Memento issue 17 - May 2001 by lindash


Memento issue 17 - May 2001

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									Number 17                                                                                                                 May 2001

    Archives shares
     its treasures!
     n 1902 Australia’s first Prime                                                         into a project to give all
    Minister, Sir Edmund Barton,                                                              Australians an opport-
    received a report from                                                                      unity to view the key
Frank Bladen, Librarian of                                                                       documents that under-
the Public Library of NSW,                                                                        pin   our   political
exhorting him to establish a                                                                      system.
Commonwealth archives                                                                               Among the docu-
office to ensure that records                                                                       ments that are now
relating to Federation were                                                                         on display in the
preserved for the future.                                                                           Federation Gallery
His wish came true, and the                                                                        are the four found-
National Archives holds                                                                           ing documents: Queen
some of the most significant                                                                     Victoria’s Royal Commiss-
Federation documents.                                                                         ion of Assent, the Common-
Long held in vaults, these precious                                                         wealth of Australia Constitution
documents are now available for all                                                      Act 1900, the Letters Patent
to see in a remarkable exhibition                                                     Constituting the Office of Governor-
called Charters of Our Nation.                                                      General 1900, and the Proclamation of
                                            The Prime Minister inspects one of      Inauguration Day 1900.
The exhibition was officially
launched in our new Federation          the treasured documents displayed inside    In addition, three charters that
                                            the Federation Gallery, with his wife   highlight national milestones – the
Gallery in January by Prime Minister
                                          Janette (right) and Kylie Scroope from
John Howard.                                                                        Statute of Westminster Adoption Act
                                                     the Archives (left).
In her opening speech at the launch,                                                1942, the Constitution Alteration
Acting Director-General Anne-Marie                                                  (Aboriginal) 1967 and the Australia
                                       for the Centenary of Federation.
Schwirtlich described the records as                                                Act 1986 – are on display.
                                       Archbishop Peter Hollingworth,
‘the essence and evidence of why and   Chair of the National Council, talked        In launching the exhibition, the
how we are the community we are’.      about how the joint project began as         Prime Minister spoke about the
The exhibition is the result of a      an exercise to conserve the nation’s         documents as signposts and
joint Federation project between the   birth certificate – the Royal                expressions of change in Australian
Archives and the National Council      Commission of Assent. It developed           history since Federation.

                                                                                                                   continued on p. 2




    The new Federation Gallery in our Canberra building holds the ‘birth certificates’ of our nation.
    In the Treasures Gallery visitors can view other precious historical documents, photographs, seals

    and drawings that tell the story of Federation.

                                                                                                              ommunity organisations
    It’s the first time these key documents have been seen together – in fact,                           C     wishing to preserve their

    several have never before been on public display.                                                    archives may be eligible for a
    While most of the documents belong to the Archives collection, two are                               Community Heritage Grant.
    on loan from other institutions – the Constitution from Parliament House,                            This year, the National Archives
    and the Proclamation from the National Library.                                                      joins the National Library of
    In an annexe to the gallery, visitors can view the Constitutional Alphabet                           Australia and the Department

    video. It features well-known Australian personalities Peter Garrett,                                of Communications, Information
    George Negus, Jackie Kelly and others, who explain the A to Z                                        Technology and the Arts in
    of our constitutional democracy.                                                                     administering the grants.

                                                                                                         Any Australian community
                                                                                                         organisation that collects and
                                                                                                         provides public access to its
                                                                                                         documentary heritage collections

                                                                                                         is eligible to apply. Funding up to
                                                                                                         $8000 is provided for activities

                                                                                                         such as general conservation,
                                                                                                         storage and environmental control,
                                                                                                         disaster recovery, reformatting and

                                                                                                         copying, reboxing, training of staff
                                                                                                         and education.
                                                                                                         Applications close in June.

                                                                                                         For more information see the
                                                                                                         enclosed flier, or contact Ted Ling
    A visitor examines one of the precious Federation documents displayed in a ‘floating’ glass case.    at the Archives by telephone
                                                                                                         on (02) 6212 3936 or email

    More information about the charters can be found in a special Federation                   
    souvenir booklet, Charters of Our Nation, available for sale for $7.95.


    This permanent exhibition is now open for all to enjoy the amazing display
    of our national treasures.

    2                                                                                                                   memento        may 2001
C          old War fears, defence considerations and the state of the economy
           dominated federal politics in Australia in 1950. This was the year in
           which the Korean War began, the Communist Party Dissolution Bill
was enacted, compulsory military training for 18-year-olds was introduced,
wool prices reached record levels, and inflation pushed up wages and prices.

Cabinet discussions
on these issues are
revealed in the 1950
Cabinet notebooks
released early this year.
The nine handwritten notebooks
were compiled by Allen Stanley         ‘We learn what Menzies was                  Australian troops to the Korean
Brown, Secretary of the Prime          prepared to tell, and not to tell,          War was made without Prime
Minister’s Department from             the Australian people about the             Minister Robert Menzies’
August to December 1950. These         decision to commit Australian               knowledge, as he travelled to
are the first Cabinet notebooks        troops to the Korean War. We can            New York aboard the Queen Mary.
ever released to the public.
Cabinet notebooks are released
after 50 years rather than the
usual 30, because they are
particularly sensitive. They record
the views expressed by individual
Ministers, not just the collective
decisions of Cabinet.
At a media briefing on the
notebooks in February,

                                                                                                                                   NAA: A1200, L12817
Dr John Knott, Australian
National University historian and
historical consultant to the
Archives, revealed some of the
secrets held by the notebooks.
Dr Michael Keating AC, former
Cabinet Secretary during Prime         The fourth Menzies Ministry outside Government House after being sworn in, December 1949.
Minister Keating’s term of office,
talked about the notetaker’s role      observe how Country Party
and Cabinet processes in 1950          manoeuvring stymied Cabinet’s                 To see the handwritten
compared with more recent times.       attempt to deal effectively with              notebooks and transcripts,
                                       inflation. We have it confirmed               as well as background
Dr Knott explained that the                                                          information on the notebooks
notebooks are not a verbatim           that some members of Cabinet
                                       thought the main purpose of the               and the events of the day,
account of Cabinet discussions, but                                                  see ‘The Collection’ on our
were kept by the notetaker to help     Communist Party Dissolution
                                       Bill was to cause grief for the               website at
draft the formal Cabinet decisions                                                   And look forward to more
after a meeting. They provide new      Australian Labor Party’, he said.
                                                                                     fascinating reading when
insights into the reasoning behind     The notebooks also reveal the                 the 1951 notebooks are
those decisions and a glimpse of       rather strange twist of events by             released next year.
the way Cabinet worked.                which the decision to commit

may 2001        memento                                                                                                  3
                                            A                                                                   rchives
                                                                                                                               on the
     In Adelaide in July we move into our new premises in what used to be the
Old Colonist Hotel. Although the building dates back to the 1840s, the facilities
      will be completely updated to house our records and a new reading room.
            The building is on the corner of Angas Street and Chancery Lane –
                 an amazing coincidence as Chancery Lane in London was the
                  address of the Public Record Office for more than 100 years!

