Docstoc
EXCLUSIVE OFFER FOR DOCSTOC USERS
Try the all-new QuickBooks Online for FREE.  No credit card required.

h2

Document Sample
h2 Powered By Docstoc
					 The Planck Satellite
      Mission
           Pekka Heinämäki
       Tuorla Observatory,Finland




Tartu Workshop August, 15-19, 2005
Planck:The Cosmic Background
      Anisotropy Mission
  Planck is a space observatory designed to image the
  temperature anisotopies of the CMB over the whole sky,
  with unprecedented sensitivity DT/T~2 x 10-6 and angular
  resolution < 10 ’
   allow the determination of fundamental cosmological
  parameters with a few percent uncertainty

  - Mapping of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies
    with improved sensitivity and angular resolution
  - Testing inflationary models of the early universe
  - Measuring amplitude of structures in Cosmic Microwave
    Background
          Mission Overview



 Very wide frequency
  coverage
 Extreme attention to
  suppression of
  systematic effects
             Mission Overview
 1.5 m aperture Gregorian telescope with carbon
  fibry technology (Danish Consortium)
 Field of view offset by ~ 85 degrees from spin-
  axies maitaind in antisun direction to cover full
  sky in half year
 Guiana Space Centre,
  Kourou, French Guiana, in
  July 2007 by an Ariane-5
  launcher.

 together with ESA's Herschel
  spacecraft.

 After a journey lasting
  between four and six months,
  Planck will make a major
  manoeuvre to enter its
  operational orbit, a small
  Lissajous orbit around L2,
  1.5 million kilometres away
  from the Earth.
The two vehicles will separate shortly after launch
and proceed independently to different orbits about
the second Lagrange point of the Earth-Sun
system (L2).
               Herschel (FIRST)
 It will performe imaging
  photometry and spectroscopy
  in the far-Infrared and
  Submillimetre part of the
  spectra
 HIFI (high resolution
  spectrographs), PACS
  (Photoconductor Array Camera
  and Specrometer), SPIRE
  (Spectral and Photometric
  Imaging Receiver)
  will cover the 60 – 670
  micron waveband
 Formation and evolution of
  galaxies and stars, ISM physics
  and chemistry, solar system
  bodies
               World’s largest space mirror
                   polished at Tuorla




The mirror will be unique in many ways. When the mission is launched in 2007, it will
 be the largest ever sent to space. It will be the first SiC mirror used in a telescope, and of
course the first to be used in space as well. It will be the first mirror polished to operate
at both short radio wavelengths and long infra-red wavelengths. Herschel will be the
first entirely European space telescope.
The High Frequency Instrument or
              HFI
 48 bolometers
  sensitive to 100-850
  GHz (split into 6
  channels)
 Actively cooled to
  0.1K
 Best angular
  resolution ~ 5 ’ and
  temperature
  sensitivity ~5 microK
The High Frequency Instrument
The High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is an array of 48 bolometric detectors which will be placed in
 the focal plane of the Planck telescope, and will image the sky in six frequency channels between
100 and 857 GHz. The HFI is being designed and built by a Consortium of scientists led by
Jean-Loup Puget (PI) of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay (France), and Francois
Bouchet (Deputy PI) of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris. The other main institutes involved in
the HFI Consortium are:
California Institute of Technology, in Pasadena (USA)
Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, in Toronto (Canada)
Cardiff University, in Cardiff (UK)
Centre d'Etudes Spatiales des Rayonnements, in Toulouse (F)
Centre de Recherche sur les tres Basses Temperatures, in Grenoble (F)
College de France, in Paris (F)
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in Gif-sur-Yvette (F)
Danish Space Research Institute, in Copenhagen (DK)
Imperial College, in London (UK)
Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, in Paris (F)
Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, in Grenoble (F)
Institute of Astronomy, in Cambridge (UK) - [Planck page ]
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena (USA)
Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire, in Orsay (F)
Laboratoire d'Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matiere en Astrophysique, in Paris, (F)
Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, in Garching (D) - [ Planck Page ]
Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, in Cambridge (UK)
National University of Ireland, in Maynooth (IR)
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, in Chilton (UK)
Space Science Dpt of ESA, in Noordwijk (NL)
Stanford University, in Stanford (USA)
Universite de Geneve , in Geneva (CH)
Universidad de Granada, in Granada (E)
University La Sapienza, in Rome (I)
 The Low Frequency Instrument or
              LFI
 Consists of four
  arrays of 56 HEMT-
  based radio receivers,
  between 30 and 100
  GHz
 Operated at ~20K
 Best angular
  resolution ~ 10 ’ and
  temperature
  sensitivity ~12 microK
The Low Frequency Instrument
The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 56 tuned radio receivers which will be placed in the focal plane
of the Planck telescope, and will image the sky in three frequency channels between 30 and 70 GHz. The LFI will
be designed and built by a Consortium of scientists led by Reno Mandolesi of the
Istituto Fisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (IASF) in Bologna (Italy) - [Planck Page].
The other main institutes involved in the LFI Consortium are:
Chalmers University of Technology, in Goteborg (S)
Danish Space Research Institute , in Copenhagen (DK) -[ Planck Page ]
Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, in La Laguna (E)
Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, in Santander (E)
Istituto CAISMI, in Firenze (I)
Istituto IASF (CNR), in Milano (I)
Istituto di Fisica del Plasma IFP (CNR), in Milano (I)
Istituto IFSI, in Roma (I)
Jet Propulsion Laboratory , in Pasadena (USA)
Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik , in Garching (D) - [ Planck Page ]
Millimetre Wave Laboratory, in Espoo (FI)
Jodrell Bank Observatory, in Macclesfield (UK)
Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, in Padova (I)
Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, in Trieste (I) - [ LFI's DPC home page ]
SISSA, in Trieste (I)
Space Science Dpt of ESA , in Noordwijk (NL)
Theoretical Astrophysics Center, in Copenhagen (DK)
University of California (Berkeley), in Berkeley (USA)
University of California (Santa Barbara), in Santa Barbara (USA)
Universite de Geneve, in Geneva (CH)
University of Oslo, in Oslo (N)
Universita Tor Vergata, in Roma (I)
                           Estimated Planck Instrument Performance Goals




