflict, the rules of (              ) will be given
preference.
(2) In the word (          ), the rule of (       ) was not applied.

Rather the rule of (    ) was given preference.

(3) After applying (            ) to the word (       ), the rule of

(     ) was applied whereby the hamzah changed to ( ). It

becomes (      ).




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Analysis
(1) The rules of (                    ) apply to the doubled letters

(              ) while the rules of (         ) apply to the ( ). At the

time of conflict, the rules of (                       ) will be given
preference.
(2) In the word (          ), the rule of (      ) required the ( ) to be

changed to ( ) while the rule of (                       ) requires the

transferring of the harakah of the first ( ) to the ( ). The latter
has been given preference.




If there is a (                    ) in one word followed any of the

letters of (              ) in another word, (         ) will be applied

to the (             ).




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Examples
(           ), (        ), (            ), (            ) and

(                       ). (The tanwīn is a nūn sākin in reality).

If the letters are in one word, (                       ) will not apply, e.g.

(    ), (          ).


The ( ) of the definite article ( ) becomes assimilated in

the (                      ), e.g. (           ).

The (                          ) are:

(                                                   )
It is not assimilated in the remaining letters of the
alphabet, e.g. (                 )

The remaining letters are called (                         ).

Exercise 54

(1) Conjugate the following verbs in detail:
                                                                          ( 1)
                                                                          ( 2)
                                                                          ( 3)
                                                                          ( 4)
                                                                         ( 5)

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               Special Meanings of Each (                 )




The (          ) refers to the extra meaning of a verb besides its

literal meaning, e.g. (              ) means to expel. The verb is

transitive. Here (        ) refers to the latter meaning, namely that
of being transitive.
The vastness of the Arabic language can be estimated from the
(          ) due to the fact that one verb can have so many
different shades of meaning merely by using the verb in different
categories (         ).


The (          ) of (        )


(       ) – to mention a verb after (               ) to show that one

object overpowers another, e.g. (                              ) – The
man disputed with me and I overcame him in the dispute.

The (          ) of (            )


The (          ) of this category is also (        ) on condition it is

either (     ), (           ) or (            ).
Example:



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(                           ) – I and Rashīd made a mutual promise
and I was predominant in the promise.

The (         ) of (           )


This (     ) most often has verbs which have the meaning of

illnesses, grief, joy, colours, defects or physical forms, e.g. (     )
– to become ill.
(     ) – to be grieved.

(     ) – to become happy.

(     ) – to be blackish.

(    ) – to be one-eyed.

(    ) – to have broad eyebrows.

This (     ) is mostly intransitive.


The (         ) of (            )


This (     ) is always intransitive. It refers to the natural qualities
of a person that are of a permanent nature or a temporary nature
achieved by experience.
Examples: (            ) – to be handsome, (   ) – to be ugly,

(    ) – to have understanding,




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The Derived Categories

The (           ) of (               )


(1) (        ) – to make an intransitive verb transitive and if it is
already transitive, to make it doubly transitive, e.g.
(    ) – to descend, (            ) – to send down;

(        ) – to hear, (         ) – to make someone hear.


(2) (          ) – to make the doer (                  ) or the object (         )

obtain the root (              ) of the verbal noun (          ) from which the

verb is formed, e.g. (                             ) – I provided the shoe with

shoelaces. The (               - root) is (         ) meaning shoelaces.

(       ) - to bear fruit. The (          ) is (      ) meaning fruit.


(3) (          ) – to take the object to the place of the noun (                ),

e.g. (       ) – I took it to the place of selling, that is the market.

The (         ) is (      ).


(4) (          ) – to find something described with the (                  ), e.g.

(         ) – I found him to be stingy; (                  ) - I found him to be

noble; (           ) – I found him to be praiseworthy.



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(5) (                   ) – to remove the (           ) from something. This
is of two types:
[1] if the verb is intransitive, the (               ) will be removed from

the doer e.g. (                    ) – the man removed oppression from
himself, that is, he was just.
[2] if the verb is transitive, the (             ) will be removed from the

object e.g. (                          ) –I removed dirt from the eye of
the man.

(6) (                    ) – the doer gives the object the (                   ), e.g.

(                    ) – I gave the dog a bone.


(7) (        ) – the doer reaches the (            ) or enters it, e.g. (

         ) – the man reached in the morning; (                             ) – the
man reached Iraq.

(8) (            ) – It has three meanings:

[1] to become the possessor of the (                   ), e.g. (                  )–
the cow became one with milk.
[2] the doer becomes the possessor of something that is described
by the (         ), that is, it has the quality of the (           ), e.g. (

         ) – the man became the owner of mangy19 camels.