                                                                                                                                              ver the years we have
                                                                                                                                             collected hundreds of thousands
                                                                                                                                          of shelf metres of records created
                                                                                                                                          by government. To house them,
                                                                                                                                           we have needed huge repositories
                                                                                                                                              in every State and Territory. It is
                                                                                                                                                part of sound archival practice
                                                                                                                                                 to review the collection to
                                                                                                                                                  make sure that we are
                                                                                                                                                  keeping the right records,
                                                                                                                                                  in the right places, and in the

                                                                                                                                                 best way for all Australians

                                                                                                                                               to have access to them.

                            rm                                                                                                              We’ve discovered that many of
                                                                                                                                          the records deposited with us in
                                                             te L                                                                         the past have no archival value.
                                                                 i   bra r
                                                                           y   of So
                                                                                    uth A
                                                                                                                                          In Australia we have collected far
                                                                                                    B97   67.
                                                                                                                                          more records than other national
                                                                                                                                          archival institutions, especially

    ‘What I did                                                                                                       This is what they discovered.

      in the                                                                                                        Lighthouses – Kate Fielding
                                                                                                                    ‘Lighthouses may seem a rather obscure area of research.
                                                                                                                     I myself was a little puzzled at the outset of my scholarship
                                                                                                                    as to exactly what I might find. I was pleasantly surprised to

    holidays…’                                                                                                      discover that the Archives collection contains many beautiful
                                                                                                                    photos, architectural drawings and documents relating to
                                                                                                                    Australian lighthouses. I pursued a number of themes,
                                                                                                                    ranging from family life and isolation to indigenous people’s
                                                                                                                    involvement with lighthouse construction.
                                                                                                                    ‘My research was directed towards a proposed Archives
        O    ver the summer, our Canberra building was home to
             two keen scholars, Kate Fielding and Peter Roberts,
        the inaugural winners of our summer scholarships. In their
                                                                                                                    exhibition, and it was a great feeling to know that my work
                                                                                                                    would be used. I also had the chance to see the range of
        six weeks at the Archives, they searched our collection for                                                 material the Archives holds – maps of cities that were never
        information on selected research topics – lighthouses and                                                   built, personal letters, private investigators reports and old
        Prime Ministers’ wives.                                                                                     books so huge that I couldn’t lift them.

        4                                                                                                                                                 memento          may 2001
when you consider the size of our                to make sure we collect the right           From the reading room, researchers
population and the fact that the                 records in the future.                      will be able to access some 3000
Commonwealth government has                      And we are moving house.                    shelf metres of records. These are
existed for only 100 years. In 1998,             In almost every State and Territory         records that relate directly to South
we held about 250,000 shelf metres               we’re relocating to more appropriate        Australia, records most used by

                                                 buildings closer to the city.               researchers in Adelaide, and those
                                                 We’re refining our collection so            assessed as most likely to be used
                                                 we only keep the records that               in the future.
                                                 are needed, and we’re rehousing
                                                                                             What happens to the records we cull
                                                 them in better facilities.
                                                                                             from our repositories? Some, such
                                                 For researchers, this is good news.         as meteorology records, are being
                                                 It means that the collection will be        returned to the agency that created
                                                 more accessible, better maintained          them. Records with a broad national
of archival records, compared                    and more fine-tuned to their                interest, such as personal records of
to 577,000 metres held by the                    research needs.                             Ministers and World War I pay files,
National Archives and Records
                                                 We’re also looking to the future            are being moved to Canberra.
Administration in the USA and
                                                 and starting to make our records            Only records assessed as having no
167,000 metres held by the Public
                                                 available online. Researchers can           archival value are destroyed and this
Record Office in London.
                                                 already search our databases and            process is conducted by our
At the same time, the buildings                  view historic documents and                 professional archivists following
holding these records are getting                photographs on our website.                 stringent criteria and procedures.
older and more expensive to                      Every day we are scanning more
maintain.                                                                                    In Darwin, we plan to move to a
                                                 records to add to our databases.
                                                                                             new central location later this year.
We decided we needed to reduce                   Of course, it’s important to know
                                                                                             We expect to relocate in Hobart and
the size of the haystack to make                 where and when we are moving.
                                                                                             Brisbane in 2002, and Perth in 2004.
the needle easier to find, without               The first move will be in July in
throwing out the needles with                    Adelaide, where we are moving               And so the future of Archives
the hay. To do this we are reviewing             from Collinswood to a building              research looks very rosy indeed –
our collection to ensure we have                 on the corner of Angas Street and           a collection that is more accessible,
kept the right records, and we are               Chancery Lane in the central                easier to search and in better shape
using new approaches to appraisal                business district.                          for all Australians to see!

                                                                                                                  Our first summer scholars,
                                                                                                                    Kate Fielding and
‘My six weeks with the Archives were challenging and                                                                  Peter Roberts, made
rewarding. Thanks to all who made the time so enjoyable!’                                                              some fascinating
                                                                                                                       discoveries during
                                                                                                                       their six weeks
     Kate majored in history, creative writing and visual
                                                                                                                      at the Archives.
     arts (photography) at the University of Melbourne.
   Her passion is Australian local history, particularly that
                   of south-west Victoria.

