WELL BEING 19 & 20 AUGUST 2009 POSTER ABSTRACTS INDEX: • Julee Cunningham: We are storied creatures • Centre for Contemporary Art and Politics: Intercultural Research: Indigenous Art and Cinema • Centre for Contemporary Art and Politics: Indigenous Life (Audio Visual) • Melissa Anenden: A novel fabrication technique for cochlear implant electrode arrays • Dr Megan Lord: Biomarker development for arthritis • Thomas Guenther: The Bionic Eye – Laser-patterned silicone-platinum multi-layer electrodes • Penny Martens: Bio-synthetic Hydrogels • Bill Cheng: The Role of Proteoglycans in Chitosan Mediated Wound Healing • MoonSun Jung: The roles of mast cell proteoglycans on angiogenesis • Dr Rita Henderson: On-line fluorescence monitoring as a surrogate for microbial water quality in remote indigenous communities • Associate Professor Elizabeth Fernandez & Dr Jung-Sook Lee: A study of foster care reunification outcomes using event history analysis • Crelis Rammelt: Development and Infrastructure in Marginalised Communities, Safe Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh • Effie Mitchell: Refugee Women at Risk: Reciprocal Research (Audio Visual) • Ahsanul Kabir: The Spatial Structure of Employment and its Impacts on Travel Patterns: A Case Study of the Mega City of Dhaka, 1995-2005 • Fiona Martin: Taxation of Charities for Indigenous Peoples: the Public Benefit Restriction • Melanie Schwartz: The Australian Prisons Project: Understanding the re-emergence of the Prison as a frontline criminal justice strategy • Professor Les White: Exploring Cultural Diversity • David Grenet: A novel stimulator for FES cycling • Dr Katrina Williams and Dr Paul Joshua : Health improvement and Secondary Prevention for Communities at high risk of adverse health and wellbeing Part 1: Refugee children settling in South Eastern Sydney Illawarra Health , Part 2: Aboriginal Child Health in South Eastern Sydney Illawarra Health • Dr Judith Lissing: The Contribution of the NSW Child Health Networks to the Well Being of Children and their Service Providers • Dr Shihab Hameed, John R Morton, Adam Jaffe, Penny I Field, Yvonne Belessis, Terence Yoong, Tamarah Katz and Charles F Verge: Early glucose abnormalities in cystic fibrosis are preceded by poor weight gain • Associate Professor Kate Moore, Drs Wendy Allen, Susmita Sarma, Jackie Woodman, Emmanuel Karantanis: Mild to Moderate Uterovaginal Prolapse: Can Physiotherapy Cure and/or Prevent? • Associate Professor Kate Moore, Drs Susmita Sarma, Jackie Woodman, Emmanuel Karantanis: Prevention of Prolapse (rectocoele) Progression: A Longitudinal Study • Associate Professor Kate Moore: Investigating The Cause of Overactive Bladder (Urge Incontinence) • Dr Claire Wakefield: The psychosocial impact of completing childhood cancer treatment: A systematic review of the literature and guidelines for end-of-treatment support. • Associate Professor Richard Millard: Botulinum Toxin in B Overactivity - The Prince of Wales Hospital Experience • Suhara Fazida Haji Yusop and Isabelle Jalbert: Not a dry eye on campus? • Helen Tang: Neutralising the negative effects of ostracism: Is inclusion beneficial? • Quincy Wong and Dr Michelle Moulds: Impact of Rumination Versus Distraction on Anxiety and Maladaptive Self-Beliefs in Socially Anxious Individuals • Si Ming Man: The role of Campylobacter species in Crohn’s disease • Sarah Ongley: The antipsychotic drug pimozide upregulates cholesterol biosynthetic genes and is toxic to breast cancer cells • Dr Kaaren Watts: Development of an online screening decision aid for men with a family history of prostate cancer • Moneisha Gokhale and Dr Isabelle Jalbert: Omega fats for Dry Eye: A fishy affair? • Anthea Burnett: Adaptation and validation of a vision related Quality-of-Life tool for use in Indigenous communities • Anthea Burnett: Development and Validation of a method for Rapid Assessment of Blindness and Vision Impairment in Indigenous Communities • Professor Brian Layland: VisionCare NSW • Professor Brian Layland: The NSW Aboriginal Eyecare Program • Kesi Naidoo, Prasidh Ramson, Kovin Naidoo, Amanda Davis, Professor Brien Holden: From Outreach to Sustainability – the patient explored • Kovin Naidoo, Carrin Martin, Amanda Davis, Professor Brien Holden: Developing research capacity in Africa – a collaborative effort • Reshma Dabideen, Kovin Naidoo, Amanda Davis, Professor Brien Holden: Refractive Errors: sustainability and cross subsidization • Yashika Inderjeet, Kovin Naidoo, Amanda Davis, Professor Brien Holden: The KwaZulu-Natal Child Eye Care Programme: developing a sustainable solution through a public, private, NGDO partnership • Gerhard Schlenther, Mitasha Marolia, Sonja Cronjé, Professor Brien Holden and Jambi Garap: Establishing refractive error services through public-NGO partnerships in Papua New Guinea • Sonja Cronjé, David Wilson, Gerhard Schlenther, Professor Brien Holden, Amanda Davis, Kovin Naidoo: Establishing sustainable refractive error services in the developing world • Prakash Paudel, Sonja Cronjé, Patricia O’Connor, Usha Raman, Professor Brien Holden: Competency of mid-level eye care personnel in addressing avoidable blindness in developing communities: Results of a pilot study • Jane Kierath, Sonja Cronjé, Neilsen de Souza, Professor Brien Holden and Kovin Naidoo: A comprehensive refractive error training package for mid- or lower level cadres • Sonja Cronjé, Jane Kierath, Naomi Freuden, Gerhard Schlenther and Professor Brien Holden: Recruitment and selection of trainees to provide refractive error services: a pilot study in rural Sri Lanka • Tim Fricke, Nina Tahhan, Thomas Naduvilath, Jane Kierath, Gerhard Schlenther, Professor Brian Layland, Professor Brien Holden: Eye care delivery in post-tsunami Sri Lanka using international outreach • Tricia Keys, Neilsen De Souza, Sonja Cronjé, Anna Morse, Nina Tahhan, Gerhard Schlenther and Judith Stern: A training program for Aboriginal Eye Health Workers in the Northern Territory of Australia • Ruiwen Benjamin Heng: Association of Human Papillomavirus with breast cancer • Dr Julie Hatfield: The role of risk propensity and motivations for risk in the speeding of younger drivers • Associate Professor Jia-Ling Yang: Prognostic and Therapeutic Significance of EGFR in Soft Tissue Sarcoma • Melissa Haswell: The Potential of an Empowerment and Well Being Approach to Closing the Gap: Strengthening Aboriginal Health and Capacity to Address the Challenges NAME: JULEE CUNNINGHAM SCHOOL/CENTRE: SCHOOL OF ART - MOVING IMAGE FACULTY/CENTRE: COFA EMAIL: JULEE.CEE@GMAIL.COM POSTER TITLE: WE ARE STORIED CREATURES TOPIC AREA: BODY/MIND AND THE POWER OF STORY PRESENTED WITHIN MULTIMEDIA ABSTRACT: Modern medicine's focus on the power of hard science to deliver new and better health outcomes may be to the detriment of what softer, more subtle yet powerful forms of healing can offer. This talk concerns my media projects exploring the work of a New Zealand Doctor. Dr and PROFESSOR Brian Broom is qualified in immunology and psychotherapy and uses both areas of knowledge in steering patients with serious physical conditions towards remission through artfully turning over their emotional stories with them. There have been some extraordinary results. Pursuing how physical conditions can be shifted via an exchange of words requires spanning both the deeply personal stories and the overarching paradigms of our culture. These latter “meta narratives” set the parameters of how we think about our bodies and what medical intervention can deliver. My project and the Poster will look at what is excluded due to medicine's creation of walls between body and mind categories. We are storied creatures, and I am, as is this project, aligned with those who see humanity is in a cross-over 'moment' between a science-based, materialistic culture and one that is open to anomalies bearing sublime gifts... When such “anomalies” bring benefits surely it is irresponsible not to listen and take note. After this process with Dr Broom is fully explored, successful patients not only lose their life-threatening diseases but also become more at peace with themselves. Blocked creativity is also often released in a process that involves not so much a “cure” but deep healing. www.storydoctors.com (launched in mid July) NAME: DR. JENNIFER BIDDLE SCHOOL/CENTRE: CENTER FOR CONTEMPORARY ART AND POLITICS FACULTY/CENTRE: COFA CONTACT PHONE: 9385 0751 EMAIL: J.BIDDLE@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: INTERCULTURAL RESEARCH: INDIGENOUS ART AND CINEMA TOPIC AREA: INDIGENOUS WELL BEING ABSTRACT: This poster presents four research projects conducted by the Center for Contemporary Art and Politics (CCAP), COFA, in which art production is utilised as means to support Indigenous self-representation and strategic development. In these projects, art is not secondary to - or a representation of - ‘real’ politics which exist elsewhere - economy, disadvantage, Intervention – but is itself the ‘real’ of new, determinative and demanding forms otherwise silenced. This session presents Dr. Jennifer Biddle’s (Senior Research Fellow, CCAP) research on Central Desert art as a means to Aboriginal literacy; Dr. Jennifer Deger’s (ARC Fellow, CCAP) indigenous film making as intercultural Yolngu ‘worlding’; Andria Durney’s (PhD, CCAP) action research on art in indigenous peace building; and Phillipa Roberton’s (PhD, CCAP) intergenerational art as a voice for Ngaanyatjarra youth. NAME: MELISSA ANENDEN SCHOOL/CENTRE: GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY/CENTRE: ENGINEERING EMAIL: M.ANENDEN@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: A NOVEL FABRICATION TECHNIQUE FOR COCHLEAR IMPLANT ELECTRODE ARRAYS TOPIC AREA: COCHLEAR IMPLANTS ABSTRACT: The Bionic Ear system is designed to restore hearing to patients suffering from sensoneural deafness, which is caused by the loss or damage to hair cells in the cochlea. There are currently three commercial devices approved by the Federal Drug Administration, manufactured by Cochlear Limited (Australia), MED-EL (Austria) and Advanced Bionics (USA). Additionally the European Union has approved a device manufactured by Neurelec (France) (Wilson et al. 2008). Present day systems share the same basic five components: 1) External transmitter, 2) microphone, battery pack and speech processor, 3) Implanted receiver/stimulator, 4) Reference electrode, and 5) Intracochlear electrodes. One of the major challenges in the development of cochlear implants is the fabrication of multiple channel intracochlear electrode arrays that are used to stimulate the auditory nerve. The multi-channel electrode array is inserted and implanted in the scala tympani of the cochlea and its success is dependent on how effectively the spiral ganglion cells are stimulated. Currently the maximum number of stimulating electrodes in the Nucleus device (Cochlear Ltd) is 24 electrodes, 22 of these are inserted within the cochlea and two extra-cochlear electrodes, typically serve as grounds. Here we present a novel fabrication method of the 22 electrode array based on computer aided laser micromachining. This comprises a three step process where the array is patterned onto a flat polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer, the perimodiolar electrode body is injection moulded, followed by irreversible adhesion of the two PDMS parts using a plasma bonding technique. The aim of this process is to allow for a rapid, flexible and cost effective fabrication of existing and future intracochlear electrode arrays. The implant electrodes are fabricated using biologically inert ultra-high purity, 12.5µm platinum foil (Goodfellow Limited, UK) and Medical grade silicone adhesive (MED-1000, NuSil, USA) diluted with n-heptane (Sigma Aldrich, Australia). The method of laser patterning is described in detail by Suaning et al. (2007). The fabrication of micro- machined arrays using laser ablation allows for multiple-layer electrode structures, providing a means through which the quantity of electrodes within the cochlear array can be increased. The current design comprises 22 electrodes, each 2 replicating a surface area of 300µm from the Nucleus Contour electrode array (Cochlear, Ltd). In parallel, the perimodiolar electrode body is injection moulded using medical grade silicone elastomer (MED4860, NuSil, USA). Oxygen plasma has been widely used in micro-fluidic systems (Jo et al. 2000, Bhattacharya et al. 2005 and Tang et al. 2006) to treat PDMS surfaces for effective surface bonding. The ability of treated PDMS surfaces to bond to each other lies in its surface chemistry. Upon exposure to oxygen plasma, the surface of the PDMS develops a silanol group at the expense of a methyl group (Bhattacharya et al. 2005). These silanol groups are highly polarised which causes the exposed surface to change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This phenomenon leads to the formation of strong irreversible intermolecular bonds when two PDMS surfaces are placed in contact with one another. In all its applications, plasma bonding of PDMS to PDMS has not been used commercially in the medical device industry. This is mainly because the quality of the bond produced has not been fully tested and verified in a biological environment over time, in vitro or in vivo. This work may result in improved reliability and reduced cost in cochlear implant production, the validation of new methods for bonding of silicone elastomers, and the upward expansion of electrode quantities for the next generation of cochlear neuroprosthesis. References Bhattacharya, S, Datta, A, Berg, J, and Gangopadhyay S 2005, ’Studies on Surface Wettability of PDMS and Glass under Oxygen Plasma Treatment and Correlation with Bond Strength’, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 14, pp. 590 – 597. Jo, BH, Van Lerberghe, LM, Motsegood, KM, Beebe, DJ 2000, ‘Three-Dimensional Micro-Channel Fabrication in Polymethylsiloxane (PDMS) Elastomer’, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 9, pp.76-81 Suaning, G J, Schuettler, M, Ordonez, J S, Lovell, N H, 2007, ‘Fabrication of multi-layer, high-density microelectrode arrays for neural stimulation and bio-signal recording’, Proceedings of the 3rd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, pp. 769-772. Tang, K C, Liao, E, Ong, W L, Wong, J D, Agarwal, A, Nagarajan, R, Yobas, L 2006, ‘Evaluation of bonding between oxygen plasma treated polymethylsiloxane and passivated silicon’. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 34, pp.155-161 Wilson, BS & Dorman, MF 2008, ‘Cochlear Implants: A remarkable past and brilliant future’, Hearing Research, vol. 242, pp. 3-21. NAME: DR MEGAN LORD SCHOOL/CENTRE: GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY/CENTRE: ENGINEERING CONTACT PHONE: 9385 3910 EMAIL: M.LORD@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: BIOMARKER DEVELOPMENT FOR ARTHRITIS TOPIC AREA: PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of arthritis is largely based upon radiographic changes in the distance between the bones, which is not indicative of the early changes in the cartilage matrix at the molecular level. The recent introduction of magnetic resonance imaging has significantly improved diagnosis but it still does not provide a molecular picture of what is occurring in the joint. Biological markers of joint tissue remodelling events have been a recent focus of intense research effort due to the insensitivity and unreliability of current diagnostic methods. As well as indicators of disease, the identification of biological markers may be useful to monitor disease progression, particularly in response to various treatment regimes, and to provide valuable testing of the efficacy of new arthritis therapies. Our work to date has focused on the identification and structural characterisation of proteoglycans and their attached sugar chains present in biological fluids of arthritic and non-arthritic populations. We have identified a potential marker, which is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and is known as bikunin. We hypothesise that changes in the sugar chain structure of bikunin may occur with joint tissue remodelling, either from the production of bikunin with altered sugar chain structures or catabolic processes within the joint. Analysis of bikunin in urine, plasma and synovial fluid from arthritic and non-arthritic patients indicates different levels and different structures of chondroitin sulfate attached to bikunin in the arthritic urine samples compared to the non-arthritic urine samples. These different chondroitin sulfate structures have implications for maintaining tissue integrity and support our on-going development of the detection of these altered chondroitin sulfate structures as biological markers. NAME: THOMAS GUENTHER SCHOOL/CENTRE: GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY/CENTRE: ENGINEERING CONTACT PHONE: 9385 8293 EMAIL: THOMAS.GUENTHER@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE BIONIC EYE – LASER-PATTERNED SILICONE-PLATINUM MULTI-LAYER ELECTRODES TOPIC AREA: REHABILITATION AND DISABILITIES - BIONIC EYE ABSTRACT: The electrode-tissue interface forms a major part in neuroprosthesis. The design and fabrication techniques of achieving this interface between implant and body are often labour-intensive and requiring a significant degree of skill and know-how to produce. This increases the cost of production and can lead to fabrication variability. The Australian Vision Prosthesis Group (AVPG) has developed complex arrays of high-density 1,2 microelectrodes utilising laser machining technology . Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and platinum (Pt) were chosen for electrode fabrication. These materials have been demonstrated to be biologically inert, and are widely used in clinical devices. The laser micromachining techniques combined with multiple layer structuring is shown. A second challenge is the interconnection between the electrode array and the implant. The aim of this study was to develop a process for electrode manufacturing including a structure to connect the array to its electronics. The process is comparable with previously developed techniques and enables prototyping of connectors with variable designs. The new process is described and proof of concept is demonstrated with a first prototype. rd  Suaning, G. J., Schuettler, M., Ordonez, J., Lovell, N. H., Proc 3 Int IEEE EMBS Conf Neural Eng, 2007  Schuettler, M., Stiess, S., King, B. V. and Suaning, G. J., J Neural Eng, 2005, 2, 121-8 NAME: PENNY MARTENS SCHOOL/CENTRE: GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY/CENTRE: ENGINEERING CONTACT PHONE: 9385 3902 EMAIL: P.MARTENS@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: BIO-SYNTHETIC HYDROGELS TOPIC AREA: TISSUE ENGINEERING ABSTRACT: Bio-synthetic Hydrogels Synthetic hydrogels have found broad application in the biomedical industry, and in particular across many areas of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine. Hydrogels’ have many advantageous properties for these applications, such as a controllable network structure and high water content. Pure synthetic hydrogels generally act mainly as passive barrier materials. However, when produced as interpenetrating networks or copolymers with biological polymers a plethora of functions can be achieved. Such bio-synthetic composites can be applied as “closed” systems for encapsulating cells to achieve immuno-isolation in applications such as islet cell encapsulation for diabetes, or as “open scaffolds” for tissue repair in applications ranging from bone and cartilage replacement to soft-tissue fillers. Of critical importance to these applications is the ability to control and tailor the complex network structure and chemistry, as well as maintaining the viability and function of both encapsulated cells and surrounding tissue. This research group focuses on developing bio-synthetic hydrogels based on the synthetic polymer poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA). PVA is a well researched synthetic hydrogel, and many aspects related to controlling the network, degradation, mechanics, etc are well studied. However, the main drawback of these hydrogels is that body and/or the encapsulated cells have no way of interacting or attaching to this hydrogel. Therefore, the underlying hypothesis for this research group is that biological polymers can be covalently linked into a synthetic polymer matrix and can maintain their biological function within the matrix. Several biological polymers/molecules have been studied, including the polysaccharide heparin, sericin protein isolated from silkworm silk, and calcium phosphate microspheres. Each of the biological molecules is being studied for a variety of applications, and results have been promising. The incorporation of the biologic has been successful, and it does not disrupt the base PVA structure. In addition, the biological activity of the biologic is not only preserved through the functionalization and incorporation process, but is maintained and passed on within the bio-synthetic hydrogels. Research is on-going related to characterisation of cell function within the hydrogels. NAME: BILL CHENG SCHOOL/CENTRE: GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY/CENTRE: ENGINEERING CONTACT PHONE: 9385 3196 EMAIL: B.CHENG@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE ROLE OF PROTEOGLYCANS IN CHITOSAN MEDIATED WOUND HEALING TOPIC AREA: ABSTRACT: Chitosan, natural polysaccharide, has been shown to stop severe bleeding, however an understanding of the mechanism of haemostatic action remains to be elucidated. Platelet adhesion to damaged blood vessel walls is accepted as the first step in the wound healing process, which is promoted by circulating serum proteins, exposed extracellular matrix proteins and platelet activating compounds. Proteoglycans (PG) are one such group of molecules which are also found in platelet α-granules associated with various factors that modulate the coagulation cascade such as platelet factor 4 (PF4). Our hypothesis is that platelet adhesion and activation is modulated by PG, their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains and the way they bind and modulate various platelet factors. Serglycin, the major PG produced by platelets, was found to contain both chondroitin and dermatan sulfate (CS/DS). It was found PF4 binds to serglycin in α-granule and was released as a complex held together by the CS/DS chains. These results indicate serglycin plays an important role in the maintenance of the native structure of PF4 after release by platelet activation, which may have downstream effects on coagulation. Perlecan, the major heparan sulfate (HS) PG in the vascular basement membrane, which is essential for endothelial growth and maintenance, was shown to bind to platelets via its protein core. The heparan sulfate chains had an anti-adhesive effect on platelets, which was removed by digestion with platelet heparanase. Future work will focus on the mechanisms through which platelets adhere to the protein core of perlecan as well as the roles of platelet-derived serglycin on PF4 activity as it is released from platelet granules. The findings will leads to better understanding in wound healing, and better applications for wound treatments. NAME: MOONSUN JUNG SCHOOL/CENTRE: GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY/CENTRE: ENGINEERING CONTACT PHONE: 9385 3916 EMAIL: MOONSUN@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE ROLES OF MAST CELL PROTEOGLYCANS ON ANGIOGENESIS TOPIC AREA: WOUND HEALING ABSTRACT: Mast cells are well known as one of the immune effector cells, especially related to immunoglobulin E associated allergic responses. They are derived from heamtopoietic cells and migrate to the vascularised connective tissues of the skin, intestines and lungs where they mature and differentiate and if activated release pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and growth factors, which are held in granules by the proteoglycan (PG), serglycin. The aim of this project is to characterise the structure of PGs produced by resting and activated mast cells and together with the released mediators determine their effects on angiogenesis. The human mast cell line (HMC-1) used in this study produced various types of PGs and glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and heparin. Serglycin, the major PG produced by mast cells, was shown to have 13 and 15kDa protein cores, decorated with both HS and CS and associated with intracellular granules. In addition, HMC-1 constitutively produced and secreted the full length form of the HSPG, perlecan with a molecular weight of 460kDa along with fragmented forms with molecular weights of 300 and 130kDa respectively. Results from studies using domain specific antibodies suggested that these fragments both contained the C-terminal domain V and arose by cleavage of the protein core in domains III and IV. Interestingly both fragments were also shown to be decorated with approximately 10kDa CS suggesting that this decoration occurred on domain V. These cells also express various forms of VEGF and their cell surface receptors (VEGFRs). Perlecan was shown to bind specifically to the larger molecular weight form of VEGF (VEGF-189) and form complexes with the major growth factor receptor, VEGFR2. We are in the process of investigating the roles of perlecan produced by mast cells on the cell adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells in response to VEGF, which we have hypothesised to have significant impacts on angiogenesis and wound healing. NAME: DR RITA HENDERSON SCHOOL/CENTRE: CENTRE FOR WATER AND WASTE TECHNOLOGY FACULTY/CENTRE: ENGINEERING CONTACT PHONE: 9385 5227 EMAIL: R.HENDERSON@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: ON-LINE FLUORESCENCE MONITORING AS A SURROGATE FOR MICROBIAL WATER QUALITY IN REMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES TOPIC AREA: WATER AND WASTE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACT: Microbiological waterborne disease remains a significant concern for many remote indigenous communities in Australia. Pathogens, from human and animal wastes, in drinking water sources (streams, wells) may cause ill health, hindering sustainable development and disproportionately affecting some remote indigenous Australian communities. While the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) have been tailored for application in diverse circumstances, it is recognised that implementation of the guidelines may be difficult in some rural locations and in order to improve the quality of drinking water supplied to indigenous people, an in situ, real-time monitoring tool is required to provide early indication of microbial contamination of human health relevance. A novel and innovative approach to rapid, inexpensive monitoring of microbial water quality is potentially available by the measurement of drinking water fluorescence. Many microbially-produced water contaminants fluoresce, but most of this fluorescence is emitted in the ultraviolet spectrum, so it is invisible to the human eye. A growing body of research has demonstrated that water fluorescence is particularly effective for the identification of human and animal faecal contamination (Henderson et al., 2009; Baker, 2001; Baker, 2002a, b; Baker et al., 2003; Hur and Kong 2008). A recent technological advance has been the production of a prototype hand-held instrument (SMF-2, STS Instruments Ltd), developed for the analysis of microbial fluorescence. More than 400 wastewater and river samples have recently been analysed using both this hand-held instrument and conventional bench spectrophotometry to demonstrate that both approaches correlate (Baker et al., 2004; Hudson et al., 2008). The hand-held instrument has recently been adapted for interaction with a data logger, enabling data recording without an operator presence (Singh et al., submitted). An exciting potential application of this portable fluorescence instrumentation is in the real-time, monitoring of the microbiological quality of drinking water, particularly in remote indigenous communities, where other conventional approaches are inhibited. The aim of the proposed research project is to test the ability of the fluorescence technology to provide a rapid surrogate measurement of microbial water quality in remote indigenous communities. The potential use of fluorescence as a surrogate for microbial water quality will be quantified and this relationship will then be applied in remote regions where there is an identified elevated potential for microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies. References Baker, A. (2001). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix characterization of some sewage-impacted rivers. Environmental Science & Technology 35: 948-953. Baker, A. (2002a). Fluorescence properties of some farm wastes: implications for water quality monitoring. Water Research 36: 189-195. Baker, A. (2002b). Spectrophotometric discrimination of river dissolved organic matter. Hydrological Processes 16: 3203-3213. Baker, A., et al. (2003). Detecting river pollution using fluorescence spectrophotometry: case studies from the Ouseburn, NE England. Environmental Pollution 124: 57-70. Baker, A., et al. (2004). Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer. Water Research 38: 2934-2938. Henderson, R.K. et al. (2009). Fluorescence as a potential monitoring tool for recycled water systems: A review. Water Research 43: 863-881. Hudson, N.J. et al. (2008). Fluorescence spectrometry as a surrogate for the BOD5 test in water quality assessment: an example from South West England. Science of the Total Environment, 391, 149-158 NAME: A/ PROF ELIZABETH FERNANDEZ & DR JUNG-SOOK LEE SCHOOL/CENTRE: SOCIAL SCIENCES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY/CENTRE: ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES CONTACT PHONE: 9385 1865 EMAIL: E.FERNANDEZ@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: A STUDY OF FOSTER CARE REUNIFICATION OUTCOMES USING EVENT HISTORY ANALYSIS TOPIC AREA: CHILD WELFARE ABSTRACT: With the continuing application of mandatory notification of child abuse and neglect and growing economic uncertainty an increasing number of children are the subject of child maltreatment reports and removal to protective care decisions. Greater attention is also being paid to the other side of the system namely the reunification of children with families following rehabilitative interventions. This presentation will report research into the factors associated with the reunification of children following an episode of temporary foster care. The research is concerned with identifying significant predictors of children's probability of experiencing differential pathways in their placement trajectories and refines a model for the analysis of longitudinal data such as time paths and determinants of change, an innovative approach to analysis of the life course of children in care. A sample of 168 children entering care drawn from 5 sites of the Barnardos Temporary Foster Care Program were studied examining routes to care and the factors that are predictive of the occurrence and speed of reunification. Selected findings include: • Older children are reunified faster than younger children: For example compared to the rate of reunification for a 1year old child, the rates were 1.6 times greater for a 5 year old child and 2.5 times greater for a 10 year old child. • The reasons for entry to care are also influential in predicting the speed of reunification: Children in care due to their parents' health or disability reunify at 3.66 times the rate of children who enter for other reasons eg neglect. • Interactions were also noted between reunification outcomes and perceived strengths in parental capabilities, family living environment and levels of child wellbeing, as also sources of referral. • The probability and speed of reunifying decreases with longer tenure in care. These and other findings will be discussed in relation to implications for policy and practice, and methodological directions. This 3 year project was funded by an ARC Linkage Grant. NAME: CRELIS RAMMELT SCHOOL/CENTRE: INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES FACULTY/CENTRE: ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES EMAIL: CRELISR@GMAIL.COM POSTER TITLE: DEVELOPMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE IN MARGINALISED COMMUNITIES, SAFE DRINKING WATER IN RURAL BANGLADESH TOPIC AREA: POVERTY AND PUBLIC HEA ABSTRACT: This poster is concerned with drinking water in rural Bangladesh – a matter of grave urgency since the discovery of arsenic in the groundwater more than a decade ago. Millions of users are exposed to dangerous levels of contamination, and the implementation of solutions has been slow and inadequate. Little has been done so far to integrate the research on this complex humanitarian crisis. The poor in most developing countries are persistently marginalised in their living conditions, including their access to safe drinking water. Many have argued that conventional views on development are ill-equipped to address the ‘growing gap’ between rich and poor; the models often fail to interpret inequity beyond mere financial indicators. This research has put forward a different analytical framework designed to increase our understanding of marginalisation by taking into account unequal ownership of, entitlement to, and control over, ecological, technological, organisational and human assets. The framework was informed by a participatory programme that established safe drinking water supplies in several poor and arsenic-affected villages. The learning experience was then fed back into the programme. This resulted in a clarification of the problem in terms of (1) lack of ownership of community land, resources, drinking water institutions and technical knowledge; (2) restricted access to (non-) governmental services and benefits from public or collective assets; and (3) exclusion from decision-making in new water sector developments. It was concluded that alternative strategies need to focus on vesting ownership, entitlement and control in marginalised communities. The steps to achieve this will have far-reaching ramifications for how organisations, policymakers and funding agencies perceive and plan development projects. NAME: EFFIE MITCHELL SCHOOL/CENTRE: CENTRE FOR REFUGEE RESEARCH FACULTY/CENTRE: ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES CONTACT PHONE: 9385 1961 EMAIL: E.MITCHELL@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: REFUGEE WOMEN AT RISK: RECIPROCAL RESEARCH TOPIC AREA: AT RISK GROUPS ABSTRACT: The Centre for Refugee Research at the University of New South Wales is an interdisciplinary research centre focusing on refugee women and girls at risk and resettlement issues. The Centre is an initiator of research and innovative education programs with outputs contributing to strengthen national and international advocacy strategies. The research methodology employed by the Centre is deemed best practice with the methodology equally relevant to work both locally and internationally. Locally, the methodology has recently been used in urban and regional areas of Australia to identify key settlement issues and concerns. The methodology has been developed over a number of years in work with refugee women and girls in camps and refugee sites in Thailand, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and in India. The methodology is grounded in participatory action research and uses a human rights framework which integrates the norms, standards and principles of the international human rights system in the research process and analysis. The community development techniques employed help to enrich the research findings of the experiences of refugee women at risk. Integral to this is the inclusion of the women as active participants in the process, not as passive research subjects. The Centre continues to receives multiple requests from refugee groups and service providers within Australia and overseas to be trained in the Centre’s methodology. NAME: AHSANUL KABIR SCHOOL/CENTRE: BUILT ENVIRONMENT FACULTY/CENTRE: BUILT ENVIRONMENT CONTACT PHONE: EMAIL: AHSANUL_KABIR@HOTMAIL.COM POSTER TITLE: THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYMENT AND ITS IMPACTS ON TRAVEL PATTERNS: A CASE STUDY OF THE MEGA CITY OF DHAKA, 1995- 2005 TOPIC AREA: BUILT ENVIRONMENT / URBAN PLANNING ABSTRACT: Urbanization and urban population is booming across the Asian cities. By the year 2015 more than half of the world’s mega cities will be in Asia. The sustainability of these cities is under threat by rapidly increasing urban population and climate change due to GHG emissions from industries and vehicles. It is noticeable that the emissions from the transport sector are increasing rapidly while attempts are taken worldwide to reduce the carbon emissions by different means. This situation forces planners and policy makers to try and understand the spatial behaviour of urban dwellers in mega cities and to formulate an urban landscape that is more sustainable in terms of mobility, cost effectiveness, and environmental pollution. This research aims to examine the impact of land use change on travel behaviour in the mega city of Dhaka. Being the primate city of Bangladesh, Dhaka attracts population growth through an influx of migrants seeking better living conditions, jobs and diversity in economy. To accommodate this growth and to respond to the contemporary socio- economic situation, the city is expanding with new residential areas, services, recreation, mega shopping malls, economic zones and hence employment centres. These new or modified economic zones have an impact on surrounding land use, other economic zones, the transportation system and, hence, the transport sustainability of the city. In addition, the modernization of everyday life and the development of telecommunications technology influences the types of employment available to residents and the distances required to travel to these employment opportunities. The focus of this study will be to understand how changes in the spatial structure of Dhaka city are reflected in land use patterns and in the travel behaviour of residents. Specifically, this study will examine questions of how the dispersal of employment and growth of secondary centres affects the characteristics of travel such as time, duration, cost, method of travel and, hence, transport sustainability. Does the spatial structure of the mega city of Dhaka reflect a change from a monocentric to a polycentric city, or does it reflect the development of an extended metropolitan region model, similar to that of other mega cities in Asia? Studies on the employment structure and polycentric employment patterns of mega cities in Asia are very scant, due mainly to the unavailability of suitable data. The case study of Dhaka will utilise spatial data that has been made available for this study; household travel survey data, land use data and other socioeconomic data collected as part of the 2003 Dhaka strategic transport study and census. This data contains information at both the travel zone and household level and, therefore, enables analysis of the distribution of employment and its associated journey to work patterns. NAME: FIONA MARTIN SCHOOL/CENTRE: AUSTRALIAN SCHOOL OF TAXATION (ATAX) FACULTY/CENTRE: LAW CONTACT PHONE: 9385 9558 EMAIL: F.MARTIN@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: TAXATION OF CHARITIES FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLES: THE PUBLIC BENEFIT RESTRICTION TOPIC AREA: TAXATION OF CHARITIES FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ABSTRACT: This Project investigates the intersection between income tax law and charity law in Australia, New Zealand and Canada. The analysis is placed in the context of the application of these two legal areas to organisations for the advancement of indigenous peoples. The main focus is how the income tax exemption for charities has been applied in the context of the well- being of Australian indigenous people and the impact of the significant fiscal advantages that may result. As indigenous entities work towards developing their own solutions to the current problems of alienation and poverty through an emphasis on community capacity and development of social capital, the application of the legal concept of charity as it relates to indigenous organisations is a significant factor. This discussion raises two important issues: that charities must be for the ‘public benefit’ which requires a broader group of beneficiaries than those related by ‘family’; and that the traditional concept of charity precludes ‘political activity or advocacy’. Both these issues are of significant concern to indigenous peoples in Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Legislation has recently been enacted in New Zealand to overcome the limitation of ‘blood-ties’ and this may lead the way for such developments in Australia. This presentation will focus on the first of the two issues: the ‘public benefit’ problem which specifically impacts on land title claimant groups in Australia and overseas. NAME: MELANIE SCHWARTZ SCHOOL/CENTRE: LAW FACULTY/CENTRE: LAW/ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES EMAIL: M.SCHWARTZ@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE AUSTRALIAN PRISONS PROJECT: UNDERSTANDING THE RE-EMERGENCE OF THE PRISON AS A FRONTLINE CRIMINAL JUSTICE STRATEGY TOPIC AREA: PRISONERS ABSTRACT: The Australian Prisons Project aims to identify changes in penal culture over the last 25 years which have led to a re-emergence of imprisonment as a frontline criminal justice strategy. It seeks to understand contemporary penal culture and how it has developed across law, policy and practice through a range of comparative analyses and methodologies. The research covers vulnerable populations in the prison system such as women, Indigenous people and people with mental illness, the rise of the `risk` paradigm, the impact of terrorism on the penal realm, and the relevance of changes in sentencing and bail law. NAME: PROFESSOR LES WHITE SCHOOL/CENTRE: WOMEN’S AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9382 1761 EMAIL: L.WHITE@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: EXPLORING CULTURAL DIVERSITY TOPIC AREA: CULTURAL DIVERSITY ABSTRACT: The diverse cultural backgrounds of patients in children’s hospitals present significant challenges for staff in developing effective communication and collaborative relationships, especially given that staff also come from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Working across cultures requires practitioners to reflect on their own cultural influences; demonstrate empathy for people from other backgrounds; and continuously develop new insights and interaction skills in clinical encounters. Research undertaken at two children’s hospitals in Sydney during 2005-2007 sought the perspectives of a wide cross section of senior and front line staff – seventeen managers and over thirty health professionals – as well as families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, each having a child with a chronic/disabling illness. This study employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods including short and long-term in-depth interviews, focus groups, clinical observations and a large multi-lingual (8 languages) telephone survey that was developed from the previous qualitative research findings. The focus of the research was on the interaction between staff and patients/families and included participant observations in wards and at clinical meetings. While many staff negotiated cultural differences well, the research revealed that constraints in their ability to meet the needs of families were often related to broader systemic factors. In particular, misunderstandings related to communication, signage, interpreter-use and family dynamics were highlighted. These research findings have important implications for child and adolescent health policy, education and clinical practice. NAME: DAVID GRENET SCHOOL/CENTRE: PRINCE OF WALES MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE EMAIL: D.GRENET@POWMRI.