19
     A skin disease affecting hairy animals that causes an itch.


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[3] the doer becomes the possessor of something in the place or
time of the (            ), e.g. (            ) – the goat bore offspring
in the autumn season.

(9) (                ) – the doer becomes entitled to the (         ), e.g.

(                   ) – Hind was entitled to be married.


(10) (              ) – the doer reaches at the time of the (       ), e.g.

(                    ) –the crop was ready to be harvested.


(11) (          ) – the meaning of the (         ) is strengthened, either
by making the act more final or making it more intense and wider
in application, e.g. (                 ) – the date palm bore much fruit;

(                   ) – the morning became very bright.


(12) (          ) – the verb is initially used from (              ). This
can be of two types: either the verb is not used in its root form
(       ), e.g. (       ) - to hasten; or the verb is used in the root form

but for another meaning, e.g. (            ) – to fear while the root form

(       ) means to be compassionate.


(13) (          ) – to be synonymous with another verb, e.g.

(                          ) – both mean: the night spread.



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(14) (          ) – to mention a verb after another verb to indicate
the fact that the object has accepted the effect of the doer, e.g.
(               ) – I gave him glad tidings so he became happy.


(15) (       ) - making a relationship of something to the (          ),

e.g. (                     ) – I made a relationship of disbelief to the
man.

(16) (       ) – to make a transitive verb intransitive, e.g.

(                 ) – Sālim praised Allâh. (              ) – Sālim was
praiseworthy.

The (             ) of (             )


(1) (        ) – Example: (                ) - I made the man sit.


(2) (        ) – Example: (                   ) - I removed the peel of
the fruit.

(3) (        ) – Example: (                ) – He placed spices in the
pot.

(4) (          ) – Example: (              ) – The tree bloomed.




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(5) (        ) – Example: (                                ) – The students
reached the depths of knowledge.
(       ) – He came into the tent.


(6) (         ) – This is of three types:

Intensity in the verb, e.g. (                    ) – The student roamed a
lot.
Intensity in the doer, e.g. (                 ) – Many camels died.

Intensity in the object, e.g. (                       ) – She locked many
doors.

(7) (        ) – Example: (                    ) – I made a relationship of
transgression to the man.

(8) (        ) – to make something don the (              ), e.g.

(                 ) – I draped the horse with a horse cloth.20


(9) (           ) – to join the (           ) to something, e.g. (

          ) – I applied gold to the sword.


(10) (           ) – to make something into the (              ) or similar to

the (         ), e.g. (               ) – He converted the man into a

20
     A cloth used to cover animals to protect them from the cold.


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Christian; (                 ) – I made the sheet like a tent.


(11) (     ) – to abbreviate a sentence and express it by means of

a single verb, e.g. (        ) – to say ‘Lâ ilâha illallâh’; (      ) - to
say ‘Subhānallâh’.

(12) (         ) – to have a similar meaning as (           ), (          )

and (             ).

Examples: (                   ) – I gave him a date.

(          ) – The date dried out.

(              ) – He used the shield.


(13) (         ) – Example: (            ) – I spoke to him. This meaning

is new in (                ) because the (        ) of the verb means to
injure.

The (             ) of (             )


(1) (           ) – the relation or application of the act to another

person, e.g. (         ) – to write; (        ) – to write to someone, that
is, to correspond.

(2) (      ) – to have the same meaning as (               ), (          ),


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(             ) and (            ).

Examples: (                 ) – He travelled.

(                 ) – I distanced him.

(                              ) – The two men abused one another.

(                            ) – I doubled the thing.


(3) (        ) – e.g. (                                        ) – May Allâh
grant you well-being.

(4) (        ) – e.g. (                    ) – He bore this hardship. The

(       ) which is (       ) means to be hard-hearted.


The (             ) of (              )


(1) (        ) – This is of four types.

    (a) to make the (          ), e.g. (        ) – He made a hole.

    (b) to hold, take or choose the (            ), e.g. (       ) – He held
          the side.
    (c) to make the object into the (              ), e.g. (             )–
          He made the sheep into food.
    (d) to hold the object in the (          ), e.g. (         ) – He held it
          in his armpit.



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(2) (         ) – to attempt to achieve an act, e.g. (          ) – He
attempted to earn wealth.

(3) (      ) – to do an act for oneself, e.g. (                 ) – He
measured the barley for himself.

(4) (         ) – Example: (               ) – I made him grieve, so
he began grieving.

(5) (      ) – Examples: (              ) – It became bright.

(               ) – He entered Hijāz.

(               ) – He donned the sheet.