Prime Ministers’ wives – Peter Roberts
‘What struck me most was the level of community                       ‘It appears that the ordinary Australian of the 1930s–40s felt
involvement of Prime Ministers’ wives.                                much more at ease writing to the Prime Minister’s wife than
‘Enid Lyons’ and Elsie Curtin’s personal files contain                the Prime Minister.’
hundreds of letters asking them to become patron or
                                                                                  Peter is an honours history student at Southern
vice-president of numerous charitable organisations.
                                                                                Cross University. Father of three, grandfather of two,
Seemingly regarded as a conduit to their husbands, both                   Peter has had many occupations, from labourer to debt collector.
received letters asking for assistance or offering advice,                     His history interests are mainly in indigenous–settler
obviously meant for the Prime Minister.                                               relationships in his local area, Lismore.

may 2001         memento                                                                                                               5
L o o king                                  back at
        Do you remember
     when bell-bottoms and bikinis
                                                                               t he
   were in fashion, peace protestors sat down in
 the streets, and the campaign slogan ‘It’s Time’ heralded a win
to Labor in the federal election?
In January we invited three speakers to talk about Australia in the
 1970s to coincide with the latest release of 30-year-old records.

Australia, home and away                                                      Food,
Historian Michael McKernan
looked at what was happening
on the political scene. The 1970s
        saw the beginning of
                                                   glorious food
                questioning of
                   authority at        Described as a ‘national treasure’,
                     all levels,       Margaret Fulton talked about how
                      land rights      our cooking changed in the 1970s.
                        debates,       She recalled a Sunday drive in the
                         protests      1960s from Bowral to Wollongong
                         against the   NSW when the smell of roast lamb
                          Vietnam      dinners wafted from houses in
                         War and       every country town along the way.
                         the start
                                       The 1970s, however, brought a
                        of a new
                                       culinary revolution!
                     movement.         ‘We discovered smoked salmon
                                       from tins, we thought avocado was
                   In 1970 Australia
                                       an exotic creature, we learned to
                hosted a number of
                                       have satays and we discovered
important international visitors,
including US Vice-President Spiro
Agnew, Canadian Prime Minister         Cocktail parties were all the rage. But people didn’t seem to go home,
Pierre Trudeau, and the largest        they just stayed and drank. ‘So we learned to make quiche!’
ever entourage from the royal          The 1970s was a time when the Magimix was introduced, crème
family to visit Australia.             caramel became a popular dessert, and ‘Kenny’ entered women’s lives
It was also the year that Australia    – the advent of the Kenwood Chef mixer was a great help in making
was blessed with its first             home-made bread.
papal visit. Pope Paul VI arrived      Guests to Margaret’s talk savoured her reminiscences as well as
amid debates about banning             samples of her famous recipes – salmon canapes, stuffed eggs and
contraceptives and priests forming     persian mint cup! All from her famous 1968 cookbook.
their own union. The Pope made a
strong impression by announcing
during public appearances that he
supported youth and their peace

6                                                                                         memento        may 2001
                                    Between Two Worlds
                                    comes home
                                         he re-launch of the Between Two Worlds
                                    T    exhibition in Darwin in February was very much

On the box                          a homecoming and a family affair.The exhibition draws
                                    on records held at the Archives about the removal of
                                    Aboriginal children of part-descent in the Northern
                                    Territory. It has been travelling around Australia since
                                    1993, and was recently updated in the light of
                                    developments such as the Bringing Them Home
                                    inquiry and the Stolen Generation court cases.
                                    At the launch, Bill Risk welcomed
                                    guests to the Larrakia country on
                                    behalf of the traditional Aboriginal
                                    land owners. Speakers included
                                    Kathleen Sullivan, Director of
ABC radio Canberra personality      our Darwin office, and Barbara
Rod Quinn looked at what TV         Cummings, well-known Northern
offered us in the ‘70s. The         Territory Indigenous author.
audience was treated to             Herbie Laughton, who features in
fragments of some old               the exhibition, sang some of his
favourites, including the famous    songs and spoke of his experience
ABC show Bellbird, once a           at the Bungalow. Kim Hill, ATSIC
novelty because it was in colour,   Northern Territory Northern
and the immensely popular           Zone Commissioner, launched
police drama Homicide.              the exhibition.
In 1970, John Laws made his
                                    Among the guests were Daisy
debut as compere of a comedy
                                    Ruddick (pictured here), Alec
show, Vanessa Redgrave uttered
                                    Kruger and the Bray family, whose
four-letter words on Channel 7,
and one million Australians         stories are told in the exhibition.
watched a brain operation on        Others attending were from
their TV sets.                      Kahlin compound, the Bungalow,
                                    Croker Island Mission home and         Daisy Ruddick whose
It was during the ‘70s that
                                    Retta Dixon home. Many came            story is told in the
television became the most                                                 Between Two Worlds
believed medium for news,           with their families.
Don Dunstan posed the question      Guests were openly moved by the
‘Can TV win an election?’, and      exhibition.They commented that it is
the Internet, video and cable TV    certainly a story that had to be told and that
were first predicted.               the Archives did an excellent job in doing so.
What will the records show          The exhibition continues in Darwin until 31 May.
30 years from now?
                                    A book based on the exhibition, with the same title,
                                    is available from the Archives for $14.95.

may 2001      memento                                                                             7
    Slip-way embrace

                                                                                                                NAA: M3613, 13

        Former Prime Minister Sir Joseph Cook and his wife, Dame Mary, enjoy an intimate moment on a
    rainy Southampton day. The Cooks were attending the 1926 christening and launch of the first Australian
         submarine-napier amphibian flying boat, the ‘Seagull’, one of six ordered by Australia from the
         Southampton Submarine Aviation Works. Sir Joseph, who was High Commissioner for Australia
               in London from 1921 to 1927, was a passenger on the flying boat’s inaugural flight.

         This photograph is just one of the many fascinating items in our collection of Prime Ministers’
         papers. Through our Prime Ministers’ Papers Project, we aim to make the personal papers of
            former Prime Ministers more visible and accessible by improving their documentation,
                creating a Prime Ministers website and producing a series of research guides.