Instrument                                LFI^                                           HFI
                           30                 44         70    100           143     217      353         545      857
Center Frequency (GHz)

Detector Technology             HEMT radio receiver arrays                         Bolometer arrays
Detector Temperature                      20 K                                          0.1 K
Cooling Requirements                H2 sorption cooler               H2 sorption + 4K J-T stage + Dilution
Number of Unpolarised      0                  0          0     0       4       4        4           4       4
Detectors
Number of Linearly         4                  6          12    8       8       8        8           0       0
Polarised Detectors
Angular Resolution         33                 24         14    9.5     7.1     5.0      5.0         5.0     5.0
(arcmin)
Bandwidth (GHz)            6                  8.8        14    33      47      72       116         180     283

Average DT/T per pixel *   2.0                2.7        4.7   2.5     2.2     4.8      14.7        147         6700

                           2.8                3.9        6.7   4.0     4.2     9.8      29.8
Average DT/T per pixel
Maximize the ability to: discriminate between different
  cosmologial models, substract foregrounds & minimize the
  susceptibility to systematic errors: pointing strategy,
  frequency coveragy…

 Instrument noise etc.

=TOD

 HEALPIX

also "electric" and "magnetic" parts of the the polarization field
 To remove contaminating foreground signals

  Secondary anisotropies!




Show how much T varies from to point to point on the sky
Values of cosmological parameters can be determined by
comparing model and observed temperature power spectra

                                               http://space.mit.edu/home/te
                                               gmark/cmb/pipeline.html
A simulation of the CMB anisotropies at an angular resolution and sensitivity
level typical of what can be achieved by Planck.
         German Astrophysical
          Virtual Observatory
 The Planck Simulator
 The Planck Simulator provides synthetic sky
  maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
  The Planck Simulator allows to enter a variety of
  parameters which describe the assumed
  cosmology and allows to include a number of
  foreground emission processes. A detailed
  description of the available options can be found
  here.
   http://www.g-vo.org/portal/tile/products/services/planck/index.jsp
 WOMBAT is dedicated to understanding sources of microwave
  foreground emission and providing the cosmology community with
  estimates of foreground emission as well as uncertainties in those
  estimates.
  http://astron.berkeley.edu/wombat/
Analysis Packages:
 HEALPix Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelisation of the sphere
 SpICE
 MADCAP Microwave Anisotropy Dataset Computational Analysis
  Package
 CMBFit CMBfit is a software package for ultra-fast calculation of
  likelihoods from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)
  data
 GLESP Gauss-Legendre Sky Pixelization for CMB analysis