(                              ) – The two men disputed among
themselves.
(                ) – He sought a rental.


(6) (     ) – This is of two types.

    (a) there is no (    ), e.g. (    ) – to slaughter a hungry goat.

    (b) the (     ) has a different meaning, e.g. (             ) – He

        kissed the stone, (     ) – He was safe.




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The (             ) of (             )


(1) (       ) – to be intransitive, e.g. (         ) – It broke.


(2) (        ) – to perceive something with the senses, that is, the
acts are related to the external limbs.

(3) (          ) – Examples: (                        ) – I broke it, so it
broke.
(                          ) – I locked the door and so it was locked.


(4) (        ) – Example: (                         ) - He reached Hijâz.
This meaning is seldom used.

(5) (        ) – Example: (           ) – He went away. (          ) – to be
cheerful.

The (             ) of (              )


(1) (       ),(       ), (     ) - colours and (       ) – defects.

Examples: (          ) – It became very red.

(        ) – He became one-eyed.




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The (            ) of (          )


(1) (         ) – Example: (                ) – I cut it into pieces and
so it became pieces.

(2) (        ) – to think or to represent oneself to have a certain

quality or status, e.g. (      ) – He represented himself as having
patience.

(3) (        ) – to refrain from the (          ), e.g. (       ) – He
refrained from sin.

(4) (    ) – to don the (       ), e.g. (    ) – He wore a ring.


(5) (       ) – Example: (      ) – He used the oil.


(6) (       ) – This is of four types.

    (a) to make the (        ), e.g. (       ) – I made the tent.

    (b) to hold, take or choose the (         ), e.g. (     ) – He held
        the side.
    (c) To make the object into the (           ), e.g. (            )–
        He used the stone as a pillow.
    (d) To hold the object in the (          ), e.g. (          ) – He
        held the child in his armpit.



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(7) (          ) – to do an act slowly and several times. This is then
of two types.
    (a) It is possible to achieve the act once but the doer does it
          slowly, e.g. (        ) – He drank in sips.
    (b) It is not generally possible to achieve the act once, e.g.
          (                ) – He memorized the Qur’ân a little at a
          time.

(8) (         ) – to become the (        ) or similar to the     (       ),

e.g. (        ) – He became a Christian; (         ) – He became like the
ocean.

(9) (             ) – Example: (      ) – He became wealthy.


(10) (            ) – to have the same meaning as the (         ), (

        ) and (               ). Examples: (            ) – He accepted.

(                  ) – He remained awake.

(                       ) – He sought a need.


(11) (         ) – This is of two types. Either there is no (          ) or

there is a (        ) but it has a different meaning.

Examples: (             ) – He stood in the sun.

(        ) – He spoke. (      ) – to injure.


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The (             ) of (            )


(1) (          ) – This is similar to (               ) of (           ).

However, the difference between the two is that in (                   ),

one is mentioned as the doer (            ) while the other is mentioned

as the object (            ) while in (             ), both are mentioned
as doers but in reality each one is the doer as well as the object,
e.g. (                            ) – Rayhân and Farhân abused each
other.

(2) (         ) – to simulate a state or status or representing oneself

to have it, e.g. (           ) – He pretended to be sick.


(3) (          ) – Example: (                  ) – I distanced him so he
was at a distance.

(4) (         ) – Examples: (                  ) – to be high;

(                    ) – to enter the right side.


(5) (        ) – Example: (        ) – Allâh is most blessed.

(       ) – The camel sat.




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The (               ) of (               )


(1) (       ) – To seek the (             ), e.g. (             ) – I sought
forgiveness from Allâh.

(2) (                        ) – to be entitled to the (     ), e.g. (

        ) – The clothing was entitled to a patch.


(3) (          )–(             ) – Example: (                ) – I made him
stand, so he stood up.

(4) (         ) – Example: (                 ) – I found him to be noble.


(5) (          ) – to regard something as being described by the

(       ), e.g. (             ) – I thought him to be good.


The difference between (                  ) and (          ) is that there is
certainty in the former and doubt in the latter.

(6) (        ) – to become the (              ) or to become similar to the

(       ), e.g. (                  ) – The mud became a stone.


(7) (        ) – Example: (                       ) – He made India his
homeland.



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(8) (      ) – to abbreviate a phrase, e.g. (           ) – to say (

                     ).


(9) (                                            ) – Examples: (

   ) – to settle down, (                        ) – to reply, (

     ) – to be arrogant, (                 ) – to resist a temptation.


(10) (        ) – Example: (                         ) – He leaned over
the pillow.

