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                         MALTING QUALITY

                   B.H. Paynter1, R.J. Jettner2, K.J. Young3,4 and L. Schulz4

Department of Agriculture, 1Northam WA 6401, 2Albany WA 6330, 4Esperance WA 6450
and 3GxE Crop Research, Esperance WA 6450.

Hamelin (pronounced Ham-lin) was registered as a Provisional Malting Barley by the
Department of Agriculture (Western Australia) in 2002 with the support of the Western
Malting Barley Council. Hamelin is currently in its second year of commercial malting and
brewing trials in Western Australia.

Hamelin (tested as WABAR2104) was derived from a cross between Stirling and Harrington.
In the low to medium rainfall zones, it offers growers an alternative to Stirling due to its
enhanced grain yield combined with a comparable grain plumpness, the likelihood that it will
be suitable for the shochu market and its superior malting quality. Hamelin will have limited
suitability to the high rainfall areas (particularly to the south coast) due its pre-disposition to
pre-harvest sprouting.

The characteristics of Hamelin when grown in Western Australia are:
• erect early growth habit (similar to Stirling),
• adaptive phenology (same as Stirling),
• wide regional adaptation (similar to Stirling),
• enhanced yield (slightly higher yielding than Stirling but lower than best feed varieties),
• disease susceptible (same as Stirling),
• good grain plumpness (close to Stirling),
• bright grain (brighter than Stirling),
• susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (similar risk as for Harrington), and
• excellent malting quality (improvement over both Stirling and Gairdner).

Hamelin is an early maturity spring barley. It flowers near the same date as Stirling at all
sowing dates (Table 1) and has the same phenology as Stirling. Its phenological development
pattern is based on a short basic vegetative phase combined with high daylength sensitivity.

Figure 1. Adaptation map for Hamelin barley in Western Australia. Shaded areas are where
Hamelin is likely to succeed with the appropriate management.
Hamelin is adapted for sowing in most areas where Stirling is currently grown (Figure 1).
This includes Agzones 1, 2, 4 and 5 and parts of Agzones 3. It is not recommended in Agzone
6 and >500mm areas of Agzone 3 due to the risk of pre-harvest sprouting (similar sprouting
risk as Harrington). Timely harvesting is required to minimise this risk. Target sowing date
for the low to medium rainfall areas is late May (Agzones 1, 2, 4 and 5). Target sowing dates
for central high rainfall areas are late May to early June (Agzone 3).

Table 1. Flowering date (duration to awn emergence) of 5 barley varieties relative to Stirling
in a controlled environment room or at five different sowing dates at Northam, W.A.

Date sown     16 h day      Early             Late          early          Late          late
              16/8 C        May               May           June           June          July
Days to awn emergence from sowing
Stirling         34          96                91             88            81            70

Days to awn emergence from sowing relative to Stirling
Hamelin           0            -3          -2                 -3            -2             -3
Sloop            +1           +8           +5                 +6            +4             +5
Baudin           +1         +11            +8                 +7            +3             +3
Mundah          +22          -10           -6                 -6            -2              0
Harrington      +32           +5           +6                 +7            +5            +12

Relative to Stirling, Schooner and Harrington, Hamelin offers growers no improvement in
disease resistance. Hamelin is susceptible to the strains of scald, powdery mildew, net-type
net blotch and barley leaf rust found in Western Australia (Table 2). It is also susceptible to
cereal cyst nematode. It is moderately susceptible to spot-type net blotch. Its resistance to
BYDV has not been confirmed.

Table 2. Disease resistance ratings of Hamelin relative to a range of other barley varieties
currently grown in Western Australia.

Variety          Scald       Net-type      Spot-type      Powdery         Barley        BYDV
                             net blotch    net blotch      mildew        leaf rust
Stirling           S             S            MS              S              S             I
Hamelin            S             S            MS              S              S             -
Mundah             S            MS            MS            MS             MS             MS
Gairdner           I              I            S              I              S            MR
Schooner          MS              I          I-MR             S            MS             MS
Barque           I-MR           MS           I-MR          I-MR              I             I
Harrington         S            MS              I             I              S             -

When grown, growers will need to develop and implement a disease management strategy.
This management strategy needs to include crop rotation, stubble management and fungicide
application. High risk areas (eg high rainfall areas) need to consider in-furrow fungicides and
foliar fungicides for powdery mildew, scald and spot-type net blotch as part of their
management package. Lower risk areas (eg low to medium rainfall) need to consider a full
spectrum seed dressing with follow-up foliar fungicides for powdery mildew, scald and spot-
type net blotch if necessary. Disease management strategies are critical to Hamelin achieving
its potential grain yield and will assist in meeting grain plumpness targets.
One of the key quality traits of Hamelin relative to other malting barley crossbreds evaluated
in the low to medium rainfall areas of Western Australia is its ability to produce grain of a
similar plumpness to Stirling (Figure 2). Hamelin grains have a slightly narrower grain shape
to Stirling grains, but are of a similar grain weight. This means that in general, screening
levels (% < 2.5mm slotted sieve) in Hamelin barley will be slightly higher than Stirling when
grown in Western Australia under the same management conditions (Figure 2 and Table 3).
The difference in screening levels averages around 2 – 4 % when screenings in Stirling are
below 30%.