C(l) Computation:
   CMBFAST The CMBfast software can be used for the computation
   of the theoretical spectra of CMB anisotropy. The HEALPix synfast
   program reads in the output of this routine to allow one to generate
   random realisations of the observable CMB sky.
 CAMB Code for Anisotropies in the Microwave Background
 CMBEASY CMBEASY is a software package for calculating the
   evolution of density fluctuations in the universe
 DASh CMBEASY is a software package for calculating the evolution
   of density fluctuations in the universe
 RECFAST A code to calculate the recombination history of the
   Universe
Characterizing the microwave background
                   sky
 Cosmological information is encoded in the statistical
  properties of the maps, hot and cold spots
 To find out how much anisotropy is there on different
  spatial scales -> a map of temperature fluctuations on
  a sphere conventionally described in terms of
  spherical harmonics.
 IF fluctuations in the early Universe obey
  Gaussian statistics, as expected in most theories
  each of the coefficients alm is independent and so
  the power spectrum provides a complete
  statistical description of the temperature
  anisotropies
   The shape of the angular power
    spectrum is very sensitively dependent
    on fundamental cosmological
    parameters
   First peak (position) shows the
    universe is close to spatially flat =total
    energy density
    First peak (hight) depends upon the
    matter and baryon density (both
    depend on the Hubble constant)
   Constraints on the second peak
    indicate substantial amounts of dark
    baryons
   Third peak will measure the physical
    density of the dark matter
   Damping tail will provide consistency
    checks of underlying assumptions
   curvature of the universe the position
    of the peaks
   I<100 plateau indicate Scale-invariant
    density fluctuations, tilting the
    primordial power spectrum raising the        (taken from W. Hu's web page)
    right side relative to the left side
 Temperature (TT) results are
  consistent with ACBAR and
  CBI measurments
 Cross-power spectrum (TE) 
  adiapatic initial conditions,
  isocurvature models predict a
  dominat peak at l ~ 330 and
  subdominant peak at l ~ 110.
 Defect models do not have
  multiple acoustic peaks  no
  vector component
…And…
Wb consistent with: abundance measurments
Wm clusters dark matter estimates
WD supernova data
H0 HST Cepheid measurments

 Concordance model (built up last few years using many different data sets)
Inflation predicts: Universe is flat  requires cosmological constant
Inflation predicts: Gaussian fluctuations and scale-invariant scalar
 spectral index n_s~1
 Baryon density and dark matter densities, Hubble constant are defined with
    5%
 accurarcy

BUT t/n_s degeneracy !
          Precision cosmology
 Planck has the ability :
  Detect much smaller
  temperature variations (about
  ten times WMAP) in the CMB
  than previous missions
  Perform CMB measurements
  with a higher angular
  resolution than ever before
  (about twice better than
  WMAP)
  Measure over a wider band of
  frequencies to enhance the
  separation of the CMB from
  interfering foreground signals
  (ifrequency coverage about ten
  times larger than WMAP)

                                   (taken from W. Hu's web page)
                                                                             Hu's web page
The main difference between Planck and MAP lies in the quality of the CMB
data taken, and therefore, in the accuracy with which the cosmological
parameters can be determined + polarization properties
                                Polarization
    Thomson scattering of temperature anisotropies on the last scattering surface
     generates a linear polarization pattern on the sky. Polarisation pattern can be
     separated into `electric' (E) and `magnetic' (B) components.


    USEFUL BECAUSE:

    As polarization is generated only at last scattering, it probes last scattering in a more
     direct way than anisotropies alone
    Observations of polarization provide an important tool for reconstructing the model of
     the fluctuations from the observed power spectrum  breaking the degeneracy
     between certain parameter combinations
    Different sources of temperature anisotropies (scalar, vector and tensor) give
     different patterns in the polarization: both in its intrinsic structure and in its correlation
     with the temperature fluctuations themselves.
    Polarization power spectrum provides information complementary to the temperature
     power spectrum. This can be of use in breaking parameter degeneracies and thus
     constraining cosmological parameters more accurately.
    Timing of reionization
                    Reionization

 The absence of a Lyman alpha abrorbtion trought in the spectra of
high redshift quasars z > 6 shows that the intergalactic medium must
have been reionoized

 BUT:The re-ionization could not have been earlier than z ~ 30, or
there would be a suppression of the first Doppler peak in the angular
fluctuation spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (Tegmark
& Zaldarriaga 2000; De Bernardis et al. 2000).

