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Comment, 12 Jan., p. 148), the pictures of David Baltimore and Joshua Lederberg were
incorrectly credited. The credit for the Baltimore picture should have read, "M. Lampert, Boton."
The credit for the Lederberg picture should have read, "Rockefeller University."

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of the anatomical sciences in Austria and Germany: a recommendation for the continued use of
the Pernkopf atlas. Clin Anat, 19(2), 91-100.

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Hodge, Gerald P. (1982). Selection of illustrations by the officers of the Association of Medical
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embryological illustrations. Isis, 97(2), 260-301.

ABSTRACT: Comparative illustrations of vertebrate embryos by the leading nineteenth-century
winist Ernst Haeckel have been both highly contested and canonical. Though the target of
repeated fraud charges since 1868, the pictures were widely reproduced in textbooks
through the twentieth century. Concentrating on their first ten years, this essay uses the
accusations to shed light on the novelty of Haeckel’s visual argumentation and to explore
how images come to count as proper representations or illegitimate schematics as they
cross between the esoteric and exoteric circles of science. It exploits previously unused
manuscripts to reconstruct the drawing, printing, and publishing of the illustrations that
attracted the first and most influential attack, compares these procedures to standard prac-
tice, and highlights their originality. It then explains why, though Haeckel was soon ac-
cused, controversy ignited only seven years later, after he aligned a disciplinary struggle
over embryology with a major confrontation between liberal nationalism and
Catholicism —and why the contested pictures nevertheless survived.

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the continuing ethical controversy. The Anatomical Record, 265(5), 207-11.

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medical artists. Journal of Dental Education, 39(11), 716-21.

Kaufman, M.H. (1999). Observations on some of the plates used to illustrate the Lymphatics
section of Andrew Fyfe's Compendium of the Anatomy of the Human Body, Published in 1800.
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This response to Michael Stolberg argues that the occasional piece of evidence for sexual
dimorphism in Renaissance anatomy does no damage to what I had earlier called the ―one-
sex model.‖ There are three reasons for this: a considerable amount of such evidence had
long been available; stray observations do not discredit worldviews; and new supporting
evidence for the one-sex model was also available. Moreover, illustrations in the purport-
edly paradigm-altering texts in fact support the old model. Since there was no radical
change during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the reasons offered by Stolberg for
why it happened then are moot. The view that biology grounded two sexes (the two-sex
model) replaced the view that it reflected imperfectly an underlying metaphysical truth
(the one-sex model) as part of the epistemological revolution of the Enlightenment.

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department. Journal of Audiovisual Media in Medicine, 14(2), 71-75.

Lyons, Gray. (2007). Artistry, iconography, and idea in sixteenth-century pre-Vesalian
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submitted for the Hugh Lenox Hodge Prize, 1878. Transactions and Studies of the College of
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McConathy, Deirdre. (1989). Canonical form as a model for surgical illustration. Journal of
Biocommunication, 16(2), 20-7.

McGehee Harvey A. (1975). The second professor of gynecology and the Department of Art as
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McKusick, VA. Marcella O'Grady Boveri (1865-1950) and the chromosome theory of cancer. J
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McLeod, Ian K. (1996). A historical enigma: the artist responsible for the illustrations of
Andreas Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical
Society, 59(3), 8-13.

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Miyanaga, M.; Shimada K. (2001). [History of Japanese artistic anatomy books–their authors,
changes in their contents, and a comparison with systematized anatomy books]. Kaibogaku
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Molenaar, J.C. (2004). [Anatomy as theatre. From the library of the Society of the Dutch Journal
of Medicine. Govard Bidloo: Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human
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collaborate in a rare exhibition. North Carolina Medical Journal, 60(6), 328-32.

Netter, F.H. (1949). A medical illustrator at work. CIBA Symp, 10(6), 1087-92.

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Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de; Conduru, Roberto. (2004). [In the gap between science and art:
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Ollerenshaw, R. (2000). Medical illustration. The impact of photography on its history. Journal of
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Orci, L. Pepper, M.S. (2002). Microscopy: an art? Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 3(2), 133-7.

Palmer L.S. (1942). Ross Aiken Gortiner 1885-1942. Science, 96(2496), 395-397. (library has microfilm, subscription required to view

Papel, Ira D. (1986). Max Brödel's contributions to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.
American Journal of Otolaryngology, 7(6), 460-9.

