Tweens - The Health Communication Unit - Home by tyndale


									                                                      Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

Ref    Age     Psychographic Data                                                                Application
8      9-14    There are approximately 2.5 million tweens in Canada.                             The following information is a broad analysis and it important to
                                                                                                 note that within the tween audience there are many subgroups. It is
                                                                                                 impossible to market effectively to the group as a whole.
11     9-14    Enormous within group variation (Tweens are age 9-14) so categories               Communications should span an age range of no more than 4
               only helpful in providing directional information and developmental               years. Multiple messages, creative executions, websites must be
               differences between youth ages re: cognitive abilities, brand awareness,          developed to cater to the interests of different age groups.
               media habits & media literacy etc.
17     10-14   Statistics Canada estimated in 2001 that there were 2, 076,000 tweens
               age 10-14. It is estimated that 2,096,400 tweens will be age 10-14 in
               2006. Then this population will continue to decline to 1, 856,700 in 2026.
18     10-25   Generation Y are those born between 1979 and 1995 (aged 9-25 in year
19             Younger tweens have a sense of solidarity with each other and a strong
               joiner instinct. They are finally the big kids that little kids admire and they
               enjoy playing the part. They are also starting to distance themselves from
               their parents with means they look to peer for validation and advice.
19             Older tweens are starting to act more like teens. They embrace the term
               "teen" because it has an aspirational quality for them. They are starting to
               adopt teen taste and attitudes. They like teen music, televisions and
               magazines. This is a time of major transition and uncertainty. They feel
               like self-conscious, inexperienced teens and experience tremendous peer
               pressure. even though family is important their primary motivation is the
               desire to fit in with their peers.

19             Generation Y is very racially diverse. This greater diversity has helped
               create a more colourblind generation.

19             Generation Y is very fragmented. Racial and ethic diversity along with a
               world with hundreds of television channels, magazine titles and the
19             Targets with larger age ranges pose difficulty because of differences in
               cognitive levels, abilities and interests.

19             Research suggests, that every youth year equals five adult years.

20             Too big to be a kid, but too young to be a teen, tweens are commonly
               thought to be a subsection of what marketers interchangeably term
               Generation Y, Echo Boom and Millennial Generation.

      Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                                                                           Page 1
                                                     Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

Ref    Age     Who's point of view is important?                                               Application

1      11-12  Over 80% (83% girls, 81% boys) feel that their parents trust them.               Parents still play an important role in a tween’s life. As tweens are
1      11-12  82% of boys and 77%of girls feel what their parents think is important.          looking ahead to the next generation’s (teens) behaviour, they are
8      9-14   57% consider their family as most important to them in their life.               still looking back to their parents to check in. Campaigns could
11     9-10   85% list that their parents have a lot of influence on their lives.              include messages delivered from both parents and teens.
11     13-14  71% list that their parents have a lot of influence on their lives.              Campaign could also incorporate message to parents empowering
19     13-17  Parents are the most influential in major life decisions, such as whether or     them to support and advise their children.
              not to drink. Friends are the most influential in small decisions such as
              what to wear and how to spend money.
19            According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, youth benefit when they are
              informed early about tough issues, especially by their parents.
2             While girls think others are influenced by the media, they believe that their    Tweens lack media literacy skills. They believe that what they see
              own goals and concerns are not influenced.                                       in ads is the gateway to the freedom and independence of
2             Girls report that they have excellent critical thinking skills regarding media   teenagers.
11     Tweens Tweens have yet to acknowledge their impressionability to advertising.
3      Tweens At this age boys and girls are comfortable with one another.                     Ads incorporating images involving unisex or both genders could
                                                                                               be attractive to tweens.
1      11-12   Most youth find it easy to talk to their same-sex friends, with the number
               finding it easy to talk to friends of the opposite sex increasing gradually
               from grade 6 to grade 10.
3      9-12    Tweens define themselves by the company they keep, and define friends           Friends are important and campaigns could incorporate peer to
               as support systems.                                                             peer involvement. Also, campaign creative could include images of
                                                                                               real teen models that tweens can aspire and relate to.
3      9-12    Word of mouth and in-school "hall talk" between tweens are powerful
               makers and breakers of new fads, trends, brands.
8      9-14    Only 8% of tweens say their friends are the most important influence in
               their life.
11     9-10    Peers are very important in guiding youth attitudes and behaviour. Some
               visible issues are fashion, music, and consumption.
13     9-14    63% of tweens heard about cool new products and brand names from
               friends or at school.
20             To shape their identity, younger tweens look to their peers for validation
               and advice.
20             While tweens continue to look to parents for guidance, 83% of tweens feel
               as though they can turn to their friends for help when they have a problem.

      Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                                                                           Page 2
                                                     Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

Ref    Age      Who do they respect? Role models?                                               Application

1      11-12    37% of boys and 29% of girls spend time with friends after school 4 or 5        Friends are key to this age group. Finding the "early adopter" to
                times a week.                                                                   influence the group is key to a successful campaign.
3      9-12     Tweens are "teen wannabees". They don't see themselves as children.             Tweens are constantly aspiring to be "teens". Good teen role
                                                                                                models could be incorporated into campaigns.
7      Tweens Younger children look up to teens to identify and adopt the latest fashion.
10     Tweens Tweens respond to what is happening in the next generation (2 years their
20            Tweens no longer see themselves as children, in fact, they feel a flattering
              sense of authority when younger children look up to them.
20            Older tweens (ages 12-13) feel like self-conscious, inexperienced teens.
              They aspire to be like teens who they look up to and admire.
2             Hilary Clinton and Drew Barrymore were viewed as positive role models             Celebrities are becoming more important but there are no
              for girls because both are believed to have overcome adversity and are            universally admired celebrities among tweens and the coolness
              women of integrity.                                                               factor changes rapidly. Campaigns could be endorsed by a
7      12-19 Celebrities can be effective in gaining attention, in positioning a product to     celebrity for a limited time and in combination with other strategies.
              a teen segment and furthering a brand image. However, celebrities alone
              will not carry a brand.
11     Tweens Tweens are beginning to attach credibility to role models like athletes and
              music icons while still relying and/or deferring to their parents influence for
              bigger decisions like when to drink alcohol.
11     7-19   While not all children will be engaged by any given sport or sports figure,
              sports in general provide a vehicle for high-action and visual ad execution,
              both of which have proven successful in attracting youth attention and
              generating word of mouth or hall talk.
11     7-19   With celebrities, it is difficult for teens to agree upon a hero.
14            The current tween influencers are Avril Lavigne and Hilary Duff (2004).
11            43% of tweens say that teachers still play an important role in influencing       Campaigns messages could be delivered by multiple sources
              their lives.                                                                      including parents, siblings, teachers, teens and celebrities.
11     tweens 38% of tweens say that siblings still play an important role in influencing
              their lives.

      Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                                                                             Page 3
                                                   Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

Ref    Age     Where do they get health related info?                                      Application
6      10-12. The media ties with mothers, teachers, schools and is ahead of fathers as    This is the age when youth are beginning to look for information
              sources of information.                                                      independent of their parents. The media is one important source of
6      10-12. 38% say their peers find out "a lot" about issues like drugs,sex, violence   information for them.
              from TV, movies, other entertainment media.
19     10-12 Tweens report they learn the most of issues from their mothers and
19     13-15 Top sources for information are friends and entertainment media.