WMAP led to the estimate tau ~0.17+-0.04. WMAP accuracy is not
enough for discrimination between models (Naselsky, Chiang 2004).
Double reionization models [Cen 2003, Wythe, Loeb
2003], period of extended reionization [Haiman, 2003], but
more complex pictures are possible
   Tau is only mildly constrained by Cl_t.
    WMAP ET-correlation spectrum and
    the E-polarization spectrum Cl_E
    contain independent information on
    tau. The majority of this information is
    conveyed by the spectral components
    with l<30.

   Cosmic variance.

   Large angles polarization data can be
    used to discriminate between different
    reionization histories. CMB
    (polarization) experiments will be
    indispensable for shedding light on
    those details of the reionization
    process that can be inspected through
    this observational window (Colombo
    2004).



                                               http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/polar/webversion/
Contraining inflation: Initial peturbations comprise a
contribution from tensor modes (gravity waves) in
addition to scalar modes (density peturbations)
contribute on lasrge scales (r=T/S).

Differentiating between tensor and scalar modes:
 Scalar perturbations produce a pure E-mode
polarisation pattern

Vector perturbations (generated in topological defect
models) generate mainly a B-mode polarisation pattern

 Tensor modes (gravity wave) generate an admixture of
E- and B-modes
 The E-mode polarization
  greatly exceeds the B-mode
  then scalar fluctuations
  dominate the anisotropy.
  Conversely if the B-mode is
  greater than the E-mode, then
  vectors dominate. If tensors
  dominate, then the E and B are
  comparable.These statements
  are independent of the
  dynamics and underlying
  spectrum of the perturbations
  themselves



                                   http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/polar/webversion/
                      Secondary effects
   Broad frequency coverage (from 30 to about 900 GHz) 
detailed nature of various astrophysical foregrounds ->
       must be corrected -> but also byproducts




 Cluster of galaxies: kSZ-effect and tSZ-effect

 Extragalactic sources

 Galactic studies: dust properties, magnetic field, distrb. Of the ionized vs.
 interstellar medium
1.In the low frequency channels ( 30 to 90 GHz), are expected to
detect mainly radio-loud, flat-spectrum radiogalaxies and QSOs,
blazars, and possibly some inverted-spectrum radiosources.

2. In the millimetre channels (90 to 300 GHz), the predominant
extragalactic sources will be rich clusters of galaxies detected via
the SZ effect.

3.In the sub-millimetre channels (300 to 900 Ghz), are expect to
detect many thousands of infra-red luminous galaxies (both
normal and starbursting) and (mostly radio-quiet) AGNs, and a
few high-redshift galaxies and QSOs.

4. In sub-mm and mm wavelengths maps of the emission from
Galactic
                                                   Some scientific areas addressed by Planck


         Component                             Area                                                         Highlights


                                                                       •Initial conditions for structure evolution
                                                                                 •Origin of primordial fluctuations
                                                                                 •Testing and characterizing inflation
                                                                                 •Testing and characterizing topological defects
CMB                         Cosmology & origin of structure
                                                                       •Constraints on the nature and amount of dark matter
                                                                       •Determination of fundamental parameters:
                                                                                 • 0, H0, to 1%
                                                                                 • b, Qrms, ns to a few %



                                                                       •Measurement of y in >104 clusters
Sunyaev-Zeldovich           Cosmology & structure evolution            •Estimate of H0 from y and X-ray measurements
                                                                       •Cosmological evolution of clusters
                                                                       •Bulk velocities (scales >300 Mpc) out to z~1 with    v ~ 50 km/s


                                                                       •Source catalogues of
                                                                                •IR and radio galaxies
Extragalactic sources       Cosmology & structure formation                     •AGNs, QSOs, blazars
                                                                                •inverted-spectrum radio sources
                                                                       •Far-infrared background fluctuations
                                                                       •Evolution of galaxy counts


                                                                       •Dust properties
Dust emission               Galactic studies
                                                                       •Cloud and cirrus morphology
                                                                       •Systematic search for cold cores


                                                                       •Determination of spectral indices
Free-free and synchrotron   Galactic studies                           •Cosmic ray distribution
                                                                       •Magnetic field mapping