The (            ) of (             )


(1) (     ) – This verb is mostly intransitive. Sometimes it can be

transitive, e.g. (        ) – I regarded it as sweet.


(2) (      ) – Example: (                         ) – The land became
full of grass.

(3) (          ) – Example: (              ) – I wrapped it so it was
wrapped.

(4) (         ) – Example: (                       ) – I thought it to be
sweet.




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The (             ) of (              )


Like (                   ), this category also has the following four
meaning patterns:
(       ),(       ), (     ) and (       )

Examples: (              ) – It became very white.

(        ) – He became one-eyed.



The (             ) of (             )


(1) (         ) – Example: (         ) – He ran very fast.


This category is (             ), that is, a word which has no (             )
origin nor something similar to the origin.

There are two differences between (                      ) and (    ). It is a

condition for (             ) that it must not be used in (                 ).

For (         ), this is not a condition. Secondly, it is a condition for

(         ) to be free of letters of (          ) and extra letters brought

for a particular meaning (                          ).

An example of a letter of (              ) is the ( ) of the verb    (       )




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which was increased to bring this verb onto the scale of (                 ).

An example of a letter of (                              ) is the hamzah of

(       ) which was added to the verb to render it transitive.



The (            ) of (               )

This category has many meaning patterns some of which are:
(1) (      ) – Example: (             ) – He recited ‘Bismillâh…’.


(2) (       ) – Example: (            ) – I made him don a burqa’.


(3) (         ) – Example: (                              ) – The night hid
his sight so it became hidden.
This category is used mostly as (                   ) and (            ) and

sometimes as (            ), e.g. (       ), (      ).


The (            ) of (               )


(1) (          ) – Example: (                            ) – I rolled it so it
began rolling.

(2) (          ) – Example: (             ) – He walked conceitedly.




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(3) (     ) – Example: (                     ) – He screamed.


The (           ) of (            )


(1) (   ) – Example: (            ) – to gather.


(2) (         ) – Example: (                  ) – I made his blood
flow and so it began flowing.

The (           ) of (            )


(1) (   ) – Example: (          ) – to shudder.


(2) (      ) – Example: (                   ) – I pacified him so he
was calmed.

(3) (         ) – Example: (              ) – The star shone.




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Application of the Special Meanings

Quote 1:
(                                            ) – excerpt from (

         )
Translation: “All praises are due to Allâh who raised the status of
all the believers.”
Teacher: What special meaning of (                     ) is found in the

verb (           )?

Student: The meaning of (            ) – to be transitive is found in this

verb because the (           ) of this verb is (   ) which means to be

high. This is intransitive. When it was taken to (                   ), it
became transitive, having the meaning of ‘raising’.


Quote 2:
(                                                      ) – excerpt from

(            )
Translation: “When he sees the Ka’bah, he should say ‘Allâhu
Akbar’ and ‘Lâ-ilâha illallâh’...”
Teacher: What special meaning of (                     ) is found in the

verb (       ) and (    )?

Student: The meaning of (            ) – to abbreviate - is found in this
verb.



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Quote 3:
(                                       ) – excerpt from (        )
Translation: “If he wants, he can give charity to six poor
persons...”
Teacher: What special meaning of (                    ) is found in the

verb (          )?

Student: The meaning of (            ) is found in this verb because the

(     ) is (         ) which means ‘to speak the truth’.




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                        Challenging Words

A few difficult verbs of the Holy Qur’ân and other verbs will be
mentioned here because the purpose of learning morphology and
syntax is to understand the meaning of the glorious Qur’ân. An
explanation of these verbs generally refreshes one’s knowledge
of morphology.

The verbs will be written according to their pronunciation and
not according to their Qur’ânic script so that the student can
exercise his mind in trying to figure out the original word. In the
analysis, the correct written form of the word will be provided.




Analysis: This is the imperative (          ) of the verb (       ), the

(       ) being (                    ). The original word was (

        ), from the (      ) of (     ). It was constructed from the

word (           ) which was originally (        ). The (       ) of the

( ) was transferred to the preceding letter after deleting its

harakah. Due to (                        ), the ( ) which was then

changed to ( ) was deleted. Due to the entry of the (       ), the (

        ) of (      ) was deleted. The final ( ) is not (              )

but (               ) which enters the end of a verb between the verb

and the (             ) to protect it from receiving a (       ). It was



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originally (            ). The (             ) was deleted and the (          )

of the (                ) was sufficed upon. This occurs very often.

Due to a (       ), the (          ) is also not pronounced. It becomes

(       ).




Analysis: This is similar to (                      ). The original word

was (                    ). It is the imperative of the verb (               ),

the (      ) being (      ). It is written as (         ).


