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					The Development
of E-business
and
Entrepreneurship
among Korean
Women's
Agricultural
Cooperatives


             Young-Ock Kim
    (Korean Women's Development Institute)
Contents
1. Women Farmers in Korea
2. Income Generating Activities
3. ICT Programs for Farmers
4. The Development of E-business for
  Women's Agricultural Co-ops
5. Direct & Indirect Outcomes
6. Future Direction
Entrepreneurship
1. Women Farmers in
Korea
# of Women Farmers > # of Men

                         (Year of 2004)

       Sex       Persons        %
       Men       946,000       47.0
     Women      1,067,000      53.0

.......... But most of women farmers are
         unpaid family workers, a few are
         managers.
Dual burden of Farming and Domestic Work


   Labor hours in rice farming households
              (1998, per day)
                Busy Farming Slack Farming
                                                       Yearly Mean
                   Season       Season
                                                                Woma
                Man Woman           Man Woman          Man
                                                                 n
   Total       11:50     12:58      6:18     8:45      9:04     10:52
Farm Labor 11:35          9:00      5:35     3:34      8:35      6:17
Housework       0:15      3:59      0:43     5:11      0:29      4:35
Source: RDA, The Report on Life Times of Rural Women and Managers, 1999
Women Farmers have long farming experience.

 Most rural women(30.2%) have been devoted to
 farming for the years of 10-20.
 The next highest proportion(about 25%) falls
 into the years of 30 and above.
                            farm women's y ears worked

        no ans w ers        1.8
   30 y ears & over                                               24.3
          20-30 y ear                                      20.6
          10-20 y ear                                                     30.2
           5-10 y ear                          13.2
            3-5 y ear         3.7
  les s than 3 y ear                6.1
                        0     5           10   15     20      25         30      35
                                                                                      %
Invisible Women Farmers


Although many farm women
participate in farming, most farm
women have been alienated from
farm management, decision making,
and distribution process of
agricultural products.
Ownership of property
-The rate of ownership in land and
 house
- are both found to be below 2%.

  100         94.0          94.0

   80
   60                              Female
   40                              Male
   20
        1.8           1.8
   0
        Land         House
2. Income Generating
Activities
Inadequate Agricultural Income

○ Most of Korean farmers still live on the
 income generated mainly from rice and a
 number of other crops, such as barley,
 pulses, potatoes, apples, Chinese
 cabbage, onions, and red-pepper.
○ Average farm household income are
 below the average level of the urban
 incomes although rural living conditions
 have improved significantly.
INCOME GENERATING PROGRAMS

Rural Development Administration (RDA) has
started IGPs since 1990.
 - Identifying women's indigenous knowledge
  and expertise
 - Supporting starts-up costs
 - Providing processing technologies and
   managing skills
 - Consulting packing and designing
 - Helping marketing
Rural Development Administration
(RDA)
 - RDA is the central government organization
   for agricultural researches and extension
   services.
 - RDA has 12 institutes responsible for all
   aspects of agricultural research and
   education. And RDA has 9 Province
   Agricultural Research and Education
   Services, and 157 City/County Agricultural
   Development and Technology Center, which
   carry out research and extension services
   for their respective region.
INCOME GENERATING PROGRAMS

- The main contents of the works are the
  processing, packing, sales of agricultural
  products and manufacture of traditional
  foods such as soy fermented foods, and the
  production of special products in the local
  areas.
- RDA has subsidized 169 projects with
  national, and more than 700 projects with
  local subsidy. The total funding support
  from National Gov was amounted to 2,292
  millions won.
             Income Generating Programs
        ( 1990-2003, National subsidy only )

              '90∼
                   '96 '97   '98   '99   '00   '01   '02   '03 Total
               '95

    # of
               38   9   10   10    18    20    21    23    20   169
  projects

  Funding
              186   90 100 120 216 300 420 460 400 2,292
(Million won)
3. ICT Programs for
Farmers
- Since the whole society has
  transformed into information society
  with high speed, the digital divide
  between urban and rural areas as well
  as between sex has emerged.
- To reduce such gap Ministry of
  Agriculture and Forestry implemented
  various IT programs for farmers.
① Computer Education for Farmers


 - Computer education to 170,000
   farmers from 2000 to 2002 (75,000 in
   2001) .


 - In 2001, the program becomes more
    systematic ( basic → intermediary →
    advanced course )
② Mobile Computer Education

 - A special bus equipped with computer
   facilities visits farm households, who
   live in remote areas with little access
   to proper education equipment, as well
   as those who cannot afford to leave
   their workplace.
 - In 2001, the program will be offered to
    2,000 farmers in 150 villages.
③ “Farming Information 119”

- Farmers make a telephone call when having trouble
  with their computers, and agricultural college
  students visit the households for assistance. Students
  trained for this purpose receive actual expenses for
  providing each service by the Government.
- In 2000, 10,109 farmers received the service and the
   number of the beneficiary is expected to increase to
   15,000 in 2001.
- This individual-tailored education program includes
  how to fix computers at home and to use computers,
  and how to search data on the Internet, as well as
  how to utilize agricultural softwares.
④ Assistance System for Farm Products
Shipment

  - Posting, on the Internet, important
    wholesale market information such as prices
    and trade volumes of farm products would
    assist farmers in selecting the market, best
    time, and method of shipment.
  - In 2001, real-time information on wholesale
    auction of a variety of products such as
    garlic, onion, hot pepper, radish, and
    cabbage was provided. Furthermore, more
    detailed agricultural production data were
    added onto a wireless Internet.
⑤ Comprehensive shopping mall for
  E-commerce of agricultural products

- To provide a list of price and quality of farm
  products directly to consumers by linking farmers’
  websites with an on-line shopping malls in 2001,
  the existing 400 websites were developed into
  comprehensive portal sites with 500 new websites
  and extended links with more on-line shopping
  malls.
- Quality of contents on these websites also
  improved, with 3-dimensional display of products,
  an animation image of high-end farm products, and
  additional information on agricultural equipment.
- In addition, customer management system was
  introduced to strengthen one-on-one marketing.
⑥ Building personal home pages for farmers

  - By building home pages for farmers,
    farmers will be able to take part in an
    on-line agricultural market and reduce
    the marketing margin.
  - 106 and 306 websites were built in
    1999 and 2000 respectively.
  - In 2001, 506 websites were newly
     established, with separate on-line
     communities for each region and farm
     product.
4. The Development of E-business
  for Women's Agricultural Co-ops
- Income Generating teams are
  women's agricultural co-ops.


- Most of the Income Generating
  Programs have been equipped
  with home pages for E-business.
5. Direct & Indirect Outcomes

- Raising farm income
- Money income of her own name
- Self confidence of rural women
- Consuming local materials & inputs
- Vitalizing local area with e-trades,
  farm tour
- Keeping, R&D of women’s indigenous
  knowledge
6. Future Direction -> Entrepreneurship

   Operating a homepage is not enough to launch
   e-commerce. Tasks to promote e-commerce
   of women’s co-ops are,
 - Entrepreneurial education including book
   keeping, marketing, legal restrictions &
   procedures, return policy
 - Upskilling processing and packing (also
   environment friendly)
 - Standardization of goods & establishment of
   quality assurance system
 - Integrated information system for on-the-spot
   ordering, confirmation of delivery, etc.

				
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posted:3/14/2010
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