Perry, Jean. (1971). Forty years of medical art. A biography of Dorothy Davison. Medical &
Biological Illustration. 21(1), 27-32.

Peter, Kimberley A. (1998). The Eye of Eila Hopper Ross. Journal of Biocommunication, 25(3),

Petruccelli, Karen. (1998). The Misrepresented Uterus: The Progression of Uterine Depictions
in Anatomical Atlases Between the Sixteenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Journal of
Biocommunication, 25(4), 10-3.

Regenspurger, Katja. Heinstein, Patrick. (2004). [The Tabulae anatomicae (1794-1803) of Justus
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Richardson, Michael K. (1998). Haeckel's embryos, continued. Science, 281(5381), 1289.;281/5381/1285j

Richardson, Michael K. Hanken, James. Selwood, Lynne. Wright, Glenda M. Richards, Robert
J. Pieau, Claude. Raynaud, Albert. (1998). Haeckle, embryos, and evolution. Science, 280(5366),
983, 985-6.
Rinaldi, Massimo. (2004). [Ratio compendiaria and visualization of knowledge in anatomical
literature (XVI cent.)]. Medicina nei Secoli, 16(3), 539-56.

Rini, David. (1996). Brödel Luncheon Slide Program. Journal of Biocommunication, 23(2), 16-7.

Rogers, Blair O. (1983). Hans Erni: Humanistic and Aesthetic Artist. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery,
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Ross, R.S. (1992). On Deaning and Hopkins: an interview with Richard S. Ross, M.D., dean
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Sachs, von Michael. (2002). [The ―Anatomic Charts‖ (1722) of Johann Adam Kulmus (1689-
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Sakai, Tatsuo. (2007). [Anatomical education in the late Meiji era –Lu Xun, doctor Fujino and
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Salcman, Michael. (2006). The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564).
Neurosurgery, 59(6), N11-2.

Schiebinger, Londa. (2003). Skelettestreit. Isis, 94(2), 307-13. (see pdf)

Michael Stolberg claims there was a broad movement in the sixteenth century toward
sexing skeletons and offers Felix Platter ’s singular 1583 female skeleton and Caspar Bau-
hin’s 1597 reproduction of that skeleton as evidence. He admits that these illustrations did
not become a standard feature of anatomical textbooks, though he maintains (erroneously)
that the descriptions of these skeletons became ―canonical.‖ Stolberg does not appreciate
the extent to which Platter ’s female skeleton was an anomaly. Distinctively female-sexed
skeletons flooded Europe after about 1730, and, importantly, anatomists at the time per-
ceived that these depictions were radically new. Indeed, widespread and protracted debates
erupted over the exact features of the female skeleton. These anatomical illustrations
emerged within a novel political climate, where sex in the body was newly seen as ground-
ing gender roles in new social regimes. The story of the European study of sexual differ-
ences is not one of slow and steady accretion of positive knowledge, as Stolberg implies.
That story is fraught with changing reinterpretations and relocations of difference, and
new meanings attached to new kinds of sameness and difference within differing cultural
contexts. It is wrong to judge foundational shifts in scientific culture merely by firsts.

Schultheiss, Dirk; Engel, Rainer M.; Crosby, Ranice W. Lees, Gary P. Truss, Michael C.
Jonas, Udo. (2000). Max Brödel (1870-1941) and Medical Illustration in Urology. Journal of
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Schultheiss, Dirk; Jonas, Udo. (1999). Max Brödel (1870-1941) and Howard A. Kelly (1858-
1943) – Urogynecology and the birth of modern medical illustration. European Journal of
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 86(1), 113-5.

Schultheiss, Dirk; Grünewald, Volker; Jonas, Udo. (1999). Urodynamics in the anatomical
work of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). World Journal of Urology, 17(3), 137-43.

Schwarz, W.R. (1976). Wash drawing for medical art. Journal of Biocommunication, 3(1), 25-32.

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Smith, S.B. (2006). From Ars to Scientia: the revolution of anatomic illustration. Clin Anat,
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Smith, S.B. Macchi, V. Parenti, A. De Caro, R. (2004). Hieronymus [corrected] Fabricius Ab
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Solomon, Mark P.; Granick, Mark S. (1997). Alma Dea Morani, MD: A Pioneer in Plastic
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