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					                                         plastic surgery
1. What is the plastic surgery ?
: The medical practice of changing the appearance of people's faces or bodies, either to improve
their appearance or to repair injuries -Longman dictionary
Many people mistakenly believe that the specialty of Plastic Surgery takes its name from the
use of silicone and other manmade materials such as plastic to achieve reconstructive goals.
Nothing could be further from the truth. The term plastic surgery comes from the Greek word
plastikos which means to mold or give form.

2. plastic surgery & cosmetic surgery ?
① Plastic surgery includes cosmetic surgery.
: Plastic Surgery, a surgical specialty principally concerned with the reconstruction and repair of
certain congenital and acquired deformities. It employs techniques for carefully handing tissue,
preserving blood supply, minimizing scar tissue, and providing improved from and function.
Plastic surgery is sometimes considered, incorrectly, to be synonymous with aesthetic, or to
improve appearance in otherwise healthy persons. Many people think of plastic surgery as
aesthetic or cosmetic surgery, only a third of the surgery done by plastic surgeons is for the
purpose of beautification.

The difference between plastic surgery & cosmetic surgery?

. Plastic Surgery
: Many of the early recorded efforts in surgery were attempts to restore normal form to body
parts that had been altered due to injury. Reconstructive procedure are operations carried out
with the goal of restoring form and in many case function of body parts that are abnormal due to
injury, disease, or congenital defects. The repair of severe lacerations and the repair of fractures
of the facial bones are common plastic surgical procedures. Reconstructive surgery might be
defined a surgery to create a more normal appearance and to improve function.

. Cosmetic Surgery
: Cosmetic procedures are operations done purely to enhance the appearance of body parts
which fall within the normal range of appearance and function. Examples would include
procedures such as face lifts, or nose reshaping done to enhance appearance .

3. What is the history of cosmetic surgery ?
: The desire of humans to enhance their appearance is not a recent phenomena. The ancient
Egyptians used makeup quite extensively, and we can be certain they were not the first society
to do so. Surgical manipulation of tissue to enhance appearance was apparently common in
India in 400BC. Numerous cultures have used surgical procedures to enlarge ear lobes, lips, and
to produce scars in a pattern felt to enhance attractiveness or in some cases to appear more
fearsome to enemies. The desire to change appearance does appear to have emerged solely at
the bidding of the Madison Avenue advertising executives. Americans are said to have spent
$ 16 billion on beauty products in 1994. Against that backdrop cosmetic surgery is a tiny but
important tool in the quest for personal beauty.

4. What is the type of cosmetic/ plastic surgery ?
① Nose : Rhinoplasty
② Face: Face lift
③ Chin : Chin implant
④ Eye: Eyelid Surgery, blepharoplasty
⑤ Breast: Breast reduction
⑥ Fat: (liposuction) Fat suction

@@@@@@@ vocabulary @@@@@@@@@@@
*Vocabularies about fat suction (liposuction)
flank: part of the side of the body between the ribs and the hip.
abdomen: belly
anesthetic: process that produces the inability to feel (pain, heat, cold, etc).
local anesthetic: anesthetic that affects only a specific part of the body.
incision: act of cutting, especially by a surgeon into the flesh for an operation.
fat deposit: fat accumulation
cannula: a small tube for insertion into a body cavity or into a duct or vessel
physique: general appearance and size of a person’s body.
waist: part of the body between the ribs and the hips.
scar: mark left on the skin by a wound, sore, etc.
diabetes: a disease which prevents sugar from being properly absorbed.
thigh: part of the human leg between the knee and the hip.
tumescent: some part of the body swollen
itchy: having irritation on the skin.
pneumonia: serious illness of one or both lungs, causing difficulty in breathing
*Vocabularies about breast surgery
congenital: (of diseases) present from or before birth.
prosthesis: an artificial device to replace a missing part of the body
infection: becoming ill through contact with virus.
nipple: small projection on the breast.
numbness: state of losing the power to feel or move.
saline implant: implant with a bag filled with salt-water.

* Vocabulary of facelift
fluctuation n. to change continually or frequently
elasticity n. able to spring back into shape after being stretched or bent
incision n. a cut into something, done with a special tool
temple n. either of the flattish areas on each side of the forehead
lobe n. ear
sag n. to sink, settle, or bend downwards, esp. away from the usual or correct position
tissue n. (the material formed by) animal or plant cells, esp. those that are similar in form and
purpose and make up the stated organ
stitches n. a piece of thread which sews the edges of a wound together
clip n. any of various kinds of small plastic or metal objects used for holding things tightly
together or in place.
scalp n. the skin on the top of the human head, where hair grows

* Vocabulary of chin augmentation
augmentation n. to become bigger, more valuable, better
recessive a.withdrawing or receding
mandible n. a jaw which moves, esp. the lower jaw of an animal or fish, or a jawbone
dysfunction n. handicap
alignment n. the state of being brought or arranged into a line or set of lines
conjunction n. combination of qualities , groups, or events.
facility n. an arrangment or system that makes a particular activity possible
outpatient n. a person who goes to a hospital for treatment while continuing to live at home
inferior a. lower in position
neurological a. something about the science of the nervous system and its dieases
suture n. a stitch or stitches used in the sewing together of a wound
*vocabulary of nose
 cartilage: a strong, flexible substance in your body, especially
             around your joints and in your nose
  nostril: two openings at the end of your nose
  wedges of skin: a wedge of something is a peice of it that has a thick
                  triangular shape
  incision: a sharp cut made in something, for example by a surgeon
            who is operating on a patient
  columella: the vertical strip of tissue separating the nostrils
  splint: a long piece of wood or metal that is fastened to a broken arm,
         leg, or back to keep it still
  septum: the dividing wall between the air passage
  hump: the raised area (of the nose)
  chisel: a tool that has a long metal blade with a sharp edge at the end,
         used for cutting and shaping wood and stone
  rasp: a long metal tool with rough surfaces, used to rub on solid objedts
         and give them smooth surfaces
  trim: to cut off small amounts of something in order to make it neater
         and tider

* vocabulary of eyelid surgery
restore: to bring back to a food of desirable state, esp. health
peripheral: of slight importance by comparison, not central of closely related
anesthesia: = anaesthesia, the state of being unable to feel pain
intravenous sedation: drugs that are put directly into a vein to make someone sleepy or calm
scar: a permanent mark that is left after you have had a cut or wound
insicion: a cut into something, especially into someone’s body using a special knife during a
medical operation, or the act of making this kind of cut.
Bruise: a purple of brown mark on your skin that you get because you have fallen, been hit etc.
Blur: a shape that you can not see clearly
Ointment: a soft substance made of solid oil that you rub into your skin, especially as a medical
Thyroid: an organ in your neck that produces substances that affect the way you develop and
Lubricate: to put a lubricant on some thing in order to make or move more smoothly
Eradicate: to completely get rid of something such as a disease of a social problem