                                                                       •Asteroids
All Channels                Solar System studies                       •Planets
                                                                       •Comets
                                                                       •Zodiacal emission
                   Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect
The thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect arises from the frequency shift when
CMB photons are scattered by the hot electrons in the intra-cluster gas.
Observations of the SZ effect provide information on the hot intra-cluster gas
that is complementary to that derived from observations at X-ray wavelengths
 The kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect: Peculiar velocities of the hot intra-
cluster gas lead to a Doppler shift of the scattered photons which is
proportional to the product of the radial peculiar velocity and the electron
density integrated along the line of sight through the cluster -> possible to
measure cluster peculiar velocities
The frequency dependence of the TSZ distortion is characterised by three
distinct frequencies 217 GHz, where TSZ vanishes; 150 GHz which gives the
minimum decrement of the CMB intensity and 350 GHz which gives the
maximum distortion.
          The Thermal SZ effect
 High signal to noise and angular resolution are essential to
  studying higher order effects and cross-correlating CMB
       maps with observations at other wavelengths.
       3 deg




Input SZ                                WMAP 4yr                          Planck
simulation                                                                1yr
       From Martin White talk:Constrainning Cosmology in the Planck Era
 The SZ effect probes
  the intra-cluster gas
  temperature whereas
  the X-ray emission is
  more sensitive to the
  density distribution.




                          From Planck-HFI page
 Maps of the sum of
  primary CMB and
  secondary SZ
  anisotropies. YSZ is for
  the thermal SZ effect and
  KSZ is for the kinetic
  effect. The maps are
  obtained from
  hydrodynamical
  simulations of structure
  formation. The SZ effect
  anisotropies induce
  additional power at small
  angular scales.

                              From Planck-HFI page
   The combination of spatially resolved X-ray temperature and flux profiles, and
    measurements of the thermal SZ effect in the CMB, can be used to estimate the true
    spatial dimensions of rich clusters of galaxies and hence to estimate the Hubble
    constant

   Observations of the SZ effect provide information on the hot intra-cluster gas that is
    complementary to that derived from observations at X-ray wavelengths

   Rich cluster survay (~104 entries)
 So… we need Planck and others..
If we know Hubble parameter to about 5% is it good
   enough?

We still know nothing about Lamba and dark matter - most
 of the Universe

How about Gaussianity?

n_s=1 and Gaussianity do not distinguish between
  inflatoniary models (we have only upper limits on tensor
  to scalar ratio r=T/S)

Timing of reionization ……
…others…
 SPOrt is an Astrophysical Project aimed at observing the polarization of the sky in
   the microwave range 20-100 GHz, with angular resolution of 7°. Primary goals are:
  tentative detection of CMB Polarization on large angular scales maps of Galactic
   synchrotron emission at the lowest frequencies (22-32 GHz)
  SPOrt is carried on under the scientific responsibility of an International collaboration
   of Institutes headed by the IASF-CNR in Bologna and is fully funded by the Italian
   Space Agency (ASI).It has been selected by ESA to be flown on board the
   International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum lifetime of 18 months.
     Suborbital Experiments
 http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/subor
 bit/su_experiments.cfm
                            Full name
                   Data                                           l- l-                                               Polariz
Links to Project       At                                               m   l-
                                                                      min l-ma
                                          Year          Status                        Freq. (GHz)         Detectors              Type
       Website        LAM                                               i   max
                      BDA                                                 n



   ACBAR           DATA     Arcminute                 continues   60          2700   150, 219, 274    Bolometer         No      Ground
                            Cosmoloy      2001-date
                            Bolometer
                            Array
                            Receiver
    ACME/           -       Advanced                  completed   10          180    26-35 and 38-    HEMT              No      Ground
      HACME                 Cosmic        1988-1996                                        45
                            Microwae
                            Explorer/
                            HEMT+AC
                            ME
     ACT            -        Atacama       -          future      -           -      145, 225, 265    Bolometer         No      Ground
                             Cosmoloy
                             Telescope

     AMI            -        Arcminute     -          future      -           -      12-18            Interferomet      No      Ground
                             MicroKelvi                                                                      er
                             n Imager
    AMiBA           -       Array for      -          future      -           -      90               -                Yes      Ground
                             Microwae
                             Backgroud
                             Anisotropy


   APACHE           -       Antarctic                 completed   -           -      100, 150, 250    Bolometer         No      Ground
                            Plateau       1995-1996
                            Anisotropy
                            CHasing
                            Experimet
    APEX            -       Atacama        -          future      -           -      150, 217         Bolometer         No      Ground
                             Pathfinder
                             EXperiment

