HAMELIN BARLEY – A STIRLING ‘LIKE’ VARIETY WITH IMPROVED MALTING QUALITY B.H. Paynter1, R.J. Jettner2, K.J. Young3,4 and L. Schulz4 Department of Agriculture, 1Northam WA 6401, 2Albany WA 6330, 4Esperance WA 6450 and 3GxE Crop Research, Esperance WA 6450. INTRODUCTION Hamelin (pronounced Ham-lin) was registered as a Provisional Malting Barley by the Department of Agriculture (Western Australia) in 2002 with the support of the Western Malting Barley Council. Hamelin is currently in its second year of commercial malting and brewing trials in Western Australia. Hamelin (tested as WABAR2104) was derived from a cross between Stirling and Harrington. In the low to medium rainfall zones, it offers growers an alternative to Stirling due to its enhanced grain yield combined with a comparable grain plumpness, the likelihood that it will be suitable for the shochu market and its superior malting quality. Hamelin will have limited suitability to the high rainfall areas (particularly to the south coast) due its pre-disposition to pre-harvest sprouting. CHARACTERISTICS The characteristics of Hamelin when grown in Western Australia are: • erect early growth habit (similar to Stirling), • adaptive phenology (same as Stirling), • wide regional adaptation (similar to Stirling), • enhanced yield (slightly higher yielding than Stirling but lower than best feed varieties), • disease susceptible (same as Stirling), • good grain plumpness (close to Stirling), • bright grain (brighter than Stirling), • susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (similar risk as for Harrington), and • excellent malting quality (improvement over both Stirling and Gairdner). ADAPTATION AND MATURITY Hamelin is an early maturity spring barley. It flowers near the same date as Stirling at all sowing dates (Table 1) and has the same phenology as Stirling. Its phenological development pattern is based on a short basic vegetative phase combined with high daylength sensitivity. Figure 1. Adaptation map for Hamelin barley in Western Australia. Shaded areas are where Hamelin is likely to succeed with the appropriate management. Hamelin is adapted for sowing in most areas where Stirling is currently grown (Figure 1). This includes Agzones 1, 2, 4 and 5 and parts of Agzones 3. It is not recommended in Agzone 6 and >500mm areas of Agzone 3 due to the risk of pre-harvest sprouting (similar sprouting risk as Harrington). Timely harvesting is required to minimise this risk. Target sowing date for the low to medium rainfall areas is late May (Agzones 1, 2, 4 and 5). Target sowing dates for central high rainfall areas are late May to early June (Agzone 3). Table 1. Flowering date (duration to awn emergence) of 5 barley varieties relative to Stirling in a controlled environment room or at five different sowing dates at Northam, W.A. Date sown 16 h day Early Late early Late late o 16/8 C May May June June July Days to awn emergence from sowing Stirling 34 96 91 88 81 70 Days to awn emergence from sowing relative to Stirling Hamelin 0 -3 -2 -3 -2 -3 Sloop +1 +8 +5 +6 +4 +5 Baudin +1 +11 +8 +7 +3 +3 Mundah +22 -10 -6 -6 -2 0 Harrington +32 +5 +6 +7 +5 +12 DISEASE RESISTANCE Relative to Stirling, Schooner and Harrington, Hamelin offers growers no improvement in disease resistance. Hamelin is susceptible to the strains of scald, powdery mildew, net-type net blotch and barley leaf rust found in Western Australia (Table 2). It is also susceptible to cereal cyst nematode. It is moderately susceptible to spot-type net blotch. Its resistance to BYDV has not been confirmed. Table 2. Disease resistance ratings of Hamelin relative to a range of other barley varieties currently grown in Western Australia. Variety Scald Net-type Spot-type Powdery Barley BYDV net blotch net blotch mildew leaf rust Stirling S S MS S S I Hamelin S S MS S S - Mundah S MS MS MS MS MS Gairdner I I S I S MR Schooner MS I I-MR S MS MS Barque I-MR MS I-MR I-MR I I Harrington S MS I I S - When grown, growers will need to develop and implement a disease management strategy. This management strategy needs to include crop rotation, stubble management and fungicide application. High risk areas (eg high rainfall areas) need to consider in-furrow fungicides and foliar fungicides for powdery mildew, scald and spot-type net blotch as part of their management package. Lower risk areas (eg low to medium rainfall) need to consider a full spectrum seed dressing with follow-up foliar fungicides for powdery mildew, scald and spot- type net blotch if necessary. Disease management strategies are critical to Hamelin achieving its potential grain yield and will assist in meeting grain plumpness targets. GRAIN PLUMPNESS One of the key quality traits of Hamelin relative to other malting barley crossbreds evaluated in the low to medium rainfall areas of Western Australia is its ability to