Interaction Design Chapter 9 by lonyoo


									User-centered approaches
  to interaction design
•Why involve users at all?
•What is a user-centered approach?
•Understanding users‘ work
   —Contextual Design
   —Participatory Design
•Involving users in design
 Why involve users at all?
•Expectation management
  • Realistic expectations
  • No surprises, no disappointments
  • Timely training
  • Communication, but no hype
  • Make the users active stakeholders
  • More likely to forgive or accept
  • Can make a big difference to
  acceptance and success of product
    Degrees of user involvement
•Member of the design team
  — Full time: constant input, but lose touch with users
  — Part time: patchy input, and very stressful
  — Short term: inconsistent across project life
  — Long term: consistent, but lose touch with users

•Newsletters and other dissemination devices
  — Reach wider selection of users
  — Need communication both ways

•Combination of these approaches
  Grad av inflytande         (Carmel et al)

• Konsultativ design
  – designern observerar, intervjuar, tar
• Representativ design
  – Användaren deltar, tar del i besluten
• Konsensus design
  – vetorätt
 How Microsoft involves users

Users are involved throughout development
  •‗activity-based planning‘: studying what
  users do to achieve a certain activity (task)
  •usability tests e.g. Office 4.0 over 8000
  hours of usability testing.
  •internal use by Microsoft staff
  •customer support lines
   What is a user-centered approach?

User-centered approach is based on:
  – Early focus on users and tasks: directly studying
    cognitive, behavioral, anthropomorphic & attitudinal
  – Empirical measurement: users‘ reactions and
    performance to scenarios, manuals, simulations &
    prototypes are observed, recorded and analysed
  – Iterative design: when problems are found in user
    testing, fix them and carry out more tests
 Early focus on users and tasks
• Users‘ tasks and goals are the driving force behind the
• Users‘ behavior and context of use are studied and the
  product is designed to support them
• Users‘ characteristics are captured & designed for
• Users are consulted throughout development, from
  earliest phases to the latest, and their input is seriously
  taken into account
• All design decisions are taken within the context of the
  user, their work and their environment
  Understanding users’ work
•Understanding users‘ work is significant
     from anthropology
          ‗writing the culture‘
          participant observation
•Difficult to use the output of ethnography in
Framework for using ethnography in design
     “viewpoints” in the Coherence method

•Distributed co-ordination: distributed nature of the
tasks & activities, and the means and mechanisms by
which they are co-ordinated
•Plans and procedures: organisational support for the
work, such as workflow models and organisational
charts, and how these are used to support the work
•Awareness of work: how people keep themselves
aware of others‘ work
A method which offers appropriate questions to
help address these key dimensions
•For example:
—Distributed Coordination: How is the division of labour
manifest through the work of individuals and its co-
ordination with others?
—Plans and procedures: How do plans and procedures
function in the workplace?
—Awareness of work: How do the workers organize the
space around them?
The theory defines 4 ―Concerns‖, which are kind
of goals:
•Paperwork and computer work: How flexible is the
technology at supporting the work process?
•Skill and the use of local knowledge: How is local
knowledge used and made available?
•Spatial and temporal organization: Which aspects of
work are time-dependent?
•Organizational memory: How well do formal records
match the reality of how work is done?
Contextual Design - Holzbladh
•Developed to handle data collection and analysis
from fieldwork for developing a software-based

•Used quite widely commercially

•Contextual Design has seven parts:
     Contextual inquiry, Work modelling,
     Consolidation, Work redesign,
     User environment design,
     Mock-up and test with customers,
     Putting it into Practice
 Contextual Design:   Contextual Inquiry
•An approach to ethnographic study where user is expert,
designer is apprentice
•A form of interview, but
   —at users‘ workplace (workstation)
   —2 to 3 hours long
•Four main principles:
   —Context: see workplace & what happens
   —Partnership: user and developer collaborate
   —Interpretation: observations interpreted by user and
   developer together
   —Focus: project focus to help understand what to look
 Contextual Design:   Work Modeling
In interpretation session, models are drawn from the
•Work flow model: the people, communication and
•Sequence model: detailed work steps to achieve a
•Artifact model: the physical ‗things‘ created to do
the work
•Cultural model: constraints on the system from
organizational culture
•Physical model: physical structure of the work, e.g.
office layout
               Contextual Design:

What are we looking for?
A single statement of the customer’s work:
•Intent - the purpose or motive for accomplishing a
•Strategy - a pattern for doing work
•Structure - an organization of the physical or social
environment to support work
•Concepts - distinctions that help people think about
their work and how to do it
 Contextual Design:   Consolidation
•Each contextual inquiry (one for each user/developer
pair) results in a set of models
•These need to be consolidated into one view of ‗the
•Affinity diagram
   —Organizes interpretation session notes into common
     structures and themes
   —Categories arise from the data
   —Diagram is built through induction
•Work models consolidated into one of each type
   Participatory Design (PD)

•Scandinavian history
•Emphasises social and organisational aspects
•Based on study, model-building and analysis
of new and potential future systems
Participatory Design (how?                           Bödker)
1) Designer observes, interviews (days)