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                                                     Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

Ref    Age     How do they spend their money                                                  Application

7      12-19   Tweens get their own money from a variety of sources, which can make           Tweens have independent sources income.
               their incomes more stable than adults.
7      12-19   A larger share of a tween's income is discretionary.
13     9-14    Tweens provide the following sources as income: 90% from last birthday
               (average $88), 85% receive money as needed, 66% receive money as a
               gift on a major holiday (average $80), 52% get an allowance (average
               $9.20), 28% get back to school money (average 28%), 25% get paid for
               work done (average $14/wk).
7      12-19   More than half of teenage girls and more than one third of teenage boys        Tweens are very involved in family purchasing decisions.
               do some food shopping each week for their family.
7      12-19   Tweens influence household spending by sneaking items into grocery
               chart, giving to cashier, requesting a specific brand and will only use this
               brand, offer parents advise on products they know more about (e.g.
               computers), and ask for specific gifts for birthdays & holidays.
13     9-14    Canadian tweens influence approximately $20 billion in household family
3      9-12    Tweens are taking more trips independently to the mall than before.            Tweens are becoming more independent in their own purchasing
7      12-19   The items tweens buy reflects what they think of themselves and how they
               wish others to perceive them. The act of buying can be one of
               independence or conformity, self-expression or socialization.
13     9-14    Canadian tweens spend $1.7 billion of their own money.
7      12-19   Tweens state that characteristics most associated with a cool brand are        Campaigns could produce high quality creative with high frequency
               high quality, advertising and the brand is specific for people their age.      to reach a tween audience.

7      12-19   The top 5 coolest brands are Nike, Guess, Levi's, Gap and Sega. The top        Clothing and shoes are an important factor to fit in. Campaign
               4 are apparel and shoe brands, which reflecting the emotional importance       message development and production could involve a review of
               for tweens to wear the "right" clothes and shoes.                              clothing and shoe advertising to incorporate similar elements.
7      12-19   For girls, apparel is the most important product category consuming the
               greatest proportion of their disposable income and their greatest parent-
               campaigning efforts.
7      12-19   After fashion, girls spend most on personal-grooming items.
7      12-19   Boys convince parents to buy clothes & shoes and spend their money on
               food, gas, entertainment.
7      12-19   The only item to override purchase motivations is to have fun and much of      "Fun" can be defined in many different ways. Campaigns could
               youth income is spend in this pursuit.                                         offer a variety of different activities to engage tweens.
13     9-14    Tweens buy the following in order of prevalence; candy, clothes & shoes,
               games & toys (not electronic), books/magazines, video games, potato
               chips, pop, movies (theatre), trading cards, gum and non-specific food &
19             Generation Y is entertainment driven and they are not afraid to spend
               money on items they desire.

      Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                                                                      Page 5
                                                    Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

Ref    Age     What are their values, beliefs, aspirations, objectives, attitudes?             Application

20     9-13    Literature suggests that when children reach their tween years they begin       Tweens are "growing up". This is the time when they are forming
               to develop unique social needs and desires, and reveal distinctive hopes,       their values and beliefs. Campaigns should provide an opportunity
               dreams and expectations for the future.                                         for Tweens to decide for themselves. Campaigns should also be
20     9-13    Teens begin to develop their own sense of self and seek out information         sensitive to the fact that tweens are in transition and seeking to
               from parents and peers that will help them further define themselves.           exert greater control over their environment while reminding tweens
                                                                                               where to get support. Campaigns could provide an opportunity for
20     9-13    Tweens are beginning to identify their own interests and express                tweens to decide for themselves.
               themselves through their activities.
20     9-13    Children at the "tweening" point are beginning to form unique identities.
               They think more about who they want to be and what they want in life.

20     9-13    As reference by Novelli and Just Kids Inc., 2000, tweens take on new
               responsibilities and make small-time decisions or "little choices" that were
               previously made for them by their parents. Even though they seek greater
               independence from their parental, however, they are not fully confident
               that they can make good judgments on their own. They continue to look to
               parents and older siblings to help them with "big decisions" until they can
               choose wisely for themselves.
3      9-12    Girls are entering puberty 2 years earlier that 10 years ago…moving into
               cognitive, biological and play space that is far different from the tween-age
               chorts of the 80's.
20             Tweens inherit some of the responsibility of cooking and other household
               chores in the absence of stay-at-home parents. Physically they undergo
               changes they do not completely understand which add to their stress.