   Archeops        DATA      N/A                      continues   15          350    143, 217, 353,   Bolometer        Yes      Balloo
                                          1999-date                                        545                                        n
 ARGO      -     N/A                            completed   53     180    150-600       Bolometer      No    Balloon
                                  1988, 1990,
                                     1993
 ATCA      -     Australia                      completed   3350   6050   8.7           HEMT           No    Ground
                 Telescope        1991-1997
                 Compact
                 Array
 BAM       -     Balloon-                       completed   30     100    110-250       Liquid-        No    Balloon
                 borne               1995                                               helium
                 Anisotropy                                                             cooled,
                 Measurement                                                            Fourier
                                                                                        transform
                                                                                        spectromete
 BEAST     -     Background                     continues   10     1000   25-35 and     HEMT           No    Balloon,
                 Emission         2000-date                               38-45                              Ground
                 Anisotropy
                 Scanning
                 Telescope
 BICEP     -     Background            -        future      -      -      -             Bolometer       -    Ground
                 Imaging of
                 Cosmic
                 Extragalactic
                 Polarization
BOOMERa    -     Balloon                        continues   25     1025   90-420        Bolometer      Yes   Balloon
   nG            Observations     1997-date
                 Of Millimetric
                 Extragalactic
                 Radiation and
                 Geophysics
CAPMAP     -     Cosmic                         continues   500    1500   90 and 40     MMIC/          Yes   Ground
                 Anisotropy       2002-date                                             HEMT
                 Polarization
                 MAPper
  CAT      -     Cosmic                         completed   339    722    13-17         Interferomet   No    Ground
                 Anisotropy       1994-1997                                             er/ HEMT
                 Telescope
  CBI     DATA   Cosmic                         continues   300    3000   26-36,in 10   Interferomet   No    Ground
                 Background       2002-date                               channels      er/ HEMT
                 Imager
  CG        -     Cosmological                    continues   100    1000   0.6 to 32     HEMT        No    Ground
                  Gene              1999-date
 DASI       -     Degree                          continues   200    900    26-36,in 10   HEMT        Yes   Ground
                  Angular Scale     1999-date                               bands
                  Interferometer
 FIRS       -     Far Infra- Red                  completed   3      29     170-680       Bolometer   No    Balloon
                  Survey               1989
 MAT        -     Mobile                          completed   30     1100   30-140        HEMT/SIS    No    Ground
                  Anisotropy        1997, 1998
                  Telescope
MAXIMA     DATA   Millimeter                      completed   50     700    150-420       Bolometer   No    Balloon
                  Anisotropy        1995, 1998,
                  eXperiment           1999
                  Imaging Array
MBI-B       -     Millimeter-            -        future      -      -      90            Bolometer   Yes   Ground
                  Wave
                  Bolometric
                  Interferometer
 MINT       -     Millimeter             -        future      1000   3000   150           SIS         No    Ground
                  INTerferomet
                  er
MSAM        -     Medium Scale                    completed   69     362    150-650       Bolometer   No    Ballon
                  Anisotropy        1992-1997
                  Measurement
PIQUE       -     Princeton I, Q,                 completed   69     362    90            Bolometer   Yes   Ballon
                  and U                2002
                  Experiment
POLAR       -     Polarization                    continues   2      30     26-46         HEMT        Yes   Ground
                  Observations         2000
                  of Large
                  Angular
                  Regions
Polatron    -     N/A                    -        future      200    2000   100           Bolometer   Yes   Ground
Python      -     N/A                       completed   55     240     30-90        Bolometer/     No    Ground
                               1992-1997                                            HEMT
QMAP        -     N/A                       completed   30     850     30-140       HEMT/SIS       No    Balloon
                                 1996
  SK        -     Saskatoon                 completed   52     401     26-46        HEMT           Yes   Ground
                               1993-1995
 SPT        -     South Pole       -        future      -      -       -            Bolometer       -    Ground
                  Telescope
Tenerife    -     N/A                       completed   13     30      10, 15, 33   HEMT           No    Ground
                               1984-2000
TopHat      -     N/A                       continues   10     700     150-720      Bolometer      No    Balloon
                               2002-date
 VSA       DATA   Very Small                continues   130    1800    26-36        Interferomet   No    Ground
                  Array          2002                                               er/ HEMT

                                       Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Experiments
SuZIE       -     Sunyaev-                  continues   1000   3700    150, 220,    Bolometer      No    Ground
                  Zeldovich    1996-date                               350
                  Infrared
                  Experiment
 SZA        -     Sunyaev-         -        future      -      -       26-36 and    Interferomet   No    Ground
                  Zeldovich                                            85-115       er
                  Array

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:29
posted:3/13/2010
language:English
pages:45