8                                                                                                memento      may 2001
six million two hundred and seventy nine
        In for the
  thousand four hundred and twenty nine

                            and counting

                   You’ll find that the 2001 census is a     Mr Nick Vine Hall, a prominent
                   special one. For the first time all       genealogist and chairman of the
                   Australians can elect to have their       Australasian Federation of Family
                   census details kept in a time capsule     History Organisations, has pledged
                   and made available for research in
                                                             the support of his organisation for
                   the next century.
                                                             this project.
                   Only those who agree to be part of
                                                             To explain this year’s census and
                   the project – the Centenary of
                   Federation Time Capsule – will have       how it has been done in the past, the
                   their census return scanned then          Australian Bureau of Statistics has
                   microfilmed, stored in the Archives’      produced a video for the public
                   security vaults, and released after       called 2001 Census – An Overview,
                   99 years.                                 and a CD-ROM for schools called
                   People who might be interested in         A Tale of Two Worlds.                           Where will you
                   this information in the future include
                                                             By contributing to the time capsule,
                   genealogists, historians, academics,
                                                             people will be making a valuable
                                                                                                           be on census night,
                   social analysts, journalists, and
                   fiction and non-fiction writers.
                                                             contribution to preserving
                                                             Australia’s history for future
                                                                                                             7 August 2001?
                   All the original census returns will
                   be destroyed as usual after the
                   Australian Bureau of Statistics has       So, if you want to be part of the 2001

                   Gra e âx ectations
                   completed its analysis.                   snapshot, tick the ‘Yes’ box!

                                                                How were the first vine cuttings      The exhibition features a host of
                                                                brought to Australia?                 items such as labels, advertisements,
                                                                Which famous explorer was also        photographs and letters from our
                                                                the first Australian winemaker?       own collection as well as that of the
                                                                                                      Noel Butlin Archives Centre at the
                                                                Who said ‘Besides the                 Australian National University.
                                                                commercial benefits …
                                                                a wine-drinking population is         Also on display are precious old
                                                                never a drunken population’?          wines and rare prize medals for
                                                                                                      award-winning wines from wineries
                                                                Which doctor set up one of the        around Australia.
                                                                most successful vineyards in the
                                                                lower Hunter Valley in the 1840s?       Wine! was officially launched in
                                                                                                        Canberra by Winemaker of the
 NAA: D4477, 673

                                                                                                        Year 2000,Vanya Cullen from
                                                                                                           Margaret River,WA, on 18 April.
                                                            The answers to these intriguing questions        The exhibition will tour
                                                             can all be found in our latest exhibition,      nationally after it closes in
                   Young vineyard worker, Adelaide, 1906.
                                                                Wine! An Australian Social History.       Canberra in late July.
                   may 2001         memento                                                                                                  9
 Searching for
                                 General Heintzelman

T    hey were ‘sturdy’, ‘bronzed’ and
     ‘eager’. Arthur Calwell described
them as ‘a choice sample’. They
were the 839 Estonian, Latvian and
Lithuanian displaced persons who
                                          NAA: A434, 1949/3/16408

arrived from Germany on board the
USAT General Stuart Heintzelman in
November 1947. Many thousands
more were to follow in their footsteps.
After the guns fell silent at the end
                                                                    Maira Kalnins, aged 7, arrived in Australia with her family aboard the Fairsea in August 1949.
of the Second World War, millions                                   Of Latvian origin, she was the 50,000th migrant brought to Australia under the plan to resettle
of people all over Europe found                                     displaced persons after World War II.
themselves dispossessed and far from
their homelands.                                                    name into our RecordSearch                          acceptance of the displaced persons
At the beginning of 1946 more than                                  database.                                           by Australian employers and most
a million ‘displaced persons’, as they                              One researcher who is taking                        members of the public was the great
were officially labelled, remained in                                                                                   sadness of the upheavals in Europe
                                                                    advantage of improved access to
refugee camps in Germany, Austria                                                                                       during World War II. They may have
                                                                    the records is Ann Smith, who is
and Italy. Repatriation for these                                                                                       been suffering from what we now call
                                                                    particularly interested in the voyage
people was either impossible or                                                                                         post-traumatic shock syndrome and
                                                                    of the General Heintzelman, the
undesirable – mainly because their
                                                                    first ‘DP ship’.                                    possibly from other illnesses. Files in
homelands lay in Eastern Europe and
                                                                                                                        the Archives record some of the early
were now occupied by the armies                                     During her research, Ann found
                                                                                                                        difficulties as well as successes.’
of the USSR.                                                        details about how these postwar
                                                                    immigrants were recruited and what                  Ann had a very personal reason for
Between 1947 and 1953, more than
                                                                    they faced in their first two years of              pursuing her research topic.
170,000 displaced persons were
brought to Australia, most travelling                               contract employment in Australia.                   ‘When my mother died two years
by ship from Germany and Italy.                                     ‘While many have gone on to                         ago, I knew that she had come to
Today the personal papers of perhaps                                very successful lives in Australia,                 Australia in November 1947, and
every single one of these people are in                             some found it hard to settle’, she said.            I knew that the Heintzelman had
our custody. We have embarked on a                                  ‘Behind the positive gloss which                    brought some of the first postwar
long-term project to enter them by                                  helped to ensure the ready                          migrants to Australia.’