20     9-13    Tweens are highly affected by peers and face pressures and worries that
               are often focused on how they will fit in and interact with others society.

19             Many initial beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours have already        The greatest potential for impact is to target those age 9-12 (grades
               been established by age 13.                                                     4-7).
3      9-12    Tweens care about fun, friends and brand fulfillment.                           Youth must feel ownership. It is important to speak to them as a
                                                                                               peer, instead of a "preaching" authority. Campaigns could deliver
3      9-12    Successful products are positioned clearly and distinctly. These products
                                                                                               messages from teen spokespersons. Branding is important;
               "invite tweens to the brand party". They find strategic partners who also
                                                                                               however, branding must be continually updated with new, cool
               connect with tween lifestyle and share brands in ways that mutually
                                                                                               image associations. Branding and message development would
               enhance the partners' branch power.
                                                                                               benefit from engaging tweens in the process.
19             Generation Y is very entertainment driven, they live for the moment an
               stand for fun, fantasy, exploration, learning and new experiences.
19             Generation Y is very image-driven and use fashion, music and "the street"
               to communicate their unique youth culture.
19             Messages must be authentic, real and presented in a way that promotes

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                                                    Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

20    9-13    When marketing to tweens, experts suggest that campaigns that promote
              fun are key.
20    9-13    According to Children's Business (1999) brands are an extension of their
              total experiences and realities in which they are involved, interconnected
              and interactive. Successful brands are build "with" them, not for them.

20    9-13    To win tweens over, brands must be perceived as authentic. Tweens               Word of mouth is a powerful way to build a brand among members
              make the final decisions of a brand's authenticity, regardless of marketing     of this audience.
3             Tweens are experimenters. They are happy to try new things and adapt to         Campaign messages and brands could be updated and developed
              new behaviours, fads, trends.                                                   to constant present a new image.
3             Tweens need constant refreshment of message to keep products new and
3             Tweens are changeable.
7     12-15   Younger teens have been waiting years to be teens and now want                  Tweens want to be Teens. Campaigns should refrain from calling
              someone to notice. They embrace the terms "teen" or "teenager" in a             them tweens.
              product name.
19            Generation Y faces worries and pressures. They are concerned about not          Some are beginning to feel expectations and pressures in school.
              performing well in school, not having enough money, getting cancer of           Campaign messages could also have an “out of school” component.
              AIDS and experiencing violence.
1     11-12   10-12% of tweens feel a lot of pressure at school.
1     11-12   20% of tweens feel that teachers expect too much.

3     9-12    Tweens desire more freedom in their lives.                                      When developing messages, position the desired behaviour as the
11    7-19    Youth expect to be spoken to at a level that demonstrated a respect for         kid's choice.
              their ability to process information and make their own decisions. (p.27)

19            Like adults, youth seek information form a broad range of sources that
              contribute to their impressions of brands and affect their attitudes, beliefs
              and behaviors. In particular, youth seek communication experiences that
              allow them to "discover" information themselves.
19            Boys value entertainment, action, adventure, challenge and violence.            Creative development will need to balance the different interests of
                                                                                              boys and girls to cater to both audiences and/or develop separate
19            Boys gravitate towards games, competitions, actions and adventure.
                                                                                              gender-specific campaigns. Campaigns could incorporate comic
19            Girls value story lines, characters, worthwhile goals, social interaction,
                                                                                              books, superheroes, action movie starts like Jackie Chan, and
              creative activities or challenges.
                                                                                              even the Harry Potter series of books to appeal to boys.
19            Girls are drawn to activities that connect them to others.
                                                                                              Customized or do-it yourself products could appeal to girls needs
20            Boys are motivated by messages that express power, conquests of "good
                                                                                              for self-expression and creativity.
              versus evil and bravery".
20            Girls are often motivated by messages related to beauty, glamour and the
              desire to master a particular task.
20            While tween girls are admittedly focused on the way they looks,
              researchers have found that appealing to them strictly on this premise is