Most often confusion arises in verbs where (                      ) or (      )

occurs, a (                ) is added to the end of the word and (            )

is made on the (         ) after deleting the (              ). The student is

perplexed to find a (                        ) in spite of (      ) or (      )

whereas the (          ) is (           ).


Similarly, a verb can sound confusing when the (                           ) is
deleted from the middle of a sentence, especially when a student
is asked to identify the verb by joining the words and reading
them to him, e.g. in the verse (                                           ) to




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read it as (         ), in (                          ), to read the verb as

(       ), in (            ), to read the verb as (              ) and in (

        ), to read the verb as (           ).


When ( ) or ( ) enter the perfect tense of those verbs having

(              ), the alifs of the ( ) and ( ) are also not pronounced

just as the (              ) is not pronounced. The verbs therefore

sound confusing when read as (                       ), (       ), (       ) and

(        ). This confusion is intensified in (                         ) because

the entry of ( ) creates the word ( ) while the entry of ( )

creates the word (         ). The same rule applies to the word

(         ). Besides being the (                     ) of (                ) from

(      ), it can also be (                           ), the tense being (

                      ) from (                  ).

Similarly, the word (              ) is from (                  ).




Analysis: It was originally (            ), the word-form being (

                ), the tense (                                ). It is (



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               From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

     ) from (                ). It was (        ). Due to the entry of the

(   ), the (               ) is deleted.




Analysis: This verb is (                         ), the tense being (

                  ) from (                 ). The ( ) of emphasis entered

the verb, thereby deleting the (                  ).




Analysis: Due to the entry of (                                ), the (

          ) was deleted. The original word was (                              )

from (                ).




Analysis: This was originally (                   ). It is (

         ), the tense being (                             ). One (        ) was

deleted according to the rule of (                  ).




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Analysis: This is from the verb (                      ), (

           ), the tense being (                      ). It is (

               ). Due to the ( ), the ( ) became (                ).


After ( ), it is compulsory (                    ) to make the (                )
sâkin. The compulsion is due to excessive usage. After
(      ), it is permissible to do so (          ).




Analysis: This verb is from (                        ). It is (

         ), the tense being (                              ). It was originally

(       ). Due to the jussive mood (                  ), the ( ) at the end is

deleted. A pronoun (              ) was then attached to the verb which

created the scale of (            ) – (        ). Therefore the ( ) became

(         ) as the Arabs tend to make the scale of (              ) into (   ) as

in (        ). It is pronounced (         ).




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Analysis: This is the imperative (        ) of (            ), the word-

form being (                        ). The pronoun was added to the

end of the verb making it (         ). In the Qur’ân, after this word,

the words (           ) appear. Therefore the form of (      )–(       )

was formed, similar to (       ). The Arabs make the middle letter of

such scales also (          ). Consequently, the ( ) became (         ).

It becomes (          ).




Analysis: This verb is similar to (          ), the word-form being

(                      ) of the verb (      ). The tense is (

        ). It was succeeded by a (                        ). The rule of

assimilation (         ) was applied. Therefore it became

(                ).




Analysis: The verb is (         ) with ( ) attached to it. The word-




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form is (              ) while the tense is (                     ). Because

of ( ) it is in the accusative case (                    ). It is from (

     ) like (      ). Assimilation of both the nûns has taken place.




Analysis: The verb is (          ), the word-from being (

       ), the tense being (                              ). It is from (

     ) like (       ). The (              ) and (              ) have been
attached to the end.




Analysis: From the verb (             ), this is the (                      )

word-form with the tense being (                                     ). It is

(                              ). It was originally (          ). Due to the

(           ), the (             ) was deleted. The ( ), not being a

(    ), was rendered a (         ).




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Analysis: From the verb (             ), this is the (

       ) word-form while the tense is (

          ). A (                      ) and ( ) have been attached

before the verb, changing it into the jussive mood (

     ).




Analysis: This is the (                ) of the verb (    ), from the

(            ). It was originally (       ). Changes occurred in the

word just as in (      ).
A second possibility is that it could be the imperative of
(           ) from (                  ), the word-form being (

              ).

It could also be (                      ) of the same (    ). A (

      ) and (          ) are attached to the end of the word. The

(           ) was deleted and the (         ) of the (           ) was




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deleted due to (     ).

The verb is not difficult to distinguish but sometimes when a
word has a similar form in another language, confusion can arise.
This word means carpet in Urdu and Persian and could perhaps
cause confusion.




Analysis: This verb was originally (            ) from (              ),

the word-form being (                       ) and the tense (

              ). The rule of (            ) has been applied to it.