10                                                                                                                                        memento            may 2001
Between 1947 and 1953,
more than 170,000
displaced persons were
brought to Australia,
most travelling by ship from
Germany and Italy.                                      f   rederick
 Ann was amazed to find that no
 commemorative publication of this              F e l l o w s h i p
 important ship and its special
 passengers had ever been written.
                                            To encourage research and          experiences of survivors of
 So she decided to write it herself. Her    promotion of our collection,       Japanese prisoner-of-war
 research revealed a surprising fact.       each year the National Archives    camps. He was later to say
 ‘In keeping with the views of the times    offers two fellowships in honour   that the element of personal
 about the employment of women, all         of Frederick Watson. Watson        material he found in the
 women coming to fill shortages in fields   was editor of Historical Records   collection not only surprised
 such as nursing, typing and waitressing    of Australia from 1912 until       and delighted him but gave him
 were to be single. At least two of the     1925. He was also a firm           an additional insight into the
 women from the Heintzelman presented       advocate of the public use of      sufferings of families of
 the authorities with an unexpected         government archives.               prisoners and significantly
 problem.                                   We are looking for applicants      shaped and indeed altered his
                                            with scholarly credentials in      approach to his project.
 ‘Despite the medical examination
 before being accepted for settlement       20th century Australian history,   Towards the end of his
                                            politics, social studies or a      Fellowship. Dr McKernan
 in Australia, a further medical after
                                            similar subject. Applicants        recounted some of the
 their arrival at Bonegilla, described
                                            should have a postgraduate         prisoners’ experiences in a very
 on a Department of Health file,
                                            degree, an established record      moving public lecture. The book
 showed that two women had been
                                            of publication or a well-          based on his research will be
 pregnant before they left Germany.
                                            established knowledge of the       published later this year.
 ‘My mother was one of them. When           workings of the Commonwealth
 she and the other woman gave birth         government.                        Prospective applicants can find
 in 1948, we children must have been                                           more information about the
                                            Fellows are provided with office
 the first to be born in Australia to                                          Fellowship under ‘About Us’ on
                                            accommodation, a grant-in-aid
 non-British migrants sponsored by                                             our website at
                                            and reimbursement of some
 the Federal Government.                    research costs while they          Before lodging an application
 ‘Not quite the first children born         undertake a research project        it is very important for
 from the First Fleet, but a milestone      using the Archives collection.     prospective applicants to
 nonetheless.’                              In return, they must actively      contact Ted Ling at the
                                            promote the Archives and the       Archives on (02) 6212 3936 or
 As more of these records are sorted                                           email to
 and details entered on our database,                                          discuss their intended
 we hope more researchers will find         Our collection is extensive
                                            and varied. Our first Fellow,      research proposal.
 their own family connections.
                                            Dr Michael McKernan,               Applications close on
 Ann can be contacted by email at
                                            researched the postwar             29 June 2001.

 may 2001        memento                                                                                    11
                                                                           The international records
                                                                           management standard
                                                                           (ISO 15489) is edging closer to
                                                                           publication. Countries which are

                                                                           national member bodies of the
                                                                           International Standards
                                                                           Organisation’s (ISO) records
                                                                           management committee
                                                                           approved a draft in late January.
DIRKS documentation database                                               The international standard draws
                                                                           heavily on the Australian
       re you doing DIRKS?          This database will soon be available

                                                                           Standard, AS 4390, Records
       Are you drowning in          to all agencies on our list.
                                                                           Management. The standard is
       documentation?               The documentation database will        designed to help government,
Up to your armpits in appraisal?    help agencies gather information       business, professionals and
Surrounded by sources? Bogged       from the preliminary investigation     non-profit organisations to
down in business analysis?          phase. It will also help them to       create, capture and manage
Don’t despair – the DIRKS           prepare a business classification      adequate records to manage
documentation database is           scheme and thesaurus, record           their own businesses, meet
on its way.                         functions and activities to identify   legal requirements, and
Doing a DIRKS project generates     recordkeeping requirements and         maintain corporate and
a lot of documentation. We are      formulate disposal classes.            collective memory. It also
currently developing a database                                            supports the well-known
                                    For more information, contact          international quality standards
to help agencies manage their              in the ISO 9000 series.
information and meet their
documentation needs.

                                                                           Meeting of the
                                                                           minds in Madeira
Review of DIRKS and                                                        The Dublin Core Advisory
the Appraisal Guidelines                                                   Committee provides guidance to
                                                                           the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
                                    We would like to hear from             (DCMI), an international

W      e are reviewing the
       DIRKS Manual, which
outlines a best practice approach
                                    people who have worked with
                                    DIRKS or the guidelines, and
                                                                           organisation formed to develop
                                                                           online metadata standards that
                                                                           operate across different countries
to recordkeeping, and our           will hold forums to discuss the        and can be used by government
Appraisal Guidelines for            project. To make comments or           and business. In February, Andrew
Commonwealth Agencies which         for more information, contact          Wilson attended a meeting of the
enable agencies to develop          Rowena Crossman at                     Dublin Core Advisory Committee
disposal coverage for their              in Funchal, Portugal. Among other
records.                            Both reviews will be completed         things, the meeting discussed
                                    by the end of June.                    progress on the project to turn the
                                                                           Dublin Core metadata element set
                                                                           into an international standard.

12                                                                                       memento       may 2001
Training                               Moving government online
Canberra                               As part of its Government Online                    government managers, records
                                       Strategy, the Commonwealth                          managers and IT professionals.
Working with DIRKS
                                       Government wants agencies
Wednesday, 16 May 2001,                                                                    Many questions were raised:
9.00 am – 12.30 pm                     to deliver all appropriate
                                                                                           Are emails and websites records
Menzies room, National Archives of     Commonwealth services online
                                                                                           that need to be saved? What are
Australia, Queen Victoria Terrace,     by December 2001.
                                                                                           the legal implications of conducting
Parkes ACT                             Our recordkeeping guidelines
                                                                                           business online? And how can
Training for Commonwealth              and standards are an integral part
                                                                                           agencies capture records of online
Recordkeepers                          of this strategy and have been
                                                                                           transactions so they can be used
Wednesday, 30 May to Thursday,         mandated by the Government
                                                                                           as hard evidence in court?
31 May 2001, 9.15 am – 4.00 pm         for use by agencies to meet their
Menzies room, National Archives of     online obligations.                                 Fortunately, our guidelines and
Australia, Queen Victoria Terrace,                                                         standards address many of the
                                       Recently we discussed current
Parkes ACT                                                                                 questions facing recordkeeping
                                       recordkeeping issues with our
DIRKS workshops                        colleagues at the Government                        professionals in the electronic age.
This series of practical workshops     Online Conference held in Canberra.                 All can be found on our website at
covers the design and implementation   Delegates included senior                 
of recordkeeping systems (DIRKS)
and the development of a functions
thesaurus and a records disposal       Metadata matters across the water
authority. The workshops are
particularly aimed at agencies
undertaking recordkeeping
                                       T   he New Zealand Government recently adopted the Australian
                                           Government Locator Service (AGLS) metadata standard as the basis for
                                       a whole-of-government metadata standard for resource discovery. AGLS was
developmental projects. Please
                                       endorsed by the Australian Online Council of Ministers in November 1998
contact us if you are interested in
                                       and was mandated for use by Commonwealth Government agencies in April
                                       2000. In August 2000, Andrew Wilson of the National Archives was invited
Melbourne                              to speak at a New Zealand government seminar on AGLS which led to its
                                       adoption across the Tasman.
Training for Commonwealth
Tuesday, 8 May 2001,
9.00 am – 4.40 pm
National Archives of Australia,
31 Vision Drive, East Burwood