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19            Generation Y has grown up in an era of economic prosperity, stability and
              decreasing crime. They are more motivated and optimistic about the future
              than previous generations.
19            Generation Y values intelligence and kindness in their peers.
19            Appearance is important to today's youth
20            As notes by Westat, 2000, tweens indicated that seeing active people on
              TV makes them want to be active as well. However, why asked why they
              would not participate in sports, tween suggest that they might have other
              priorities, fear embarrassment and teasing from peers or lack time.

     Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                             Page 8
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Ref    Age     What are possible media channels, vehicles to reach them?                  Application

19             Marketers are aggressively seeking to appeal to Generation Y, it is       An effective way to breakthrough may be to create a separate and
               necessary to break through within this aggressive marketing environment. relevant brand identify placed in the entertainment media. (e.g. The
19             Tweens are heavy users of traditional media such as television, radio and Truth Campaign at
19             There are more youth-specific media outlets available to Generation Y
               than ever before.
20             Marketers report that tweens are influenced by grassroots marketing        Youth targeted initiative could incorporate message delivery with
               tactics that allow them to discover messages within a targeted             both traditional (television, radio, teen magazines, movies, music
               environment, such as at a mall, movie theatre, sports event and concert.   and CD's) and non-traditional communications channels (Internet,
19             Generation Y does not distinguish between their on and off-line lives.     concerts, sports events, movie theater and malls).
               They often use multiple media simultaneously and the different parts of
               their lives follow together.
19             Generation Y is the first to grow-up on-line. They have never know a world Campaigns could develop partnerships with popular websites for
               without computer and digital connections.                                  youth .(i.e.. AOL, Yahoo, Hotmail).
19             Generation Y is extremely comfortable with technology.

19             The Internet provides Generation Y with the interactivity and depth they
19             The internet has produced a more sophisticated language for today's
               youth, both verbally and visually.
19             Girls prefer to use the internet for shopping and chatting, exploring
               characters and sharing activities with friends.
19             When on-line Generation Y want substantive and appropriate content that
               changes frequently. They want personalization and respect on the
               Internet, often seeking sites designed just for them.
19             Generation Y desires more images (pictures) and less text.
19             Generation Y want sites that are easy to navigate, feature few layers or
               choices and have larger easy to read type. Colour is also significant.
19             Boys prefer to use the internet for games and information gathering.
19             They expect quick, easy connections and interactivity. The have high
               expectations of most products and services, and do not hesitate to discard
               items that do not meet those expectations.
1      11-12   20-30% watch 4 or more hours of television a day.                          Tweens watch television. Linking campaign messages with current
                                                                                          popular culture shows with high youth viewer-ship (i.e. YTV, Much
12     2-11    Despite the growth of internet usage in recent years, TV viewing has
                                                                                          Music etc.) and the corresponding websites could reach this target
               remained relatively stable with kids watching an average of 16.5
12     12-17   hours/week.many entertainment options for teens, TV viewing has
               Despite the
               remained stable with teens spending over 17 hours/week watching TV in
13     9-14    2002-3.tweens indicated that they heard of a cool new product and brand
               80% of
               names on TV, with TV commercials the most commonly mentioned

      Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                                                                   Page 9
                                                   Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

9     9-11    Tweens respond well to clubs with special privileges, contests, collecting-   Campaigns could involve a direct mail or contest component to
              design program promotions that incorporate an element of collecting.          engage tweens.

19    9-11    Tweens respond well to invitations to join a club with special privileges.
              They like contests, collecting and receiving mail.
20            Younger teens (age 9-11) have an increasing need to be recognized as
              individuals. They like to receive and collect mail addressed to them.