produce grain of a similar plumpness to Stirling (Figure 2). Hamelin grains have a slightly narrower grain shape to Stirling grains, but are of a similar grain weight. This means that in general, screening levels (% < 2.5mm slotted sieve) in Hamelin barley will be slightly higher than Stirling when grown in Western Australia under the same management conditions (Figure 2 and Table 3). The difference in screening levels averages around 2 – 4 % when screenings in Stirling are below 30%. a) Grain shape b) Grain plumpness 100 100 90 90 Hamelin screenings (% <2.5mm) 80 80 Screenings (% < 2.5mm) Stirling Hamelin 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 54 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Average grain weight (mg, db) Stirling screenings (% < 2.5mm) Figure 2. Differences between Hamelin and Stirling in a) grain shape and b) relative plumpness across 300 agronomy and CVT comparisons between 1998 to 2002. Growers who choose to grow Hamelin therefore need to expect to incur slightly higher dockage at receival if current receival standards are maintained in future harvests. It should also be noted that there are situations where screening levels in Hamelin are significantly higher than Stirling (Table 3). The reasons for this are not fully understood. Table 3. Comparison between Stirling, Hamelin and Baudin for screenings (% < 2.5mm) when sown at two different dates on either a loamy surfaced soil (loam earth or duplex) or a sandy surfaced soil (sandy earth or duplex) on three sites in the low to medium rainfall zone. Soil type Loamy surfaced sites Sandy surfaced sites Variety and trial TOS1 TOS2 TOS1 TOS2 a) Corrigin 2001 15-May 13-June 15-May 13-June Stirling 6 12 5 6 Hamelin 14 11 10 7 Baudin 33 22 16 13 b) Brookton 2001 15-May 13-June 15-May 13-June Stirling 2 3 4 2 Hamelin 6 6 10 3 Baudin 6 9 4 2 c) Brookton 2002 05-June 27-June 05-June 27-June Stirling 5 15 9 20 Hamelin 8 17 20 18 Baudin 13 13 16 25 GRAIN YIELD Hamelin has been shown in CVT and agronomy trials to out yield Stirling in all areas that it has been trialed (Figure 3). The yield improvement is only slight, averages around 4% and is relatively stable over all levels of yield potential. In two-thirds of the comparisons, Hamelin yielded 102% or greater than Stirling. In one-third of the comparisons, Hamelin yielded 106% or greater than Stirling. Despite this enhanced yield, Hamelin yields are still inferior to the best feed varieties (Mundah, Molloy & Doolup). The enhanced yield however reduces the gap between feed and malting in the low to medium rainfall areas and makes Hamelin more attractive to grow than growing feed. Feed barley now needs to yield at least 15% better than Hamelin to return the same gross margin at a feed price of $180/t and a price differential of $30 (between malt and feed). a) Grain yield b) Grain yield (% Stirling) 6,000 150% 140% Hamelin grain yield (% Stirling) Hamelin grain yield (kg/ha) 5,000 130% 120% 4,000 110% 3,000 100% 90% 2,000 80% 70% 1,000 60% 0 50% 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 Stirling grain yield (kg/ha) Stirling grain yield (kg/ha) Figure 3. Grain yield of a) Stirling in kg/ha versus Hamelin in kg/ha and b) Stirling in kg/ha versus relative yield of Hamelin across 300 agronomy and CVT comparisons between 1998 to 2002. CONCLUSIONS Hamelin is a high quality malting quality with wide adaptation to many of the barley growing areas of Western Australia. It is seen as a replacement for Stirling with a 4% increase in grain yield and improved grain brightness. Agronomically Hamelin looks very similar to Stirling, with a slight improvement in straw strength, similar straw length and the same phenological development pattern. Hamelin develops physiological spotting under stressful conditions and is a key morphological trait that can be used to differentiate between Stirling and Hamelin in the field. Its weaknesses relative to Stirling are slightly higher levels of screenings and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (which excludes it from being grown in all regions of Western Australia). Hamelin does however offer significant advantages to the malting industry over Stirling due to its superior malting quality attributes. There is also evidence that it may be suitable for the shochu market, which increases its value to growers. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Agriculture and GRDC support agronomic research on the adaptation and suitability of malting barley crossbreds to the Western Australian environment. Technical assistance was provided by David Dodge, Bethany Lauk and Peta Dunkerton. Some of the data used in this paper was supplied by the Department’s Crop Variety Testing Project.
Pages to are hidden for
"HAMELIN BARLEY – A STIRLING LIKE VARIETY WITH IMPROVED MALTING"Please download to view full document