Training for Commonwealth
Wednesday, 16 May 2001,
9.00 am – 4.00 pm
Venue to be advised
Please see our current training
calendar under ‘Recordkeeping’
Contact us on (02) 6212 3610 or
                                       The Australian Bureau of Statistics is the first agency to develop a functional disposal
                                       authority using the new e-permanence standards. Kerrie Duff, Assistant Statistician ABS
for further information.               (right), receives the new authority from Kathryn Dan, Archives Assistant Director-General,
                                       at the signing ceremony on 28 March.

may 2001        memento                                                                                                             13
                                                            our heritage
                                                      How do you protect 100-year-old
                                                        documents in a public gallery?
Historical figures from our records
sprang to life in a re-enactment of the
12 March 1913 naming ceremony of
Canberra. King O’Malley, Australia’s
Minister for Home Affairs in 1913, led
the way as Governor-General Lord
Denman, Lady Denman and Prime
Minister Andrew Fisher arrived at the
National Archives in Canberra.
                                                        Queen Victoria’s Royal Commission of Assent and Australia’s
This special Centenary of Federation                    Consititution Act, two of the precious 100-year-old documents
event was held at the Archives on                             displayed in a glass case under strictly controlled
12 March 2001 when rain prevented                         environmental conditions in our new Federation Gallery.
use of the site of the original
foundation stones on nearby Capital         Displaying precious old documents            parchment, tin, silver, wax and
Hill. But the weather did not deter the     safely was the issue our conservation        shellac in the seals, colour pigments,
hundreds of people who converged on         staff faced when planning the Charters       silk ribbon and wool.
our Canberra building to join in the        of Our Nation exhibition in our
                                                                                         Silica gel cartridges in the base of
celebrations arranged by the Canberra       Federation Gallery (see story pp 1–2).
                                                                                         the display cases maintain relative
and District Historical Society and the
                                            The best way to preserve collection          humidity inside the cases. Each case
ACT Government.
                                            items is to store them in cool, dark,        is fitted with its own temperature and
                                            environmentally stable conditions.           humidity probe linked to a data logger,
                                            Our aim in the Federation Gallery
                                                                                         providing an hourly read-out of
                                            is to mimic these storage conditions
                                                                                         conditions inside the case.
                                            as closely as possible, while allowing
                                            everyone to see the precious items.          The materials used in the cases, such
                                                                                         as paint finishes, cloth lining, hoop
                                            Gallery lighting is kept at the
                                                                                         pine support panels and metal case
                                            lowest level possible to protect the
                                                                                         frames, have all been tested to ensure
                                            documents from fading. Lights above
                                                                                         that they do not chemically react with
                                            the display cases are activated only by
                                                                                         the documents.
                                            the movement of people in the gallery.
                                            In addition, blue wool indicator strips      Essentially, like any good storage
                                            placed in each display case will warn        area, the Federation Gallery provides
                                            of any potential fading.                     a cool, stable environment lit to
A souvenir booklet containing rare
photographs of the foundation of the        The gallery is airconditioned at all         minimum possible functional levels.
national capital in 1913, and the text of   times, and temperature and relative          The bonus is that we can now all see
the 2001 Toast to Canberra written by       humidity are strictly controlled to          for ourselves these wonderful
Marion Halligan, is available for $10       maintain the stability of the materials      documents without compromising
from the National Archives.                 used in the documents. These include         their continued survival.

14                                                                                                       memento           may 2001
In fifty years time,                  metadata, formulating a records      They also provide advice on how
or perhaps even just five, how will   preservation plan, and assigning     to store and preserve websites,
researchers or anyone who needs       and documenting responsibilities.    while dealing with technological
to know what was published on a                                            obsolescence, access and security
government website be able to find                                         issues, and varying environmental
the information? Will it be lost in                                          conditions.
cyberspace?                                                                      Capturing records of web-
Not if our latest recordkeeping                                                  based activity over time will
guidelines on archiving                                                           help agencies ensure that
websites are implemented by                                                        they are accountable to
government agencies.                                                                Parliament and the public,
Archiving Web                                                                       retain their corporate
Resources:                                                                                        memory and
Guidelines                                                                                        meet legal
for Keeping                                                                                       obligations.
Records of Web-                                                                                 Doing so will
based Activity in the                                                            also preserve a vital part of
Commonwealth Government                                                         the documentary record of
offers practical advice on how to                                                Australia.
keep archival copies of websites.                                               The guidelines are a
The same fundamentals that                                                  companion document to our policy
apply to paper-based                  The                                  statement on archiving web-based
recordkeeping apply to websites       guidelines                           resources, released last March.
and other electronic records.         encourage recordkeepers in           Both documents appear on

These include developing clear        government agencies to assess        our website under
policies, determining requirements    their needs and select the right     ‘Recordkeeping’
for records, capturing and            technological options to capture     at
maintaining records, applying         and maintain their web resources.

All the fun of the fair
Were you at the Family History Fair this year?
This popular annual event was         Many much loved family records
held on 1 April in our Canberra       were brought to the conservation
building as part of the ACT           clinic for advice on preservation
Heritage Festival celebrations.       and storage, and a talk by our
The usually hushed tones of the       conservator Ian Batterham on         Alex Sloan from 666 ABC Canberra
reading room were set aside for       caring for family records was        broadcast her radio show live from the

the day as visitors swarmed to        well attended.                       Family History Fair held at the Archives in
                                                                           April. June Penny from the Heraldry and
display stands of the Heraldry and    Guided tours of our new              Genealogical Society of Canberra was one
Genealogy Society of Canberra, the    exhibitions Wine! An Australian      of her guests on the show.
Canberra Museum and Gallery, the      Social History and Charters of
Canberra and District Historical      Our Nation were very popular.        2001 census records, and met
Society and businesses catering       By day’s end over 800 visitors had   ABC radio personality Alex Sloan,
to family historians.                 listened to talks about family       whose Sunday morning program
Our reference staff were there to     history records held by the          was broadcast from the Archives.
help visitors surf our website and    Archives, participated in a lively   If you missed it this year, look out
use the RecordSearch database to      discussion with genealogist Nick     for our next Family History Fair in
locate family history information.    Vine Hall on the retention of the    April 2002!