20            They may join clubs and attend social gathering that put them in the
              company of peers.
8     9-14    91% have a working computer at home and within this number 55% use            Tweens are on-line and are using computers.
              the computer daily.
8     9-14    81% who have the internet use it at least once a week.
15    9-14    Horoscope diagrams are the new fad for 2004 replacing branded initials        Understanding what is "in" right now is important for developing
              on bags, sweaters etc.                                                        effective campaign promotional items that will capture the tween's
15    9-14    Sport shirts by Lacoste are back in style.                                    attention and get the message to other tweens.
15    9-14    Tweens follow the mainstream Gap crowd style.
15    9-14    Tiny 80's inspired buttons will be everywhere in Spring 2004.
15    9-14    TV show-branded board games are becoming more popular with tweens.

15    9-14    Manga, a style of comic book that traditionally uses black and white
              Japanese animation is hugely popular from of entertainment in
8     9-14    mainstream andculture. boys say they read as many as 3+ magazines a
              72% of girls kid 63% of                                                       Producing magazines and/or distributing short stories could be an
              month.                                                                        effective way to reach tweens.
8     9-14    Girls like to read or listen to a story.
8     9-14    87% of girls and 84% of boys read 3+ books/month outside of school.
15    9-14 receives 1 million hits a month from tweens worldwide
              who want to read reviews from their peers. Companies are also taking
              note to see what kids are interested in.
16    9-14    Whoa! Magazine from YTV is distributed through Pizza Hut restaurants,
              YTV events, Chapters, Indigo book stores and other Canadian news
              stands and subscriptions.

     Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                                                                      Page 10
                                                   Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

Ref            Source                                                                    Methodology
1      Can     King, A.J.C.; Boyce, W.F., & King, M.A. (1999). Trends in the Health of   This report is based on the data from the World Health
               Canadian Youth. Health Canada.                                            Organization's collaborative, cross-national study, Health
                                                                                         Behaviours in School-Age Children (HBSC). It presents trends from
                                                                                         3 sets of surveys conducted in 1998-90, 1993-4, 1997-8. The
                                                                                         HBSC surveys were administered by self-report questionnaires to a
                                                                                         representative sample of 11, 13 and 15 years old attending school.

2              Health Communication Unit, Centre for Health Promotion, University of     Currently looking for more information on this resource.
               Toronto. (2000). Analyzing the "Tween Market. Media Watch.
3      USA     Jewer, J.A.,. (1999).Tweens Today: Teen Wannabes. Kids Marketing:         This is a web resource centre for marketers specifically providing
               The Web Resource for Marketers to Little People.                          information for marketing to youth. This site contains news letters,
                                                         research, talkback discussion forum, references, hot news.
6      USA     Kaiser Family Foundation and Children Now. (1998). "Talking With Kids     This survey was conducted with parents and kids age 10-15 as part
               About Tough Issues: A National Survey of Parents and Kids".               of the "Talking With Kids About Tough Issues" a national campaign
                                                                                         to support parents.
7      USA     Zollo, P.(1995).Talking to teens. American Demographics, Nov 1995,        Peter Zollo is president of Teenage Research Unlimited of
               17,11, 22-28.                                                             Northbrook, Illinois. This article was adapted from his book Wise
                                                                                         Up To Teens: Insights Into Marketing and Advertising to Teenagers
                                                                                         (1995: New Strategist Publications, Inc., Ithaca, NY).
8      Can     YTV. (2003). Annual Tween Report, Wave 9.                                 This national telephone survey tracks the lifestyles, attitudes and
                                                                                         opinions of kids ages 9 to 14. Telephone interviews were
                                                                                         conducted in June and July 2003 with over 1,000 youth and their
                                                                                         parents. YTV commissioned ComQUEST Research to oversee the
                                                                                         development of the questionnaire and conduct the survey.