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: A NOVEL STIMULATOR FOR FES CYCLING TOPIC AREA: SPINAL CORD INJURY ABSTRACT: The ability to cycle may be restored in people with a spinal cord injury by electrically stimulating their leg muscles in the correct sequence. This Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) cycling has both physical and psychological benefits for the participants, but despite this participation levels are low and largely confined to carefully controlled environments and stationary cycles. This is often due to the design of the stimulator that is responsible for delivering the electrical stimulus to the muscles. All current FES cycling systems use a stimulator that is located remote to the electrodes that are placed over the muscles to be stimulated. This necessitates the use of long wires between the stimulator and the electrodes which easily entangle in the mechanical linkages of the cycle. A prototype wireless stimulator, designed to be mounted at the site of stimulation has been built and tested in preparation for testing on human subjects. The stimulator is able to receive stimulus parameters by RF remote control and deliver the stimulus within the parameters commonly in use for FES cycling. As well as the square-wave biphasic stimulus that is commonly used in FES cycling, this stimulator is also able to deliver stimuli with an arbitrary shape, allowing the future investigation of complex waveforms for this and other applications. NAME: DR KATRINA WILLIAMS AND DR PAUL JOSHUA SCHOOL/CENTRE: SYDNEY CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: (02) 9382-1412 (MONDAYS, TUESDAYS, THURSDAYS) (02) 9382-8481 (WEDNESDAYS AND FRIDAYS) EMAIL: PAUL.JOSHUA@SESIAHS.HEALTH.NSW.GOV.AU POSTER TITLE: HEALTH IMPROVEMENT AND SECONDARY PREVENTION FOR COMMUNITIES AT HIGH RISK OF ADVERSE HEALTH AND WELLBEING PART 1: REFUGEE CHILDREN SETTLING IN SOUTH EASTERN SYDNEY ILLAWARRA HEALTH, PART 2: ABORIGINAL CHILD HEALTH IN SOUTH EASTERN SYDNEY ILLAWARRA HEALTH TOPIC AREA: HEALTH OF CHILDREN FROM REFUGEE AND ABORIGINAL BACKGROUNDS ABSTRACT: The Department of Community Child Health, Sydney Children’s Hospital is currently engaged in several health improvement initiatives with refugee and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and their families. The developments have been based on partnerships and have led to service models to enhance accessibility for those who need care and communication between care providers. Through these pathways services that provide comprehensive care to newly arrived refugee children and their families have been developed involving a range of health providers. This has led to research that will clarify developmental, educational and mental health needs of this community, with a view to better defining services requirements. Aboriginal service development has included highly accessible community based services that provides a continuum of care from the antenatal through to the childhood phase, as well as a new service for school-aged mothers. The vision is for improved health and well-being in the short, medium and long term and for intergenerational health and well being gains. NAME: DR JUDITH LISSING SCHOOL/CENTRE: WOMEN’S AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9382 1686 EMAIL: JUDITH.LISSING@SESIAHS.HEALTH.NSW.GOV.AU POSTER TITLE: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE NSW CHILD HEALTH NETWORKS TO THE WELL BEING OF CHILDREN AND THEIR SERVICE PROVIDERS TOPIC AREA: CHILD HEALTH ABSTRACT: Formal Networking in Child Health in NSW commenced in 2001 with the aim to improve access to quality paediatric care close to where families live. This is being achieved by standardising the treatment of common paediatric presentations to Emergency Departments, and by continually researching and piloting new models of care, both in the hospital and in Community Health. The Networks also facilitate and advocate for the planning of appropriate outpatient services and inpatient facilities for children, so that the environment for the child in hospital is always safe and child-friendly. Some examples of specific past projects include a pilot refugee health clinic in Wagga, a drop-in speech pathology clinic for Aboriginal children in La Perouse, and a telemedicine clinic for children on insulin pumps between Wagga and Sydney Children’s Hospital to reduce the number of visits families have to make to Sydney. In addition, the Child Health Networks are addressing issues that impact on the recruitment and retention of quality staff particularly in rural areas, by making available continuing professional multidisciplinary education opportunities to the providers of child health services. This is achieved using many modalities, including local mentoring, local onsite education by visiting experts, secondments to the tertiary children’s hospital, online education and education via videoconferencing. In this way, the Child Health Networks positively contribute to the Wellbeing of both children and the providers of child health services. NAME: DR SHIHAB HAMEED SCHOOL/CENTRE: WOMEN’S AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: EMAIL: SHIHAB.HAMEED@SESIAHS.HEALTH.NSW.GOV.AU POSTER TITLE: EARLY GLUCOSE ABNORMALITIES IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS ARE PRECEDED BY POOR WEIGHT GAIN TOPIC AREA: PAEDIATRICS, DIABETES, CYSTIC FIBROSIS ABSTRACT: Progressive Beta-cell loss causes catabolism in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Existing diagnostic criteria for diabetes were designed to predict microvascular complications rather than CF-specific outcomes. Objective: We aimed to relate glycemic status in CF to weight and lung-function changes. Design, Setting, and Participants: We determined peak blood glucose (BGmax) during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) with samples every 30 minutes on 33 consecutive children (aged 10.2-18 years). Twenty-five also agreed to Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM, Medtronic). Main Outcome Measures: Change in weight Standard Deviation Score (wtSDS), %Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (%FEV1), and %Forced Vital Capacity (%FVC) in the year preceding OGTT. Results: Declining wtSDS and %FVC were associated with higher BGmax (both p=0.02) and CGM-time above 7.8mmol/l (p=0.006 and p=0.02 respectively), but not with BG120mins. Decline in %FEV1 was related to CGM-time above 7.8mmol/l (p=0.02). Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine optimal glycemic cut-offs, CGM-time above 7.8mmol/l >4.5% detected declining wtSDS with 89% sensitivity and 86% specificity (AUC 0.89, p=0.003). BGmax >8.2 mmol/l gave 87% sensitivity and 70% specificity (AUC 0.76, p=0.02). BG120mins did not detect declining wtSDS (AUC 0.59, p=0.41). After excluding 2 patients with BG120mins >11.1 mmol/L, decline in wtSDS was worse if peak BG was >8.2mmol/l (-0.3+0.4 vs 0.0+0.4 for BG <8.2, p=0.04) or if CGM-time above 7.8mmol/l was >4.5% (-0.3+0.4 vs +0.1+0.2 for time <4.5%, p=0.01). Conclusions: BGmax on OGTT > 8.2 mmol/L and CGM-time above 7.8mmol/l >4.5% are associated with declining wtSDS and lung-function in the preceding 12 months. NAME: ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR KATE MOORE, DRS WENDY ALLEN, SUSMITA SARMA, WENDY HAYES, JANETTE O’TOOLE, EMMANUEL KARANTANIS SCHOOL/CENTRE: DEPARTMENT OF UROGYNAECOLOLGY, SCHOOL OF WOMEN’S AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9113 2054 EMAIL: K.MOORE@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: MILD TO MODERATE UTEROVAGINAL PROLAPSE: CAN PHYSIOTHERAPY CURE AND/OR PREVENT? TOPIC AREA: PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE ABSTRACT: Pelvic Organ Prolapse (of the uterus, bladder or bowel) affects approximately one-third of all women, especially post-menopausal women. Although ring pessaries and surgery are widely available, both may be associated with complications. For patients with mild to moderate prolapse, anecdotal evidence has suggested that pelvic floor physiotherapy is helpful to prevent worsening of the anatomical disorder, and can be curative. However, little objective data exists. In collaboration with University of Glasgow we are undertaking a large randomised controlled trial of Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercises by a Physiotherapist versus a Lifestyle Advice “Control” Group (regarding obesity, constipation, lifting, etc). Patients in the treatment group will have five visits to a sub-specialist Pelvic Floor Physiotherapist over sixteen weeks. Outcomes are assessed at six months. A total of 520 subjects are to be randomised across 20 hospitals in England, Scotland, Wales, New Zealand, Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. This study is funded by The Medical Research Council of UK and NHMRC Australia. To date, 251 women have been randomised and although the randomisation code has not yet been broken, local evidence suggests that physiotherapy maybe efficacious to prevent progression of prolapse signs and symptoms. NAME: ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS KATE MOORE, DRS SUSMITA SARMA, JACKIE WOODMAN, EMMANUEL KARANTANIS SCHOOL/CENTRE: DEPARTMENT OF UROGYNAECOLOLGY, SCHOOL OF WOMEN’S AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9113 2054 EMAIL: K.MOORE@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: PREVENTION OF PROLAPSE (RECTOCOELE) PROGRESSION: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY TOPIC AREA: PREVENTIVE MEDICINE ABSTRACT: The natural history of rectocoele, i.e. a prolapse of the rectum outside its normal confines into the vagina or beyond the introitus, is largely unknown, thus it is difficult to advise women with this problem as to whether the condition will inexorably progress to a state warranting treatment, or whether attention to precipitating/ accelerating factors such as constipation or obesity is definitely indicated. A longitudinal study of the natural history of this condition has never been performed. Therefore we reassessed the symptoms and signs of women with asymptomatic rectocoele at a minimum of 5 years. Study Design: Retrospective case identification, prospective observational study of all women with asymptomatic demonstrable rectocoele, seen over 8 year period, at a tertiary urogynaecology unit, who were sent a prolapse questionnaire then invited to be re-examined at least 5 years later in a standardised manner. Results: Of 113 recruits, 14 had had prolapse surgery, 99 returned the objective questionnaire the Birmingham Bowel and Urinary Symptoms Questionnaire (BBUSQ), of whom 20 declined further consultation. Of 79 willing to be seen, 51 were examined at a median of 5.9 years (IQR 5.1- 7.3). In 56% of patients, the rectocoele findings were unchanged: all remained asymptomatic: 45% had a more advanced rectocoele on exam but only 5 had developed overt symptoms. Rectocoele progression was not associated with age, BMI, oestrogen status or pelvic floor training, but new onset constipation or unresolved chronic cough were statistically associated with prolapse worsening. These results have important implications for all prolapse patients. NAME: ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR KATE MOORE SCHOOL/CENTRE: DEPARTMENT OF UROGYNAECOLOGY, WOMEN’S AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9113 2054 EMAIL: K.MOORE@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: INVESTIGATING THE CAUSE OF OVERACTIVE BLADDER (URGE INCONTENIENCE) TOPIC AREA: PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES ABSTRACT: Approximately 25% of women over age 40 suffer from some form of urinary incontinence. Treatments are available for stress incontinence (leakage with coughing or exercise), but the aetiology of urge incontinence (leaking with the urgent desire to pass urine) is unknown, thus treatments are not generally curative. As a result, urge incontinence can become a chronic disability. It is not widely known that males > 40 also experience urge incontinence, and this can be a significant cause of early retirement. The underlying pathophysiology comprises a heightened sensation of bladder filling ("urgency") which triggers off bladder spasms in the muscle of the bladder wall (the detrusor). The Department of Urogynaecology at UNSW, in collaboration with the Department of Pharmacology here and at Wollongong and Bond Universities, conducts research into these pathophysiological mechanisms. Animal studies in vitro show that cells lining the bladder wall (the urothelium) release ATP, an important signalling molecule; ATP stimulates afferent nerves leading to perception of bladder fullness. We have recently discovered that ATP is released into the bladder fluid of women during a routine diagnostic test (cystometry). The Department of Urogynaecology performs approximately 450 such tests annually. Quantitative studies of ATP release in patient with urge incontinence compared to controls have identified statistically significant differences between these patient groups. The use of bladder washing samples for ATP release experiments is a completely original technique that allows non-invasive research into hundreds of patients with overactive bladder, annually. Our preliminary data promise to give important new insight into release of ATP and other mediators in this condition. NAME: DR CLAIRE WAKEFIELD SCHOOL/CENTRE: WOMEN’S AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9382 2611 EMAIL: C.WAKEFIELD@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF COMPLETING CHILDHOOD CANCER TREATMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND GUIDELINES FOR END-OF-TREATMENT SUPPORT TOPIC AREA: PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF CHILDHOOD CANCER ABSTRACT: Background: Completing cancer treatment can be a major stress point in the pediatric cancer journey, as families of childhood cancer survivors face the uncertainty of possible relapse and the emergence of late effects of treatment. Consequently, an end-of-treatment seminar, to prepare parents for the challenges their family may face as they transition out of hospital care and return to their ‘normal’ lives, is offered at Sydney Children’s Hospital. Objectives: First, to review the results of any published research study examining the psychosocial functioning of children who have recently completed cancer treatment. Second, to utilize this information to create guidelines for the evidence-based improvement of the existing services offered to these families. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched (from 1978 to 2008). Of 1734 identified articles, 19 met all inclusion criteria. Results: Children may experience positive psychosocial outcomes on treatment completion, including high self-worth, good behavioural conduct and improved mental health and social behaviour. However, they may also experience significant negative outcomes, including lower levels of psychological wellbeing, mood, liveliness, self esteem and motor and physical functioning, as well as increased anxiety, problem behaviours and sleeping difficulties. The newly developed guidelines suggest topics to cover during the end-of-treatment seminar, as well as recommending the creation of additional educational materials to support families as they traverse the first year after treatment completion. Conclusions: Completing treatment can be a psychologically complex time for children as they wait to make the transition from ‘cancer patient’ to long-term ‘cancer survivor’. While the newly developed guidelines outline strategies to provide more comprehensive support of families approaching treatment completion, funding and evaluating this approach without creating additional workload for clinical staff remains a challenge in the hospital setting. NAME: A/PROF RICHARD MILLARD SCHOOL/CENTRE: UROLOGY, PRINCE OF WALES HOSPITAL FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9382 2114 EMAIL: RICHARD.MILLARD@SESIAHS.HEALTH.NSW.GOV.AU POSTER TITLE: BOTULINUM TOXIN IN B OVERACTIVITY - THE PRINCE OF WALES HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE TOPIC AREA: URINARY INCONTINENCE / OVERACTIVE BLADDER ABSTRACT: Overactive bladder (OAB) is a clinical syndrome of urgency for fear of leakage, frequency and nocturia, sometimes resulting in urge incontinence. It affects 17% of population over 40 years of age. The clinical symptoms are most commonly associated with detrusor overactivity (DO) which may be idiopathic or neuropathic in origin (IDO or NDO). Detrusor contractions are mediated via the parasympathetic nervous system working via M3 cholinergic receptors in detrusor smooth muscle. Antimuscarinic drugs have been the traditional treatment, augmented by bladder training. Refractory patients are treated with transvesical nerve blocks of the pelvic nerves which improve the symptoms of a further 70%. Beyond this, intravesical Botox injections have been employed in NDO – an off-label uses of Botulinum neurotoxin–A (BoNT-A). A total of 118 procedures were conducted in 47 patients with NDO mainly due to spinal cord injury. Outcome measures were self-reported improvement in OAB symptoms, functional capacity, continence, and duration of effect, as well as adverse effects. All procedures were conducted under light general anaesthesia. An improvement in continence (usually to complete dryness) was reported after 88/93 procedures, the effect generally taking 5 - 7 days to emerge after injection. 54 patients documented an improvement in bladder capacity from a mean of 207ml to a mean of 377ml, an increase of 82% or 170ml. Symptomatic improvement lasted 7.7 (range 5 – 24) months. In conclusion, intravesical BoNT-A injection is a temporary, expensive, but effective third line treatment for neurogenic and idiopathic detrusor overactivity. Prospective RCTs in both conditions are required to ascertain optimal dosage and safety profiles. NAME: DANIEL YU CUI SCHOOL/CENTRE: OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 9851 EMAIL: YU.CUI@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: ASSESSMENT OF VISION-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY TOPIC AREA: CHILD HEALTH ABSTRACT: Severe visual impairments have a negative impact on children’s quality of life (QoL). While this area has been well investigated in children with normal development, there has been a lack of research in children with intellectual disability (ID). Given the high prevalence of visual abnormalities on this group, there is a need for more research to understand the impact of visual abnormalities on QoL in children with ID. Existing QoL instruments either do not focus on vision-related problems, or are not specific for children with ID, and so are inappropriate to achieve assessment of QoL in this special population. In the present study, existing instruments are modified with the aim of developing tools for the investigation of self-reported functional vision performance (FV) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) in children with ID. NAME: SUHARA FAZIDA HAJI YUSOP AND DR ISABELLE JALBERT SCHOOL/CENTRE: OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385-9816 (DR JALBERT) EMAIL: Z3246732@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU (MS YUSOP) OR I.JALBERT@UNSW.EDU.AU (DR JALBERT) POSTER TITLE: NOT A DRY EYE ON CAMPUS? TOPIC AREA: DRY EYE ABSTRACT: Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial inflammatory disease of the ocular surface associated with significant discomfort. The prevalence of dry eye varies from 5% to 35% depending on the characteristics of the population measured. A higher prevalence in Asian populations has been suggested. Study Aim: To determine the prevalence of dry eye in a university campus population. A secondary aim, given the diverse UNSW campus population, is to look at the possible relationship between Asian ethnicity and the prevalence of dry eye. Study Design: Prospective study. UNSW reported having 42,360 students (including 9,269 international students) and 6,359 staff members in 2008. An invitation for all staff and students to complete a self-administered online questionnaire was posted on MyUNSW website, campus newspapers, noticeboards and email lists from 20th July 2009. Two validated dry eye questionnaires that have been shown to have high specificity and sensitivity in diagnosing dry eye form the basis for this questionnaire located on: https://www.surveys.unsw.edu.au/survey/154491/1bd1/ Results: Data collection will close on September 11th, 2009. Interim analysis of responses obtained up until 3rd August 2009 will be presented. Significance: Dry eye can cause significant discomfort, visual disturbance and has the potential to damage the ocular surface permanently. It can prevent people from performing daily tasks such as engaging in sporting activities, driving, reading, going outdoors, and can impact their ability to wear contact lenses and undergo refractive surgery. Despite this significant morbidity, it is often dismissed, particularly in its less severe forms. NAME: HELEN TANG SCHOOL/CENTRE: PSYCHOLOGY FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 3063 EMAIL: HTANG@PSY.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: NEUTRALISING THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF OSTRACISM: IS INCLUSION BENEFICIAL? TOPIC AREA: MENTAL HEALTH ABSTRACT: Aim: Ostracism is more often recurrent than an isolated incident. Chronic ostracism has been associated with both internalizing and externalizing clinical problems. This study investigated whether distinct episodes of ostracism have additive effects, and whether inclusion either before or after ostracism provides protective and ameliorative benefits. Method: Participants played 2 rounds of the virtual ball-toss game Cyberball in which they were included or ostracised in each game. Results: Participants reported that (1) being ostracised twice was no more aversive than being ostracised once, (2) ostracism following inclusion was no less aversive, and (3) inclusion following ostracism ameliorated the negative effects. Conclusions: At least for brief episodes (1) multiple episodes of ostracism do not have additive effects, (2) inclusion is not protective against the effects of future ostracism, and (3) inclusion can undo the negative effects of ostracism. This preliminary finding has potential implications in the search for strategies to combat the devastating impact of ostracism. NAME: QUINCY WONG AND DR MICHELLE MOULDS SCHOOL/CENTRE: PSYCHOLOGY FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE EMAIL: QWONG@PSY.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: IMPACT OF RUMINATION VERSUS DISTRACTION ON ANXIETY AND MALADAPTIVE SELF-BELIEFS IN SOCIALLY ANXIOUS INDIVIDUALS TOPIC AREA: MENTAL HEALTH, PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL ANXIETY/SOCIAL PHOBIA, RUMINATION ABSTRACT: Introduction: A large body of experimental evidence has demonstrated the adverse effects of rumination on depressive mood and cognitions. In contrast, while prominent models of social phobia (Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997) have proposed rumination as a key maintaining factor, the effects of rumination in social anxiety have not been extensively explored. This study investigated the impact of rumination versus distraction following a social-evaluative task on anxiety and another key component of social phobia: maladaptive self-beliefs. It was predicted that in high socially anxious individuals, rumination would maintain anxiety and the endorsement of the three maladaptive belief types, relative to distraction. Method: High (n = 46) and low (n = 47) socially anxious undergraduates completed an impromptu speech task. Participants were then randomly allocated to either a rumination or distraction condition. Anxiety levels and the three maladaptive belief types (excessively high standards for social performance, conditional beliefs concerning social evaluation, and unconditional beliefs about the self) specified by Clark & Wells (1995) were measured before and after the inductions. Results: Relative to distraction, rumination maintained anxiety in both high and low socially anxious individuals, and maintained unconditional beliefs in high socially anxious individuals. The other two maladaptive belief types were not affected by rumination. Conclusion: The results support models of social phobia and also suggest important theoretical extensions. Implications for the treatment of social anxiety are discussed. NAME: SI MING MAN SCHOOL/CENTRE: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOMOLECULAR SCIENCES FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 3514 EMAIL: Z3131089@ZMAIL.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE ROLE OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES IN CROHN’S DISEASE TOPIC AREA: MICROBIOLOGY, HEALTH AND DISEASE IN CHILDREN, MEDICINE ABSTRACT: Crohn’s disease (CD) is a type of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last 20-30 years, the incidence of CD has rapidly increased on a global scale, including Australia. In this study, we investigated the presence of Campylobacter species in biopsy and faecal specimens from children with CD and control groups (healthy and symptomatic children without IBD). In addition, we examined the ability of Campylobacter species to attach and invade host cells using an intestinal epithelial cell line. Using PCR and sequencing, Campylobacter species was detected in biopsy specimens of 82% (27/33) of children with CD, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (23%, 12/52, P=0.001). Campylobacter concisus detection was significantly higher in children with CD (51%) than in controls (2%) (P<0.0001). Four different Campylobacter species were isolated from each of four CD patients, including C. concisus (99% similarity), Campylobacter hominis (100%), Campylobacter showae (99%), and Bacteroides ureolyticus (99%), a misclassified Campylobacter species. Detection of C. concisus from faecal specimens showed that the prevalence of this species was 65% (35/54), which was significantly higher than the 33% (11/33, P=0.008) and 37% (10/27, P=0.03) observed in the healthy and non-IBD controls, respectively. The ability of C. concisus to invade a Caco-2 human epithelial cell line was examined using a gentamicin protection assay. At an MOI of 200, the level of invasion was 0.19%±0.02. The level of invasion of C. concisus was significantly elevated when Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with the TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma prior to infection. The level of IL-8 produced by HT-29 cells was significantly elevated in cells co-incubated with C. concisus. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that attachment and invasion of C. concisus into Caco-2 cells required the interaction between the bacterium’s flagellum and the microvilli. The role of C. concisus and other Campylobacter species in CD requires further investigation. NAME: SARAH ONGLEY SCHOOL/CENTRE: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOMOLECULAR SCIENCES FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 2043 EMAIL: SARAH.ONGLEY@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUG PIMOZIDE UPREGULATES CHOLESTEROL BIOSYNTHETIC GENES AND IS TOXIC TO BREAST CANCER CELLS TOPIC AREA: NOVEL CANCER THERAPEUTICS ABSTRACT: The observation that there is a lower cancer incidence in schizophrenic patients compared to the general population may be attributed to the chronic exposure of schizophrenics to antipsychotic drugs. These drugs have been demonstrated to selectively reduce the viability of cancerous cells and so show potential as anticancer therapeutics. The mechanism by which cell death is induced has not been clearly delineated despite numerous studies. Gene expression studies in our laboratory, and in the wider literature using neuronal cell lines, have shown that these drugs induce the expression of a range of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Hence, the current investigation was aimed at determining whether the alteration of cellular cholesterol homeostasis is the mechanism by which antipsychotic drugs induce cell death in cancer cells. Through a combination of short- and long-term assays, the antipsychotic drugs pimozide and olanzapine were shown to induce cell death in breast cancer cell lines. Support for perturbations to cholesterol homeostasis as the mode of action was provided by the observation of an interaction when pimozide was combined with mevastatin, an inhibitor of endogenous cholesterol synthesis. This was confirmed by an examination of gene expression levels for INSIG-1, HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor. Thus this study provided substantial evidence for a role of impaired cellular cholesterol homeostasis in pimozide toxicity in cancer cells of non-neuronal origin and suggests that they have potential as novel cancer chemotherapeutics. NAME: DR KAAREN W ATTS SCHOOL/CENTRE: PSYCHOSOCIAL RESEARCH GROUP (PRG) FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9382 2611 EMAIL: K.W ATTS@UNSW .EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: DEVELOPMENT AND PILOT TESTING OF AN ONLINE SCREENING DECISION AID FOR MEN WITH A FAMILY HISTORY OF PROSTATE CANCER TOPIC AREA: MEN’S HEALTH ABSTRACT: Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Australian men and is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in men. The strongest risk factors for prostate cancer are age and family history. Men with a family history of prostate cancer have many unmet information needs relating to how best to manage their risk of developing the disease. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot test an online decision aid ‘DA’ tailored to men with a family history of prostate cancer to assist them to make an informed choice about prostate cancer screening. Methods: Men aged 40 to 79 years with a family history of prostate cancer were invited to participate in the study by a letter passed on to them by an affected male relative who attended a urology outpatient clinic. The DA was developed and pilot-tested by eligible men in two stages. First, men evaluated the acceptability of a paper-based version of the DA in a self-report questionnaire (N = 22). Second, the same men were asked to appraise the functionality of an online version of the DA and to provide their feedback in a brief telephone interview (N = 20). Results: Men evaluated both forms of the DA very positively. Of the paper-based version, 91% of participants reported that they found the DA useful, and that it contained enough information to make a decision about screening (73%). All men reported that the online DA was easy to use and to navigate. Ninety-four percent of men reported that they would recommend the website to other men with a family history of prostate cancer. The majority of men also reported that their preferred mode of receiving prostate cancer screening information was via a website rather than in a printed booklet (78%). Conclusions: The current study provides a valuable insight into the optimal design and distribution of information about prostate cancer screening for men who are at increased risk of this pervasive disease. The efficacy of the DA will be further evaluated in a large randomised controlled trial which will commence in August 2009. NAME: MONEISHA GOKHALE AND DR ISABELLE JALBERT SCHOOL/CENTRE: OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385-9816 (DR JALBERT) EMAIL: Z3173384@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU (MS GOKHALE) / I.JALBERT@UNSW.EDU.AU (DR JALBERT) POSTER TITLE: OMEGA FATS FOR DRY EYE: A FISHY AFFAIR? TOPIC AREA: NUTRITION, DRY EYE ABSTRACT: Background: Dry eye disease affects between 5 to 35% of the population worldwide. Artificial tears are widely prescribed yet provide only temporary symptomatic relief and do not address the underlying chronic inflammatory condition. Medicated anti-inflammatory eyedrops are very effective yet carry significant side effects. Diet modification and supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids have recently been suggested as potentially safer, more effective therapeutic options for treating dry eye. This poster critically reviews the evidence for recommending their use. Methods: A literature search was conducted. Pubmed, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using various combinations of the keywords fish oil, nutrition, diet, fatty acid, omega-3 and -6, antioxidant, dry eye and meibomian gland disease. Published trials were critically evaluated according to the CONSORT statement and all studies classified in terms of NHMRC level of evidence. Available worldwide data on dry eye prevalence and dietary fish content was also reviewed. Results: Fourteen publications were reviewed and categorised into experimental animal studies (n=2), epidemiological studies (n=3) and clinical trials (n=9). A search of the International Clinical Trials Registry revealed a further 4 unpublished trials. Cohort studies show a relationship between levels of omega-3 in the diet and the risk for or severity of dry eye disease. The majority of interventional studies demonstrate a small benefit in taking polyunsaturated fatty acid oral supplements for ocular surface disease. Surprisingly, dry eye prevalence tended to be higher in developing countries where fish contributes nearly 20% of the total animal protein intake than in industrialised countries where fish contributes 6% to 7% of the total protein intake. Conclusions: Factors other than dietary fish intake appear to underpin population differences in prevalence of dry eye. A systematic review of the evidence for use of dietary supplementation of omega fats is warranted. This review highlights the need for longer term high quality Randomised Clinical Trials to be conducted. NAME: ANTHEA BURNETT SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7545 EMAIL: A.BURNETT@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION OF A VISION RELATED QUALITY-OF-LIFE TOOL FOR USE IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH / INDIGENOUS HEALTH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to adapt the Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) questionnaire, a previously developed vision-related quality of life questionnaire, for use in the Indigenous communities. Vision impairment is a serious problem in this population, and a valid and reliable instrument could assist in assessing disease impact, interventions and program planning. One hundred and seventy one Indigenous participants completed the IVI questionnaire. Visual acuity data were assessed by qualified personnel. Reliability was measured by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and validity was evaluated by correlation between the different IVI subscales and clinical measures. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess a three-factor model of the IVI in this sample Internal consistency was high. PCA (principal-components analysis) revealed three strong domains, explaining 65% of the overall variance. Poorer distance and near visual acuities, but not age or gender, were significantly associated with worse quality-of-life instrument and domain scores scores (P < 0.001). Comparisons between groups of patients with vision impairment showed significantly lower (worse) scores for concern, physical/social functioning, and the overall score.. The Indigenous version of the IVI (IVI_I) is a reliable and valid measure of vision-related quality of life in Indigenous peoples with vision impairment. NAME: ANTHEA BURNETT SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7545 EMAIL: A.BURNETT@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF BLINDNESS AND VISION IMPAIRMENT IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH/INDIGENOUS HEALTH ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess the reliability of a rapid assessment methodology designed to detect common causes of vision impairment in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples by examining children aged 5 to 15 years and adults 40 years or over. Methods: Study participants were assessed with both a new rapid methodology for Rapid Assessment of Blindness and Vision Impairment in Indigenous Communities (RABVIIC) and a definitive, standard practitioner examination for comparison purposes. Between observer agreement, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each component of the examination. Results: One hundred and twenty nine (95.5%) of 135 eligible participants were examined with the RABVIIC and 128 (94.8%) examined with the definitive examination. Ninety percent per cent of the retinal images were gradable. The assigning of cause of vision impairment was very similar for both examination methods. The prevalence of vision impairment (VI) and blindness in the study population as assessed by the definitive examination was 5.4% (95% CI 2.7%-8.2%) and 0.8% (95% CI 0%-1.8%) respectively. The RABVIIC found 5.8% VI (95% CI 3.0%-8.7%) and 1.6% blindness (95% CI 0%-3.1%). In adults ≥ 40 years, vision impairment was detected with 71% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Vision impairment from refractive error was detected with 72% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the RABVIIC methodology is feasible, valid and appropriate for the purposes of detecting the common causes of vision impairment in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. NAME: PROFESSOR BRIAN LAYLAND SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7413 EMAIL: B.LAYLAND@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: VISION CARE UNSW TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH / INDIGENOUS HEALTH ABSTRACT: VisionCare NSW provides Optometric services and optical appliances to inmates of the 32 gaols and detention centres in NSW. VisionCare NSW has had an official relationship with the UNSW since established in 1990 and four members of the Board of five are associated with the UNSW (Profs Sweeney, Holden, Layland and David Pye of the School of Optometry and Vision Science). Only about 10% of those sentenced to detention stay more than 6 months. Over the year about 30,000 pass through the system. Once incarcerated, responsibility for the prisoner’s health care rests with Justice Health Department of NSW Health. VisionCare’s UNSW trained optometrists all work on a sessional basis and in an average year examine 2100 prisoners and provide about 2000 pairs of spectacles. VisionCare NSW also services the recently opened (February 2009) Forensic Hospital operated by Justice Health. At any one time there is a disproportionate number of Aboriginal people in the Prison population (22%). NAME: PROFESSOR BRIAN LAYLAND SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7413 EMAIL: B.LAYLAND@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: THE NSW ABORIGINAL EYECARE PROGRAM TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH / INDIGENOUS HEALTH ABSTRACT: At the inaugural meeting of the WHO sponsored Vision 2020 Australia in 1999, Prof. Brien Holden and Adjunct Prof. Brian Layland undertook to plan and introduce a program directed at providing eye and visioncare to Aboriginal communities, initially in NSW. The NSW Department of Community Services said that very few Aboriginal people in NSW took advantage of the Government’s spectacles program which made spectacles available to eligible applicants at no cost. The Federal Government and the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation agreed that unless eye clinics were established within Aboriginal Community Controlled Health facilities, Aboriginal people would not seek eye and vision care. The Federal Government agreed to provide funding for appropriate equipment to establish 7 eye clinics within Aboriginal Medical Services (AMSs) in NSW and to provide ongoing funding to enable establishment of Eye Heath Coordinators positions at each of these AMS’s. In 1998 not one of the NSW AMSs had an eye clinic within their service. An MOU was signed between the International Centre for Eyecare Education at the UNSW and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (the peak Aboriginal Health organisation in NSW) as a result of which a sustainable eye and vision care program was introduced. Ten years later eye and vision care clinics are conducted at 98 Aboriginal Community Controlled facilities in NSW. In 2008-2009 Optometrists participating in the ICEE/AHMRC program conducted and bulk billed Medicare for 3500 eye examinations within these facilities; in excess of 3,000 optical appliances were made available to Aboriginal people at no cost. Almost 10% were referred to another healthcare practitioner; 15% were diagnosed diabetics and now receive regular eye examinations in accordance with the NHMRC. NAME: KESI NAIDOO, PRASIDH RAMSON, KOVIN NAIDOO, AMANDA DAVIS, PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7435 EMAIL: B.HOLDEN@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: FROM OUTREACH TO SUSTAINABILITY – THE PATIENT EXPLORED TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), population 9 million, is a largely rural province of South Africa which historically has very limited public sector refractive care. ICEE aimed to strengthen public sector eye care services through advocating for the integration of optometry into the public sector. The strategy began with a partnership with the Flying Doctor Service to develop outreach optometry services in rural hospitals, concurrent with data collection on demand for services and creating awareness of eye care needs with Department of Health (DoH) managers. The outreach partnership resulted in 6000 eye examinations per year, development of 51 optometry clinics, creation of 25 optometry posts by KZN DoH, and employment of 14 optometrists by KZN DoH. Data has been collected on patient demographics, spectacle choice, refractive status, impact of service on visual acuity, and patient opinion of service delivery. Patients attending for eye care services have been 64% female, 31% have never had an eye examination previously, 38% have been unemployed, 28% have been state-aided, 53% have significantly improved vision from refractive care alone, 61% felt the spectacles were affordable, and 96% were satisfied with the eye care service. Outreach eye care services provided affordable and efficient access to care, while concurrently providing advocacy opportunities which have resulted in establishment of permanent government optometry posts and refractive care. The longterm outcome has been sustainable refractive services for the people of KZN NAME: KOVIN NAIDOO, CARRIN MARTIN, AMANDA DAVIS, PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7435 EMAIL: B.HOLDEN@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: DEVELOPING RESEARCH CAPACITY IN AFRICA – A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: Solving public health problems such as the high rate of vision impairment and blindness in Africa requires local research. However there is currently limited capacity for conducting epidemiology and public health research in Africa. This imbalance needs to be addressed by demystifying research and making it an integral component of programme development, implementation and evaluation. Recognition of the need for research in Africa resulted in the formation of AVRI in 2006. AVRI is affiliated with the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban South Africa, and links intellectuals, institutions, organisations and researchers in the goal of addressing Africa’s eye health challenges. AVRI supports and conducts research relevant to disease control, human resources and infrastructure development. AVRI has promoted research by providing short courses on research methods, information management, research project management, and monitoring and evaluation in Kenya and Nigeria. AVRI is promoting regional collaboration with recent proposals involving 11 African research institutions, 4 Non-Government Development Organisations, 2 UK-based and 1 Australian research institutes, and 2 professional associations. AVRI currently has 9 Masters and 2 PhD candidates. AVRI continues to develop research capacity and appropriate skills in an effort to eliminate visual impairments and avoidable blindness in Africa. NAME: RESHMA DABIDEEN, KOVIN NAIDOO, AMANDA DAVIS, PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7435 EMAIL: B.HOLDEN@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: REFRACTIVE ERRORS: SUSTAINABILITY AND CROSS SUBSIDISATION TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: Lack of refractive care has significant negative consequences on education and employment opportunities. The Global Resource Centre (GRC) is a collaboration (initially supported by ICEE, SightSavers International and CBM) to pool buying power and enable the supply of low cost optical devices and equipment. The aim is both to promote sustainability of eye units (through income generation mechanisms that are affordable to their communities), and access to care. The GRC offers online ordering, a centralised distribution system, ability to track global trends (adjusting purchasing decisions and resource allocation accordingly), central quality checks, and affordable, accessible and acceptable spectacles and devices. Eye care services utilising the benefits of the GRC are then able use income to cross-subsidise other eye care activities and create infrastructure that allows skills transfer to communities. The GRC also enables diversification of eye care delivery to models such as social entrepreneurship. Global efforts allow NGO’s to create sustainable refractive care which promotes development by creating skills and employment opportunities. NAME: YASHIKA INDERJEET, KOVIN NAIDOO, AMANDA DAVIS, PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7435 EMAIL: B.HOLDEN@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: THE KWAZULU-NATAL CHILD EYE CARE PROGRAMME: DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION THROUGH A PUBLIC, PRIVATE, NGDO PARTNERSHIP TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: Governments of many countries are looking to form public, private and Non-Government Development Organisation (NGDO) partnerships to address longstanding challenges and overcome efficiency, effectivity and equity issues that have existed in isolated systems. The KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Child Eye Care Programme in South Africa is an example of one such partnership and demonstrates the cumulative achievements of a public, private, NGDO partnership. Primary eye care in South Africa is limited: School Health Service vision screening has a coverage rate of approximately 20%, 40 million people (including 13 million children) depend on Public Health Care, however there are only 15 optometrists and very few ophthalmic nurses in KZN. The KZN Child Eye Care Programme was formed in 2005 as a partnership between ICEE, KZN Department of Health and KZN Department of Education. The Programme sought to mainstream vision screening and refractive services, and to provide low vision assessments at all schools for the blind in KZN. The Partnership has since extended to include the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and Nissan South Africa. A total of 82 vision screeners have been trained, and they have screened 266,000 primary school children. Department of Health Eye Clinics with ICEE locum optometrists have examined the children referred from vision screenings. A Mobile Eye Clinic donated by Nissan has been utilised to improve accessibility to care in rural areas. The KZN Child Eye Care Programme has leveraged skills, resources and finance from all sectors to improve accessibility, quality and equity of eye care services in KZN. NAME: GERHARD SCHLENT HER, MITASHA MAROLIA , , SONJA CRONJÉ, PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN, AND JAMBI GARAP SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7481 EMAIL: M.MAROLIA@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: ESTABLISHING REFRACTIVE ERROR SERVICES THROUGH PUBLIC-NGO PARTNERSHIPS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: Background: Most cases of uncorrected refractive error can be easily and cost effectively managed with a suitable pair of spectacles, yet many people in PNG do not have access to these basic eye care services. Limited resources are available to address the problem, and spectacle provision is largely unaffordable. Report: The establishment of local capacity through a non-government organisation (NGO) and the training and appropriate deployment of local eye care personnel to deliver refractive services within public hospitals, create access to refraction services and alleviate pressure on hospital eye care personnel. Optical workshops staffed by trained spectacle technicians ensure the availability and affordability of suitable spectacles, while also introducing a cost-recovery element. This poster will discuss the key elements constituting the collaboration between the International Centre for Eyecare Education (ICEE), PNG Eye Care, the National Department of Health, Port Moresby General Hospital, Mount Hagen General Hospital and Angau Memorial Hospital (Lae) to establish sustainable refractive error services in PNG. Conclusions: The public-NGO partnership is a cost-effective way of addressing refractive error blindness and vision impairment. NAME: SONJA CRONJÉ, DAVID W ILSON, GERHARD SCHLENTHER, PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN, AMANDA DAVIS AND KOVIN NAIDOO SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7468 EMAIL: S.CRONJE@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE REFRACTIVE ERROR SERVICES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: Background: Uncorrected refractive error is the primary cause of vision impairment and the second largest cause of blindness globally. It affects both genders and people of all ethnic groups and often sets in at an early age, leading to a significant number of blind person years. At least 90% of the people with uncorrected refractive error live in low and middle income countries. Report: Almost all cases of uncorrected refractive error can be easily and cost effectively managed with a suitable pair of spectacles, yet millions of people in the developing world still do not have access to these basic eye care interventions. Establishing sustainable refractive error services in areas of need requires a multi-pronged approach, including the training and appropriate deployment of eye care personnel to deliver refractive services at the community level, and the establishment of infrastructure and clinical facilities in which to provide these services. Optical workshops staffed by trained spectacle technicians not only ensure the availability and affordability of suitable spectacles, but can also generate income for eventual self- sustainability. Other factors such as cultural barriers to the use of spectacles and lack of public awareness of the importance of eye care also need to be addressed to facilitate utilization of services. This presentation will discuss the general approach taken by ICEE to establish sustainable refractive error services in communities of need. Conclusions: The elimination of refractive error blindness and vision impairment is do-able and crucial for the fulfilment of the goals of VISION 2020. NAME: PRAKASH PAUDEL, SONJA CRONJÉ, PATRICIA O’CONNOR, USHA RAMAN, PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 9847 EMAIL: P.PAUDEL@IER.ORG.AU POSTER TITLE: COMPETENCY OF MID-LEVEL EYE CARE PERSONNEL IN ADDRESSING AVOIDABLE BLINDNESS IN DEVELOPING COMMUNITIES: RESULTS OF A PILOT STUDY TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: Background: Avoidable blindness and vision impairment is one of the intensifying global health problems and 90% population with this problem are living in developing countries. The delivery of eye care services in these countries is seriously hindered due to inadequate financial and physical resources and insufficiently trained eye care personnel. The training of competent mid-level eye care personnel is one of the priorities of VISION 2020: The Right to Sight. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the clinical competency, job satisfaction and confidence levels of one-year trained vision technicians at the LV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI) in India. Methods: Three vision technicians and three optometrists at LVPEI were given 10 randomly selected hospital patients to examine. Their disease detection ability was evaluated against ophthalmologist findings, and their refraction ability against cycloplegic autorefraction readings. Job confidence and satisfaction surveys were also completed by 30 vision technicians and 30 optometrists at LVPEI. Results: The vision technicians showed good competency in terms of anterior segment disease detection, but not for posterior segment anomalies. The refraction ability of vision technicians was found equally good. The refractive component agreement results were found within clinical limits of agreement i.e. <±1.00D for spherical component and <± 0.50D for cylindrical component. The job satisfaction surveys revealed that 27% of the optometric participants are dissatisfied with their current jobs in comparison to 4% of the vision technicians. The job confidence surveys revealed that vision technicians are almost as confident as optometrists in all areas of the eye examination, except in performing ophthalmoscopy and post segment disease detection. Conclusions: Vision technicians appear to be competent to refract and detect anterior segment diseases. They are not as competent in posterior segment disease detection, possibly due to insufficient exposure to these conditions during their training. If provided with appropriate training and exposure to certain clinical skills, they are a suitable cadre to provide quality eye care in developing communities. NAME: JANE KIERATH, SONJA CRONJÉ, NEILSEN DE SOUZA, PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN, AND KOVIN NAIDOO SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7468 EMAIL: J.KIERATH@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: A COMPREHENSIVE REFRACTIVE ERROR TRAINING PACKAGE FOR MID- OR LOWER LEVEL CADRES TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: Background: Globally there are an estimated 670 million cases of blindness or visual impairment due to uncorrected distance refractive error and/or presbyopia, and an estimated 90% of them live in the developing world. The Durban Declaration on Refractive Error and Service Development identified the lack of trained eye care personnel to provide refractive error services in most developing countries as a priority. Report: The International Centre for Eyecare Education (ICEE) has developed a comprehensive Refractive Error Training Package aimed at providing mid- or lower-level cadres of health care workers with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform refractions and provide appropriate spectacles in their communities. The package includes a comprehensive student manual, as well as teacher resources such as PowerPoint presentations and assessment tools. Graphics and photographs are used extensively to facilitate the delivery of information, and the language used throughout is uncomplicated to allow for accurate translation of the materials into other languages as required. This poster presentation discusses the details and recommended use of the ICEE Refractive Error Training Package to increase the number of trained eye care personnel able to provide refractive error services to communities in need. Conclusions: It is recommended that the ICEE Refractive Error Training Package be used for human resource development as part of VISION 2020 action plans focused on addressing blindness and vision impairment due to uncorrected