may 2001      memento                                                                                                15
When you think of government files, four-letter
words and indecent language are not
the first things to spring to mind.
   In fact, we have a whole group of       The most
   files that deal with just that. The     interesting
   files come from the Department of       files deal with widely known works,

   Customs and Excise in the 1960s.        which came to Customs’ attention
   One of the department’s functions       because they were considered to
   was to decide whether books should      include obscene language or
   be banned from import into              depraved imagery.
   Australia under the Customs             In 1963 the Penguin Book of
   (Prohibited Imports) Regulations.       Modern Australian Verse was
                                                               referred to          Allegations of graft, corruption,
                                                               Customs by           intimidation and ‘Chicago-like

                                                               the Queensland       gangsterism’ leap from the
                                                               Police on the        records of the Privileges
                                                               grounds that         Committee, released for the
                                                               the poem             first time on 1 January 2001.
                                                                                    The House of Representatives

                    you’re barmy
                                                                                    Standing Committee of
                                                                                    Privileges was established to
                                                                                    inquire into and report on
   The files contain                                                                complaints of breach of privilege
   detailed analyses, by the               ‘Imperial Adam’ by AD Hope was           – the special rights, powers,
   department’s Literature section, of     obscene. After police inquiries, the     immunities and protection
   publications that had been imported     book was withdrawn from use by           granted to Federal Parliament,
   or seized from people arriving in       Roman Catholic schools in                its committees, members and
   Australia. Government Ministers,        Queensland. But this time the            senators.
   police and members of the public        Literature section was not on the
                                                                                    One of the infamous cases
   also referred publications to           side of the censors. The examining
                                                                                    investigated by the committee
   Customs. A file was opened on each      officer conceded that Hope was
                                                                                    between 1944 and 1965 ended in
   publication and these records (but      perhaps the ‘enfant terrible’ of
                                                                                    the jailing of the proprietor and
   not the publications themselves) are    Australian literature, but did not
                                                                                    editor of the Bankstown Observer.
   now held in our Canberra office as      regard the poem as obscene.
   part of series A425.                                                             In April 1955, the Bankstown
                                           Translations of Solzhenitsyn’s
   Ginger, You’re Barmy was a novel on     One Day in the Life of Ivan              Observer, owned by Raymond
   the life of conscripts in the British   Denisovich also attracted Customs’       Fitzpatrick and edited by Frank
   Army by David Lodge. It survived a      attention in 1963, the book being        Browne, published an article
   brush with Customs in 1963 because      initially withheld and then released.    alleging that the Honourable
   its use of ‘coarse’ language was        Debate turned on the number of           Member for Reid, Mr Charles
   considered realistic.                   occurrences of ‘the FLW’ (four-letter    Morgan, had been involved in an
                                           word). The examiner wrote: ‘The          immigration racket before World
   Many of the publications relate to
                                           use of the FLW in books of literary      War II. Morgan had earlier
   sex and the examiners dutifully
                                           merit is becoming more and more          accused Fitzpatrick, a former
   worked their way through hundreds
   of publications with titles like        common particularly with American        business associate and political
   Sexbound, Perverted Orgy and            editions and it is very hard to decide   rival, of graft in connection with
   Carnal Cage. Their comments were        where the borderline in the quantity     government and municipal
   often scathing: ‘This is a weak story   of its use should be drawn.’             contracts.
   of a seductive lass who disrupts the    The records in this series are
   uninteresting lives of some             available to the public and, needless
   American swamp dwellers’.               to say, make for fascinating reading!

  16                                                                                           memento         may 2001
the House!
Claiming that the article impugned                to the High Court and the Privy       reading room. Fact Sheet 203
his personal honour and challenged                Council failed, and the sentences     about the Privileges Committee
his fitness to be a member of                     were served in the Canberra police    records and Fact Sheet 204 about
Parliament, Morgan asked the                      lock-up and Goulburn Gaol.            the Bankstown Observer case are
House to refer the matter to the                  The records on this intriguing case   available in our reading rooms and
Privileges Committee.                             can be viewed in our Canberra         on our website.
After questioning Morgan,
Fitzpatrick and Browne, the
committee concluded that a breach
of privilege had occurred
and recommended
that the House
take appropriate
Browne and
Fitzpatrick were summoned
to the House on 10 June 1955
to answer the charges brought
                                NAA: M1505, 456

against them. After hearing
statements from both men, the
House, on a motion from
Prime Minister
voted that
Browne and
Fitzpatrick be
jailed for 90
days. Appeals

                                                                                           Newspaper clippings are among the
                                                                                           minutes and reports of the Privileges
                                                                                           Committee records

may 2001      memento                                                                                                              17
Dark days
on the dole
The Great Depression only lasted a                            The Scullin Labor Government was           from the Federation, and the refusal by
few years, but its impact on Australia                        committed to a policy of ‘good             JT Lang, Labor Premier of New South
was long and devastating.The Scullin                          business practice’, which gave greater     Wales, to pay interest on loans raised
Government was two days old when                              priority to ensuring the continued         on overseas money markets.
the crash of the New York Stock                               solvency of the Australian economy         Working for the Dole is available
Exchange in 1929 heralded the start                           than to resolving the unemployment         for $10.00 (plus $3.50 postage)
of unemployment and misery for
                                                              woes of the nation’s people. Response      by phoning Publications Sales on
many people.The political
                                                              to the policy was dramatic, with rioting   (02) 6212 3609, emailing
ramifications were just as dramatic
                                                              in the streets of Darwin and Adelaide, or visiting
and led to the defeat of the Scullin
                                                              Western Australia’s attempt to secede      any of our offices.
Government two years later.
Our latest research guide, Working for                                                                                            Road building
the Dole: Commonwealth Relief during the                                                                                          was one kind of
Great Depression, lists and describes                                                                                             relief work
records in our collection that                                                                                                    offered to the
document the effects the Great                                                                                                    unemployed
                                                                                                                                  during the
Depression had on Australia, its people                                                                                           Depression.This
and its governments.                                                                                                              scene, captured
Compiled by Don Fraser, a historian                                                                                               by government
with a special interest in the social
                                                                                                                                  Jack Mildenhall,
history of working people, the guide                                                                                              shows workers
                                           NAA: A3560, 5122

deals with the response by the Scullin                                                                                            building roads in
Government, and later the Lyons                                                                                                   the national
Government, to the crisis caused by                                                                                               capital, 1929.
profound economic depression.