9              Decew, Lynne. (July 8 1996-7). Strategy Magazine Special Report on        "Research informant interview" pg.14 of Youth Public Opinion
               Youth Marketing. Strategy Magazine.                                       Research Study. Secondary Analysis of Current Market Research
                                                                                         on Youth Ages 7-19 by Health Canada.

10             Sgromo, Peter, Project Development Manager, Binney & Smith, "Crayola      "Research informant interview" pg.6 Of the Youth Public Opinion
               iQ: Responding to Shifting Demographics, the Tween Era presentation."     Research Study. Seondary Analysis of Current Market Research on
                                                                                         Youth Ages 7-19 by Health Canada.

11     Can     Health Canada. (1999). Youth Public Opinion Research Study: Secondary Data collection involved a review and synthesis of secondary
               Analysis of Current Market Research on Youth Ages 7-19. Health Canada. research. Also some media and research informant interviews were
                                                                                      conducted to assess current marketing trends for youth.
12     Can     Ipson-ASI. (2002). YTV Brand Tracking Study.          The Viewer ship Data & Programming sections of the YTV Brand
                                                                                      Tracking Study provides the following graph under the "Kids
                                                                                      Historical Hour Tuned" link: NMR Mon-Sun 6am-6am Weekly per
                                                                                      capita viewing to TV in (E) Canada 1991-2 to 2002-3 (September-
                                                                                      August 12-month average).

      Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                                                                    Page 11
                                                 Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, The Health Communication Unit

13    Can     YTV. (2002). YTV Tween Report 2002: Special Kidfluence Edition.           This report explores the influence that tweens have by specific
                                                                                        product category and also gleans insights into their favourite
14    Can     YTV. (2004).Kid Trends Newsletter Spring 2004. YTV.                       YTV Trend Huntaz team is made up of hip, young-adults who each
                                                                                        specialize in one aspect of popular youth cultures to provide their
15    Can     YTV. (2004).Kid Trends Newsletter February 2004. YTV.                     insights into the world of emerging kid trends. NOTE: Trends listed
                                                                                        are determined by the buzz from the street, the net and various
                                                                                        publications and not guaranteed to be actualized.

16    Can     YTV. (2004). Whoa!Magazine. YTV                          Offbeat entertainment magazine that personifies kids' culture in a
                                                                                        wacky, interesting and often humour manner. Published 4 times a
                                                                                        year and has a circulation of 210,000 copies and reaches over
                                                                                        630,000 kids.
17    Can     Statistics Canada, The Daily, CANSIM, table 052-0001.                     Population estimates by age and sex are based on the 2001
                                                                                        Census counts.
18    USA     Quart, A. (2003). Branded. United States of America: Pereseus Books       This book discusses kid branding and the dangerous
              Group.                                                                    consequences of current materialism.
19    USA     Aeffect, Inc. (Jan. 2000). Review of Literature and Secondary Research    Source span a broad range of books, articles, papers and
              on Generation Y-Lessons to Apply in the Development of a Youth-           secondary research reports from 1996-99. Data presented is
              Targeted CDC Web Site. Centre for Disease Control & Prevention. p.1-29. primarily taken from business, marketing, health and education
                                                                                        trade press, newspapers, conference proceedings and published
                                                                                        government guidelines, standards and documents.
20    USA     Aeffect, Inc. (Dec. 2000) Review of the Literature to Support Development This review provides information on subgroups that fall within the
              of the Youth Media Campaign. Exploring How to Motivate Tweens in          tween population, breaking information by gender, age and
              America. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta p.1-30.      ethnicity when possible. Most of the sources selected were
                                                                                        published from mid 1998 to late 2000.Sources also span a broad
                                                                                        range of books, articles, papers and secondary research reports.
                                                                                        Data presented is primarily taken from business, marketing, health
                                                                                        and education trade press, newspapers, conference proceeding
                                                                                        and published government guidelines, standards and documents.

     Tweens Audience Analysis Profile Data, v2.0 June 25, 2004,                                                                                   Page 12

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