refractive error. NAME: SONJA CRONJÉ, JANE KIERATH, NAOMI FREUDEN, GERHARD SCHLENTHER, AND PROFESSOR BRIEN HOLDEN SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7468 EMAIL: S.CRONJE@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION OF TRAINEES TO PROVIDE REFRACTIVE ERROR SERVICES: A PILOT STUDY IN RURAL SRI LANKA TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: Background: The International Centre for Eyecare Education (ICEE), and other VISION 2020 partners, provided eye examinations to more than 33,107 people in disaster-stricken areas of Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami, and spectacles were provided to 86% of them. Three quarters of those needing glasses had never had an eye examination before, indicating an enormous need for refractive error services in Sri Lanka. Report: The National Programme for Prevention and Control of Avoidable Blindness Sri Lanka recognises refractive error as a priority. There is a maldistribution of trained eye care workers in Sri Lanka, a situation common to many countries, as well as a shortage of lower cadres who can provide refractive error services. In addition to this barrier of accessibility, spectacles are often unavailable or too expensive. Training individuals from under-served areas of Sri Lanka to provide refractive error services in their own local communities could help build sustainable refractive services in these areas. As part of a pilot project to establish community-based refractive error services in under-served areas of the country, ICEE selected seven candidates from a rural district to be trained in the provision of primary eye care and refractive error services. Conclusions: Eliminating refractive error vision impairment requires trained eye care personnel who can provide affordable and accessible refractive error services. ICEE’s recruitment and selection strategy can be adapted for identifying suitable trainees for the provision of refractive services in other countries. NAME: TIM FRICKE, NINA TAHHAN, THOMAS NADUVILATH, JANE KIERATH, GERHARD SCHLENTHER, PROFESSOR BRIAN LAYLAND, PROFESSO R BRIEN HOLDEN SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7435 EMAIL: T.FRICKE@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: EYE CARE DELIVERY IN POST-TSUNAMI SRI LANKA USING INTERNATIONAL OUTREACH TOPIC AREA: PUBLIC HEALTH ABSTRACT: The 2004 tsunami focused unprecedented international aid and resources on Sri Lanka. Amongst other responses, a program delivered by volunteer optometrists enabled many local people to access eye examinations and treatments for the first time. The data collected from the eyecare delivery program during 2005 provide an evidence base for planning future eye care and other interventions in similar situations. A total of 96 eye clinics were conducted in the northern and eastern provinces of Sri Lanka, at which 20,090 people were examined. Clinical records were reviewed for the cause of and solution to vision problems, in addition to social factors such as the age and gender of those attending and whether they had ever received eye care in the past. Eighty-five percent of this clinical population had significant eye and/or vision problems, although seventy- nine percent had never previously had an eye examination. Seventy-eight percent required spectacles to overcome vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error (near- and far-sightedness, other focusing problems). Seven percent were referred for treatments unavailable in the camps – most frequently (85%) this was for cataract surgery. Males over 40 years were 1.3 times more likely than females to present, although there are more females in this age group and females are 1.43 times more likely to be blind. People over 40 years were 1.3 times more likely to have never previously had an eye examination but 10.6 times more likely to have impaired vision. Refractive error was the primary cause of vision impairment for the majority of people who presented for an eye examination. The acute need for further development and support of community-level eyecare services in such regions is evidenced by the high proportion of people who had treatable vision problems but had never previously had an eye examination. The age and gender distribution of those attending international outreach services did not match the need for care. NAME: TRICIA KEYS, NEILSEN DE SOUZA, SONJA CRONJÉ, ANNA MORSE, NINA TAHHAN, GERHARD SCHLENTHER AND JUDITH STERN SCHOOL/CENTRE: INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EYECARE EDUCATION / OPTOMETRY & VISION SCIENCE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7433 EMAIL: T.KEYS@ICEE.ORG POSTER TITLE: A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR ABORIGINAL EYE HEALTH WORKERS IN THE NORTHERN TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA TOPIC AREA: INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ABSTRACT: Background: The most common causes of avoidable blindness and vision impairment in Aboriginal communities of Australia are refractive error, cataract, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma. The rate of avoidable blindness and vision impairment in these Indigenous communities is 10 times the national average. Regional Eye Health Coordinators (REHC) in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia are responsible for coordinating the delivery of culturally appropriate eye care services in their communities. Prior to 2007, no regular REHC training program existed in the NT to improve the eye care knowledge and skills of these workers. Report: The International Centre for Eyecare Education (ICEE) received a grant from the Federal Government to develop a culturally appropriate REHC and Aboriginal Health Worker (AHW) training course in eye care, to increase access and awareness of eye care services across the NT. The presentation will discuss further details of the project, including outcomes and lessons learned, successful initiatives implemented by the REHC after receiving training. Results: The training program consisted of four workshops and resulted in seven REHCs and twenty-five AHWs trained and up-skilled in eye health. The program has helped to ensure that the REHCs are capable of fulfilling their duties; that local AHWs can also provide vision screening services and better educate their community members on common eye problems; thus improving access to eye care services. It has also helped to provide an ongoing forum and support network for the REHCs. Conclusions: Providing training to auxiliary eye care personnel in an appropriate cultural setting helps overcome existing barriers to eye care and improve access to further optometric and ophthalmic care in Indigenous Australia. NAME: RUIWEN BENJAMIN HENG SCHOOL/CENTRE: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE EMAIL: Z3174934@STUDENT.UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: ASSOCIATION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS WITH BREAST CANCER TOPIC AREA: VIRUS AND CANCER ABSTRACT: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a small, double stranded DNA tumor virus. HPV infection usually results in the formation of warts, however, so called high risk subtypes (e.g. HPV-16 and -18) have been shown to be causal in the development of cervical and head and neck cancer. Recently, a role of HPV in human breast carcinogenesis has been suggested, although a causal role carcinogenesis is yet to be demonstrated. In this report, we demonstrate the presence of the HPV sequences in three out of nine human breast cancer cell lines and have also localised the viral DNA within the nucleus using in situ PCR. We have also detected HPV DNA in 30% of fixed human breast cancer tissues and 18% of fixed normal breast tissues. The HPV DNA was localized to the cancerous cells in the breast cancer specimens. In addition, the presence of HPV was associated with HPV E6 protein, as detected by immunohistochemistry, and with HPV- like histological changes. Sequencing of PCR product from these tissues and cell lines confirmed the presence of HPV. These data provide evidence for a causal role for HPV in some breast cancers. Such a role for HPV in breast cancer provides the possibility of primary prevention of some human breast cancers with the introduction of the HPV (Gardasil) vaccination. NAME: DR JULIE HATFIELD SCHOOL/CENTRE: NSW INJURY RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH CENTRE FACULTY/CENTRE: SCIENCE CONTACT PHONE: 9385 7949 EMAIL: J.HATFIELD@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE ROLE OF RISK PROPENSITY AND MOTIVATIONS FOR RISK IN THE SPEEDING OF YOUNGER DRIVERS TOPIC AREA: ROAD SAFETY ABSTRACT: Young drivers are over-represented in road injury statistics, partly because they engage in more risky driving than older people. Although it is assumed that younger people have greater risk-propensity, defined as a positive attitude to risk, relevant theory is imprecise and relevant research is clouded by inappropriate measures. The present study compared younger drivers (aged 16-25; n=89) and older drivers (aged over 35; n=110) in terms of risk propensity and motives for risk-taking, and assessed associations of these variables with self-reported speeding and drink-driving. Compared to older drivers, younger drivers demonstrated lower risk-aversion, and higher propensity for taking accident risks, as well as stronger motives for risky driving in relation to experience-seeking, excitement, sensation-seeking, social influence, prestige-seeking, confidence/familiarity, underestimation of risk, irrelevance of risk, “letting off steam”, and “getting there quicker”. Further, these variables were associated with risky driving. Results showed for the first time that younger drivers demonstrate greater risk-propensity, and stronger motives for speeding and drink-driving, than older drivers. Some evidence was observed for the possibility that people with higher risk propensity are more, rather than less, likely to engage in behaviours that they perceive as risky. These results suggest approaches to targeting young driver speeding. NAME: ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR JIA LIN YANG SCHOOL/CENTRE: PRINCE OF WALES HOSPITAL/SURGICAL ONCOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE CONTACT PHONE: 9382 3331 EMAIL: J.YANG@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: PROGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF EGFR IN SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA TOPIC AREA: PREVENTIVE MEDICINE ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate important diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to predict and improve outcome of patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Gene profiling and subsequent cellular studies demonstrated that EGF/EGFR system was correlated with malignant potential of STS. Tissue array studies in 89 STS samples confirmed that activated EGFR was independently associated with overall survival. EGFR and its down stream signalling factors, phospho-Akt and phosphor-p44/42 MAPK were positively associated with histological grade in this patient series. Treatment of sarcoma cell lines with EGFR inhibitor alone or in combination with interferon-alpha achieved anti-proliferative effect. Mechanism studies of this treatment, particularly inhibiting EGFR down-stream signalling pathways including PI3K/Akt, Raf/MAPK, p38MAPK/JNK, and JAK/STAT suggested that several pathways are involved in EGFR targeted monotherapy and imbalance of STAT subtype members may be responsible for the synergistic anticancer effect of the combination therapy. In conclusion, EGFR is an important prognosticator of overall survival of STS and also a useful therapeutic target of the disease. NAME: MELISSA HASWELL SCHOOL/CENTRE: MURU MARRI UNIT, SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE FACULTY/CENTRE: MEDICINE EMAIL: M.HASWELL@UNSW.EDU.AU POSTER TITLE: THE POTENTIAL OF AN EMPOWERMENT AND WELL BEING APPROACH TO CLOSING THE GAP: STRENGTHENING ABORIGINAL HEALTH AND CAPACITY TO ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES TOPIC AREA: ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER EMPOWERMENT, WELLBEING AND MENTAL HEALTH ABSTRACT: There has been a significant research effort in Australia over the past decade examining the potential of empowerment as an approach to achieving better health outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander settings. Empowerment approaches seek to build on the strengths of individuals and families, informal groups and services organisations and whole communities to achieve positive change. Much of this research to date has utilised two empowering interventions, namely an Indigenous-developed program called the Family Wellbeing Program and Men’s Groups that have involved over 700 participants in several states and territories to date. These initiatives has been used across a range of health-oriented purposes, such as organisational development, non-clinical mental health support, prison throughcare, maternal and child health, suicide prevention, job and study preparation, drug and alcohol services and lifestyle change. The approach is also being used to support the implementation of pathways for coordinated wellbeing support and mental health care in primary health care service settings in two Aboriginal communities. These programs provide unique opportunities for researchers to explore changes that participants experience as they come to terms with the pain of past experiences (a healing or recovery experience), gain greater understanding of themselves and their current situation, achieve greater stability and calmness in their lives and relationships and move ahead toward setting goals and working towards positive change. From this data, a psychometrically validated instrument, the Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), has been developed to enable people to identify what level they see themselves as having reached in relation to the significant process and impact indicators of empowerment. This presentation will introduce some of the key learnings and tools that have arisen from empowerment and wellbeing research with Australian Aboriginal communities. It will highlight opportunities now available for collaborative research development at UNSW.