                                            a) Grain shape                                                                     b) Grain plumpness
                      100                                                                                  100
                          90                                                                                   90

                                                                               Hamelin screenings (% <2.5mm)
                          80                                                                                   80
 Screenings (% < 2.5mm)

                                                     Stirling   Hamelin
                          70                                                                                   70
                          60                                                                                   60
                          50                                                                                   50
                          40                                                                                   40
                          30                                                                                   30
                          20                                                                                   20
                          10                                                                                   10
                           0                                                                                    0
                               22   26   30 34 38 42 46 50                54                                        0   10   20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
                                         Average grain weight (mg, db)                                                        Stirling screenings (% < 2.5mm)

Figure 2. Differences between Hamelin and Stirling in a) grain shape and b) relative
plumpness across 300 agronomy and CVT comparisons between 1998 to 2002.

Growers who choose to grow Hamelin therefore need to expect to incur slightly higher
dockage at receival if current receival standards are maintained in future harvests. It should
also be noted that there are situations where screening levels in Hamelin are significantly
higher than Stirling (Table 3). The reasons for this are not fully understood.

Table 3. Comparison between Stirling, Hamelin and Baudin for screenings (% < 2.5mm)
when sown at two different dates on either a loamy surfaced soil (loam earth or duplex) or a
sandy surfaced soil (sandy earth or duplex) on three sites in the low to medium rainfall zone.

     Soil type                                         Loamy surfaced sites                                                     Sandy surfaced sites
Variety and trial                                     TOS1            TOS2                                                    TOS1              TOS2
a) Corrigin 2001                                     15-May          13-June                                                 15-May            13-June
Stirling                                                6               12                                                      5                  6
Hamelin                                                14               11                                                     10                  7
Baudin                                                 33                22                                                    16                 13
b) Brookton 2001                                     15-May          13-June                                                 15-May            13-June
Stirling                                                2                3                                                      4                  2
Hamelin                                                 6                6                                                     10                  3
Baudin                                                  6                9                                                      4                  2
c) Brookton 2002                                     05-June         27-June                                                 05-June           27-June
Stirling                                                5               15                                                      9                 20
Hamelin                                                 8               17                                                     20                 18
Baudin                                                 13                13                                                    16                 25
Hamelin has been shown in CVT and agronomy trials to out yield Stirling in all areas that it
has been trialed (Figure 3). The yield improvement is only slight, averages around 4% and is
relatively stable over all levels of yield potential. In two-thirds of the comparisons, Hamelin
yielded 102% or greater than Stirling. In one-third of the comparisons, Hamelin yielded 106%
or greater than Stirling.

Despite this enhanced yield, Hamelin yields are still inferior to the best feed varieties
(Mundah, Molloy & Doolup). The enhanced yield however reduces the gap between feed and
malting in the low to medium rainfall areas and makes Hamelin more attractive to grow than
growing feed. Feed barley now needs to yield at least 15% better than Hamelin to return the
same gross margin at a feed price of $180/t and a price differential of $30 (between malt and

                                                 a) Grain yield                                                                   b) Grain yield (% Stirling)
                               6,000                                                                                   150%

                                                                                    Hamelin grain yield (% Stirling)
 Hamelin grain yield (kg/ha)

                               3,000                                                                                   100%
                                  0                                                                                    50%
                                       0   1,000 2,000    3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000                                             0   1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000

                                               Stirling grain yield (kg/ha)                                                           Stirling grain yield (kg/ha)

Figure 3. Grain yield of a) Stirling in kg/ha versus Hamelin in kg/ha and b) Stirling in kg/ha
versus relative yield of Hamelin across 300 agronomy and CVT comparisons between 1998 to

Hamelin is a high quality malting quality with wide adaptation to many of the barley growing
areas of Western Australia. It is seen as a replacement for Stirling with a 4% increase in grain
yield and improved grain brightness. Agronomically Hamelin looks very similar to Stirling,
with a slight improvement in straw strength, similar straw length and the same phenological
development pattern. Hamelin develops physiological spotting under stressful conditions and
is a key morphological trait that can be used to differentiate between Stirling and Hamelin in
the field. Its weaknesses relative to Stirling are slightly higher levels of screenings and
susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (which excludes it from being grown in all regions of
Western Australia). Hamelin does however offer significant advantages to the malting
industry over Stirling due to its superior malting quality attributes. There is also evidence that
it may be suitable for the shochu market, which increases its value to growers.

The Department of Agriculture and GRDC support agronomic research on the adaptation and
suitability of malting barley crossbreds to the Western Australian environment. Technical
assistance was provided by David Dodge, Bethany Lauk and Peta Dunkerton. Some of the
data used in this paper was supplied by the Department’s Crop Variety Testing Project.

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