                                                                                     now online!
If you’re connected to the Internet, you can now view Memento online. By the time
you receive this printed copy, an electronic version of Memento will be available on our
website. You may also subscribe to an email service which will alert you when each new
issue is posted on the site. Of course, for those who prefer it, we will continue to print
issues of Memento as usual. Check out the electronic version of the January and May issues
under ‘Publications’ on our website at

18                                                                                                                      memento           may 2001
The devil you know
The devil you know

                                                                                                                      NAA: A1200, L44371

    All we know about this photograph of a women’s ten-pin bowling team called ‘Devils’ is that it was taken
    in Mount Isa, Queensland in July 1963. It belongs to our series of photographs from the Australian News
  and Information Bureau, and features in the touring exhibition Belonging: A Century Celebrated. Developed
   for the Centenary of Federation with support from AAMI, Belonging presents treasures from the National
       Archives, the National Library, and the State Libraries of NSW and Victoria. The exhibition explores
  Australians’ different experiences of belonging from Federation to the present day. Belonging opened at the
    State Library of NSW on 3 January 2001, and will travel around Australia. It opens at the State Library of
                               Victoria on 5 May, and continues there until 22 July.

may 2001     memento                                                                                             19
Archives                                  Federation Gallery –
                                          Charters of Our Nation                         CONTACTS
exhibitions                               Federation Gallery, National Archives,
                                          Canberra. Permanent exhibition housing
                                          the founding documents of the
                                                                                        Reference inquiries
                                                                                        Telephone                   (02) 6212 3900

  near you                                Commonwealth of Australia
                                          Caught in the Rear View Mirror
                                                                                                                    (02) 6212 3999

                                          with Roy and HG
                                                                                        World War I service records
 Wine! An Australian                      Port Pirie Regional Art Gallery
                                                                                        and inquiries
 Social History                           7 April to 20 May 2001
 National Archives, Canberra                                                            Telephone                   (02) 6212 3400
                                          Eye to Eye: Observations by
 31 March to 23 July 2001                                                               Facsimile                   (02) 6212 3499
                                          FE Williams, Anthropologist in
 Belonging –                              Papua 1922–43                                 Recordkeeping inquiries
 A Century Celebrated                     Bundaberg Art Centre, Bundaberg
                                                                                        For advice on recordkeeping standards
 National Archives and National           10 July to 12 August 2001
                                                                                        and guidelines including DIRKS, appraisal
 Library of Australia, Canberra           Rockhampton Art Gallery, Rockhampton
                                                                                        and metadata:
 22 August to 11 November 2001            18 August to 23 September 2001
                                                                                        Telephone                   (02) 6212 3610
                                                                                        Facsimile                   (02) 6212 3989

   Archives events                                                                      Email:

 CANBERRA                                 SYDNEY                                        Archives Advices and Fact Sheets
 Focus on Federation talks                Society of Australian Genealogists
                                                                                        You can find Archives Advices and Fact
 Listen to talks on Federation, the       Showcase, 25–26 May 2001
                                                                                        Sheets on our website under ‘Publications’.
 Constitution and our nation.             Visit our display stand, alongside those of
 To be held at 3 pm one Sunday            other archival institutions and historical    Preservation and disaster
 each month in 2001 in our Canberra       societies, for advice and information on      recovery inquiries
 building. For dates and bookings         family history records. To be held at
                                                                                        Shelley Jamieson            (02) 6212 3422
 phone (02) 6212 3624.                    Glover Cottages, 124 Kent Street, Sydney.
                                          Contact Fiona Burn on (02) 9645 0141.
 Looking forward, looking                                                               Lending

 back: Open Day                           Wir sind gefahren, 20 June 2001,              Telephone                   (02) 6212 3407
 Parliament House,                        10 am to 12 noon                              Facsimile                   (02) 6212 3472
 Old Parliament House and the Archives,   Join this seminar on German migration
 5 May, 10 am – 5 pm                      to NSW during the 19th and 20th
 Explore our collection through talks,    centuries. Speakers from State Records
 videos and tours of our exhibitions.     NSW and National Archives of Australia.
                                          To be held at the Sydney Records
                                          Centre, 2 Globe St,The Rocks.
                                          Contact Emily Hanna, State Records                is a free publication of the
                                          NSW on (02) 8276 5613.                           National Archives of Australia.
                                                                                           It is issued three times a year in
                                                                                                  hard copy and online.
                                                                                           To subscribe, fax, phone or email
                                                                                                  us (see details below).

                                                    Tel: (08) 8948 4577
                                                    Fax: (08) 8948 0276
                                                           Hobart                                          Subscriptions:
                                                    Tel: (03) 6244 0101                                    (02) 6212 3609 (tel)
                Canberra                            Fax: (03) 6244 6834                                    (02) 6212 3914 (fax)
           Tel: (02) 6212 3600                          Melbourne                                          Editorial inquiries:
           Fax: (02) 6212 3699                      Tel: (03) 9285 7999                                    (02) 6212 3923
           TTY: (02) 6212 3689                      Fax: (03) 9285 7917                                    Address: PO Box 7425,
                                                                                                           Canberra Mail Centre,
                 Adelaide                                  Perth
                                                                                                           ACT 2610
           Tel: (08) 8269 0100                      Tel: (08) 9470 7500
                                                    Fax: (08) 9470 2787                 Internet:
           Fax: (08) 8269 3234
                 Brisbane                                  Sydney
           Tel: (07) 3249 4222                      Tel: (02) 9645 0100                 Print Post Approved PP255003/04321
           Fax: (07) 3399 6589                      Fax: (02) 9645 0108                 ISSN 1327 – 4155

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