Analysis: From (                 ), it was originally (         ), the

word-form being (                        ) and the tense (

       ). The rule of (             ) has been applied to it.




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Analysis: It is (                         ) from (               ), the tense

being (                  ). It was originally (               ). The rule of

(            ) has been applied to it.




Analysis: From (                  ), it is (                             ), the

tense being (                     ). It was originally (           ).




Analysis: This is the verbal noun (                             ) of (

          ), originally being (                ). It can also be the (

       ) or (            ).




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Analysis: From (                  ), this is the (                   )

word-form, the tense being (                               ). It was

originally (           ). The (              ) was deleted because of

the precedence of the (         ). The (    ) of the word (    ) was

rendered a (       ) according to the rule (

       ). The (   ) of (        ) was changed to ( ).




Analysis: This was (                 ). From (          ), this is the

(                  ) word-form, the tense being (

           ). The (                ) was deleted because of the

precedence of the ( ). The (          ) of the ( ) is not pronounced

due to (                   ).




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Analysis: It was originally (                 ). It is (                    )

from the (                ), the tense being (                          ).The

(   ) of (        ) was deleted.




Analysis: It was originally (           ) from (                       ). The

(   ) of (        ) was deleted.




Analysis: It was originally (          ) on the scale of (             ) with

(            ). It is (            ) from (            ). Sometimes the

(            ) is written in the form of tanwîn.




Analysis: It was originally (          ) like (            ), from (

         ). It is permissible to delete the ( ) from the end of a


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word that is (    ).




Analysis: This was originally (            ) like (          ). When a

pronoun is added to ( ), an extra ( ) is first added to the verb

after the ( ). This rule applies to ( ), (         ) and (      ) when

suffixed by a (     ).

Sometimes a (            ) is suffixed to a verb that is (

      ) when a pronoun is attached to it, e.g. the words of a

hadîth, (                 ).




Analysis: The verb is (        ) from (          ). A (              )

is prefixed to the verb and the pronoun ( ) is suffixed to it.

Subsequently a second pronoun (           ) is attached to the verb,

thereby requiring a ( ) and making the (              ).




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Analysis: This is like the verb (        ), the word-form being (

      ) and the tense (                    ). The question that arises

here is that the (         ) of this verb is used (               ) in the

Qur’ân. Consequently, the (              ) supposed to be (        ) like

(    ) because the word-form is (                ). The scholars of tafsîr
have answered this objection by stating that this verb is used both
on the scale of (              ) and (             ). In the Qur’ân, the

(       ) is used from (          ) and the (          ) from (     ).




Analysis: The verb is (               ) from (              ), the word-

form being (                             ) and the tense (

        ).The (                  ) was deleted because of the

precedence of the (    ). Because the ( ) is succeeded by a (            ), it

is pronounced as a ( ).




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Analysis: This verb was originally (              ) from (              ).

The final doubled letter was changed to a (                     ). The
Arabs often do this.




Analysis: It was originally (          ) from (          ). The word-

form is (                      ) and the tense is (                     ).
Sometimes the Arabs delete one of the doubled letters. In this
case, the first ( ) was deleted. Sometimes it is pronounced

(       ) after transferring the harakah of the first ( ) to the ( ).




Analysis: According to some scholars, this verb was originally
(       ). According to the previously mentioned rule, the first ( )
was deleted after transferring its harakah. No need remained for
the (              ). Therefore it was deleted. The word (              )
remains.


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Analysis: This is the (                        ) of (          ) from the

(            ). It is (        ). It was originally     (      ). The rule

of assimilation applies. Similar to this is the word (         ).




Analysis: First Possibility: It is the (              ) of (        ) in the

accusative case (               ).


Second Possibility: It is (

       ) of (              ). It was originally (           ). The rule of

(    ) first applies to delete the ( ). Then the rules of (           ) and

(     ) apply to change it to (       ).


Third Possibility: It is (

       ) from (       ). Its paradigm of the perfect tense (

        ) is as follows:




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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(                                             )




Analysis: First Possibility: Besides the common verb (                 ) from

(          ), this is made up of two words (                   ) and ( ). The

former is (                                                            ) from

(      ) while the latter is (

       ) from (         ).


Second Possibility: The verb is (                 ). It is (

                                    ) from the (                    ). It was

originally (       ). The rule of (           ) was applied whereby the

harakah of the ( ) was transferred to the ( ) and the ( ) was

changed to (      ). It became (         ).




Analysis: From (                   ), this is (

        ), the verbal noun being (                       ). It was originally



                           Page 341
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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(          ) like (         ). The rule of (        ) was applied. The

(             ) was subsequently deleted due to the subsequent

letter being (        ). It became (       ).