2) Modelling I: Visualizing current workplace

3) Modelling II: Visualizing the possible workplace
   User learn about technology (prototypes)
   Future workshops (critics, fantasy, implementation)
   Organizational games (changed roles & communications)

4) Scenarios
5) Prototyping: presentation and evaluation of concrete
   Action plan
   Embotying ideas
   Mock-up design
   Cooperative prototyping
Benefits of Participatory Design

―Computer-based systems that are poorly suited to how
   people actually work impose cost not only on the
organisation in terms of low productivity but also on the
     people who work with them. Studies of work in
 computer-intensive workplaces have pointed to a host
 of serious problems that can be caused by job design
   that is insensitive to the nature of the work being
   performed, or to the needs of human beings in an
                 automated workplace.‖

    [Kuhn, S. in Bringing Design to Software, 1996]
          The Activity Checklist
Kaptelinin, Nardi, Macaulay
•Based on Activity Theory
•Design, evaluation versions

Five principles from AT emphasized:

•Tool mediation
•Plastic Interface for Collaborative Technology
Initiatives through Video Exploration

•Intended to empower users to act a full
participants in design
           PICTIVE (contd)
•Materials used are:
    —Low-fidelity office items such as pens,
    paper, sticky notes
    —Collection of (plastic) design objects for
    screen and window layouts

•Equipment required:
     —Shared design surface, e.g. table
     —Video recording equipment
            PICTIVE (contd)
•Before a PICTIVE session:
      —Users generate scenarios of use
      —Developers produce design elements for the
      design session

•A PICTIVE session has four parts:
      —Stakeholders all introduce themselves
      —Brief tutorials about areas represented in the
      session (optional)
      —Brainstorming of ideas for the design
      —Walkthrough of the design and summary of
      decisions made
•Collaborative Analysis of Requirements & Design
•Similar to PICTIVE but at a higher level of abstraction:
explores work flow not detailed screen design
•Uses playing cards with pictures of computers and screen
•Similar structure to the session as for PICTIVE
•PICTIVE and CARD can be used together to give
complementary views of a design
• User involvement helps manage users‘
  expectations & feelings of ownership
• A user-centered approach has three main
  elements: early focus on users, empirical
  measurement and iterative design
• Ethnography is useful for understanding work,
  but can be difficult to use in design
• Coherence and Contextual Design support the
  use of ethnographic data in design
• Participative design involves users taking an
  active part in design decisions
• CARD and PICTIVE are example techniques
Introducing evaluation
               The aims

• Discuss how developers cope with real-
  world constraints.
• Explain the concepts and terms used to
  discuss evaluation.
• Examine how different techniques are
  used at different stages of
 Two main types of evaluation

• Formative evaluation is done at
  different stages of development to
  check that the product meets users‘
• Summative evaluation assesses the
  quality of a finished product.

Our focus is on formative evaluation
         What to evaluate
  Iterative design & evaluation is a
  continuous process that examines:
• Early ideas for conceptual model
• Early prototypes of the new system
• Later, more complete prototypes

 Designers need to check that they
 understand users‘ requirements.
 Bruce Tognazzini tells you why you
         need to evaluate
―Iterative design, with its repeating cycle of
design and testing, is the only validated
methodology in existence that will
consistently produce successful results. If
you don‘t have user-testing as an integral
part of your design process you are going
to throw buckets of money down the
See for topical discussion about design and evaluation.
         When to evaluate

• Throughout design
• From the first descriptions, sketches
  etc. of users needs through to the
  final product
• Design proceeds through iterative
  cycles of ‗design-test-redesign‘

• Evaluation is a key ingredient for a
  successful design.
       Evaluating the 1984 OMS

•   Early tests of printed scenarios & user guides
   Early simulations of telephone keypad
   An Olympian joined team to provide feedback
   Interviews & demos with Olympians outside US
   Overseas interface tests with friends and family.
   Free coffee and donut tests
   Usability tests with 100 participants.
   A ‗try to destroy it‘ test
   Pre-Olympic field-test at an international event
   Reliability of the system with heavy traffic
  Development of HutchWorld
• Many informal meetings with patients, carers
  & medical staff early in design
• Early prototype was informally tested on site
• Designers learned a lot e.g.
  - language of designers & users was
  - asynchronous communication was also
• Redesigned to produce the portal version
          Usability testing
• User tasks investigated:
  - how users‘ identify was represented
  - communication
  - information searching
  - entertainment
• User satisfaction questionnaire
• Triangulation to get different
Findings from the usability test

•The back button didn‘t always work
•Users didn‘t pay attention to navigation
•Users expected all objects in the 3-D view to
 be clickable.
•Users did not realize that there could be
 others in the 3-D world with whom to chat,
•Users tried to chat to the participant list.
                 Key points

 Evaluation & design are closely integrated in user-
  centered design.
 Some of the same techniques are used in
  evaluation & requirements but they are used
  (e.g., interviews & questionnaires)
 Triangulation involves using a combination of
  techniques to gain different perspectives
 Dealing with constraints is an important skill for
  evaluators to develop.

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