Analysis: This is from the verb (               ) from the (              ).

It is (                                    ). The paradigm of the
imperative is as follows:
(                      )




Analysis: This is from the verb (                   ). It is (

                              ). It was originally (             ). The rule

of (      ) was applied and the ( ) was changed to ( ).




Analysis: This is from the verb (                   ). It is (


                           Page 342
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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

           ). It was originally (           ). The rule of (        ) was

applied and the ( ) was changed to ( ). One ( ) was then

deleted. It became (          ). When (         ) was applied to the

pronoun ( ), the ( ) was deleted.




Analysis: From the verb (                 ), this is the verbal noun in

the singular form. It is (                 ) from the (                 ). It

was originally (       ). The ( ) was changed to ( ) and

assimilated. It became (     ).




Analysis: First Possibility: It is the imperative (       ) of (    ), the

word-form being (                        ) with a pronoun ( ) attached
to it.

Second Possibility: It is from the verb (                  ). It is (

                                    ).




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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




Analysis: This is the imperative (       ) of (      ), the word-form

being (                     ) of (                ). It was originally

(      ). The rule of (   ) was applied.




Analysis: From the (              ), this is the (                     ).

It was originally (         ) like (       ).The rule of (          ) was

applied. It becomes (          ). The (               ) is deleted. It

becomes (        ).




Analysis: This was (          ), from the (            ). It is (

                                                  ). The rule of (      )

was applied. Due to the (              ), the (           ) is deleted

from the end. It becomes (             ). Subsequently, the rule of


                           Page 344
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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

(     ) is applied and the hamzas are deleted. It becomes (        ).




Analysis: From the (            ), this is (

                          ). It was originally (        ) like (        ).

The rule of (      ) is first applied whereby the ( ) changes to

(    ) and then the rule of (       ) to change the ( ) to ( ).




Analysis: From the (               ), this is (

                                ). It is like (    ).




Analysis: This is the (

             ) from the (              ). It was originally (      ) like

(       ). The rule of (          ) was first applied, followed by




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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

deleting the (      ) when constructing the imperative (           ). The

(              ) was finally deleted from the end. It becomes (        ).




Analysis: From the (             ), this is the (

                            ), the verb being (                ). It was

originally (     ) like (     ). The harakah of the ( ) is transferred

to the ( ) and the ( ) is changed to (              ). The (           ) is

no more required. It becomes ( ).




Analysis: From the (                 ), this is the (

                                             ), the verb being (

    ). It was originally (      ) like (     ). The rule of (          ) is

applied. It becomes ( ). The paradigm of (                         ) is as
follows:
      (                                                            )




                           Page 346
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             From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




Analysis: From the (                 ), this is the (

                       ), the verb being (          ). It was originally

(    ) like (          ). The rule of (       ) is applied to the ( ). It

becomes (       ). Then (            ) is inserted before the verb (

    ). The rule of (        ) is again applied because the two nûns are

adjacent to each other while the final nûn becomes (                 ). It

becomes (         ).




Analysis: It is (

                ) from (               ). The verb is (           ) like

(      ). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the

preceding letter while the (                   ) is deleted. It becomes

(       ).




                           Page 347
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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




Analysis: This is the (                                         ) from

(         ). It was originally (             ). The rule of (     ) is

applied and the end is read as sākin due to (      ).




Analysis: This word was originally (             ). There were three
sîns together which caused the word to become heavy in
pronunciation. Therefore the third ( ) was changed to ( )

which then changed to (       ). The same rule applies to the word

(      ) which was originally (         ).




Analysis: This word was originally (            ). The third ( ) was

changed to ( ) which then changed to (           ) due to the rule of

(    ). When (            ) entered the verb, the (             ) was

deleted from the end. A ( ) was added for (        ).



                           Page 348
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           From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




Analysis: It is (                                                )

from (               ). The verb is (        ) like (      ). The
harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the preceding letter while
the (           ) is deleted. It becomes (      ).




Analysis: It is (

              ) from (              ). The verb is (        ) like

(        ). The harakah of the hamzah is transferred to the

preceding letter while the (            ) is deleted. Waqf is made

at the end. It becomes (       ).




Analysis: It is (                                                )

from (              ). The verb was (   ). The rule of (    ) was


                           Page 349
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             From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

applied to change it to (      ).




Analysis: It is (

                ) from (            ). The verb was (     ). The rule

of (     ) was applied to change it to (       ).




Analysis: It is (                                                   )

from (            ). The paradigm of this verb is (                ).

The paradigm of the (       ) is as follows:

                    (                               )




Analysis: Besides the common verb (                     ), there is a

second possibility. It could be (




                          Page 350
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             From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

         ) from (         ). The paradigm of this verb is (

      ). The paradigm of the (               ) is as follows:

  (

                                               )




Analysis: This is the (

       ) from the (          ). It was originally (     ). A ( ) was

added between the first and second letter against the rule (

        ).




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              From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

                              Appendix A

Morphology or Etymology?

What is the subject of (                        ) called in English? Is it
Morphology or Etymology? Firstly, let us examine the
definitions of both these terms in the light of contemporary
works.

The following definition of Morphology appears in “The
Oxford Companion to the English Language”.

“In linguistics, the study of the structure of words as
opposed to syntax, the study of the arrangement of words
in the higher units of phrases, clauses, and sentences. The
two major branches are inflectional morphology (the study
of inflections) and lexical morphology (the study of word-
formation).” 21
The following has been mentioned under the term,
‘syntax’:
“The ways in which components of words are combined
into words are studied in morphology, and syntax and
morphology together are generally regarded as the major
constituents of grammar, although in one of its uses,
grammar is strictly synonymous with syntax and excludes
morphology.”22

We find the following definition in Websters Dictionary:
“2 a: a study and description of word-formation in a
language      including       inflection,    derivation, and
compounding – distinguished from syntax.
B: the system of word-forming elements and processes in

21
     The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 670, 1992.
22
     Ibid, p. 1016.


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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

a language.” 23

Encyclopaedia Britannica has the following definition:
“In philology, morphology is that branch of grammar
which examines the forms of words as well as the
principles of word-formation and inflection.” 24

The following definition is found in the World Book:
“Morphology: the study of the formation and structure of
words.” 25

As for Etymology, the following            are   some    of   the
definitions one may come across:

“Etymology: Both the study of the history of words and a
statement of the origin and history of a word, including
changes in its form and meaning.” 26

“…that branch of linguistic science which is devoted to
determining the origin of words.” 27

Websters Dictionary provides the following definition:
“The history, often including the pre-history of a linguistic
form (as a word or morpheme) as shown by tracing its
phonetic graphic, and semantic development since its
earliest recorded occurrence in the language where it is
found, by tracing the course of its transmission from one
language to another by analysing it into the component
parts from which it was put together, by identifying its
cognates in other languages or by tracing it and its

23
   Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 1470,.
24
   Encyclopaedia Britannica vol. 15 p. 818.
25
   World Book vol.18, p. 518, 1992.
26
   The Oxford Companion to the English Language, p. 384, 1992.
27
       Colliers Encyclopedia vol. 9 p. 378, 1971; Encyclopaedia
Britannica vol. 8 p. 804.


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              From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

cognates back to a common ancestral form in a recorded
or assumed ancestral language.28

The World Book states:
“Etymology is the study of the origins and development of
words.” 29

In Encyclopaedia Britannica, we find the following
definition:
“…that part of linguistics which is concerned with the
origin or derivation of words.” 30

The Students Encyclopedia states:
“… the study of the origins and history of words.”31

The Universal Standard Encyclopedia has the following:
“… that branch of philology which deals with the origin
and derivation of words, and with the comparison of
words in different members of the same language
group.”32

Under the word, ‘morphology’ in Al-Mughni-Al-Akbar, an
English to Arabic dictionary, the meaning is given as (

              ) while under the entry ‘etymology’, the meaning

provided is (                  ).33

In the An-Nafees English to Arabic Dictionary, under

28
     Websters Third New International Dictionary, vol. 1, p. 782.
29
     World Book, vol. 18 p. 518.
30
     Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 8 p. 804.
31
     Students Encyclopaedia, vol. 6 p. 456, 1970.
32
     Universal Standard Encyclopedia, vol. 8 p. 2930, 1956.
33
     Al-Mughni Al-Akbar, Hasan S. Karmi, p. 826 & p. 402, 1997.


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            From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

morphology, we find the term (                   ) while under

etymology, we find the term (                   ).34

In the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic,
under the entry (                   ), we find the following:
“morphology (gram.).” 35

These definitions clearly indicate that Etymology deals
with the history of words whereas Morphology deals with
the subject of word-formation. Hence the most appropriate
term for       (                ) would be Morphology and not
Etymology as has been erroneously used in some books.




34
  An-Nafees, Madgi Wahbah, p. 868 & p. 381, 2000.
35
      Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic P.513, Third
Edition 1976.


                            Page 355
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       From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

                   Bibliography




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       From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




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       From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology




                       Page 358
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