REPORT ON CHILD DISCIPLINE IN KENYA A CASE OF AMBIRA IN WESTERN by armedman1

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									       REPORT ON CHILD DISCIPLINE IN
        KENYA: A CASE OF AMBIRA IN
       WESTERN KENYA AND SOWETO IN
                 NAIROBI.
                              By
                    ANPPCAN KENYA CHAPTER

                            2004



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                    PURPOSE

    The purpose of the survey was to gather
    useful information based on empirical
    data that will assist ANPPCAN Kenya
    Chapter to develop appropriate,
    responsive, lobby and advocacy strategies
    on pertinent issues of child abuse and
    neglect



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         OBJECTIVES AS PER TERMS OF
              REFERNCE (TOR)
       To determine the common forms of
        discipline in Kenya and to distinguish
        between      discipline and    corporal
        punishment.
       To determine the level of awareness,
        response and/or non-response to
        corporal punishment of children.
       To establish the effects of corporal
        punishment of children.

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    To collect, collate, analyze, synthesize
     and use the information gathered to
     identify and or propose alternative
     discipline          methods          for
     parents/teachers/guardians/caregivers
     and children.
    To generate data to be used later by
     ANPPCAN Kenya Chapter in it’s lobby and
     advocacy activities Examine the type of
     relationships that exist among the
     different members of the home.

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              KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
        What are the common forms of
        discipline in Kenya?
       What is the different between discipline
        and corporal punishment?
       What is the level of awareness,
        response and/or non-response to
        corporal punishment of children?
       What are the effects of corporal
        punishment of children?


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         METHODOLOGY TO THE STUDY

   A    combination     of   the   following
    methodologies was used extensively in
    this survey so as to collect data: The
    Descriptive and Case study methods were
    the main approaches for the survey.
   Descriptive research method was used to
    describe characteristics of the following
    groups;     children,    young    adults,
    caregivers,     parents     and     other
    stakeholders in the communities.
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   Case study method involved reviewing in
    details the small units or groups of units
    with similar characteristics in the
    population of interest.




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             POPULATION OF THE STUDY.
   Lower Ambira is in Ugunja Division of
    Siaya District, it has an estimated
    population of 3,400 people while Soweto
    which is a non-formal settlement located
    off Kangundo road in Nairobi has an
    estimated population of approximately
    60, 000 people. Therefore, the total
    population for the study comprised of
    approximately 63,400 people.
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   This comprises of all residents of Soweto
    and Ambira: specifically all the children
    less than 18 years, parents, their
    caregivers,     church     administrators,
    children courts, office of the president,
    personnel of the institutions, NGO’s and
    other players in Soweto and Ambira.




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     DATA COLLECTION METHODS
   Primary data was collected through
    direct interaction with the respondents
    so as to conduct face-face interviews.
   Secondary data was collected through:
    Document Review.
   In order to access the level of awareness
    and effect of corporal punishment,

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   eight Focused Group Discussion (FGD)
    where conducted from all the categories
    of the respondents. i.e Parents,
    Teachers, Church leaders and so on.
    The triangulation strategy was applied
    extensively so as to obtain data that is
    fairly reliable and valid. Triangulation
    was used to collaborate data from various
    sources.



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           FINDINGS/COMMON FORMS OF
               DISCIPLINE IN KENYA.
   Various forms of discipline were found.
    These are as follow in order of rating
    from the respondents: Smacking (78.8%),
    Pulling ears (68.6%), Scolding (68.3%),
    Cuffing (61.5%), Forcing a child to kneel
    on a hard floor (45.9%), Tapping (43.3%),
    Forcing a child to stand in the sun
    (33.2%), Requiring a child to remain
    motionless (30.3%), Physical exertion
    (30.2%), Pulling hair (29.6%),
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    Isolating a child in a confined space
    (29.1%), Burning fingers (19.7%),
    Washing a child’s mouth with a soap
    (9.1%), Denying a child the use of a
    toilet (9.0%).




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     DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORPORAL
       PUNISHMENT AND DISCIPLINE
   Most respondents (83.9%) could not
    differentiate      between        physical
    punishment (corporal punishment) and
    discipline. To them it was the same .




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           LEVEL OF AWARENESS
   The majority (75.0%) of the parents
    interviewed had heard of corporal
    punishment as a way of disciplining
    children.




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                    EFFECTS OF CORPORAL
                        PUNISHMENT.
   The following were cited as major
    effects of corporal punishment.
    · Physical injuries.
    · Mental injuries.
    · Psychological injuries.
    ·Negative effect to children’s education.
   Consequences for parents and society.

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   Negative outcomes long into adulthood
   Impaired parent-child relationship.
   Weakened ability to internalize moral
    values.
   Reinforces stereotypical pattern




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     ATTITUDE TOWARDS PHYSICAL
      PUNISHMENT OF CHILDREN.

    Majority 89(62.2%) of the children showed
     a positive attitude towards ending the
     use of corporal punishment to discipline
     them unlike parents 67(54%) who said
     physical punishment should not be
     stopped.



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                    LEVELS OF OF INCOME

   Children are physically abused in all
    sorts of families and socio-economic
    groups. However, the children who
    are reported as abused are more
    likely to come from families with low
    income. This makes them to be
    under stress because of poverty. As
    we found out from the study.
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              ADMINISTERS OF CORPORAL
                    PUNISHMENT.
                          .
   From our survey the children said it was
    the mother 28(19.6%) who uses Physical
    Punishment more than the father.
    However, the parents said it was the
    fathers 53(42.7%) who use Physical
    Punishment more than the mother who
    was rated 34(27.4%).
   Teachers are not adequately trained in
    handling discipline methods; they are
    underpaid and undervalued.
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   Their pressure often results in children
    being subjected to corporal punishment,
    which is meant to force the children to
    do better in exams
   The use of corporal punishment was said to be
    also triggered by other factors like overcrowded
    classrooms, untrained and overworked teachers
    who vent their inadequacy and frustrations on
    pupils .
   Moreover, many parents also ask teachers to
    beat their children as a way of discipline



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   Children are more vulnerable at
    particular ages; they are more likely to
    be reported as physically abused at young
    age where less adult force is required to
    produce profound injury, brain damage or
    death.
   According to the parents, the children
    who are most affected by Physical
    Punishment are aged between 6 and 10
    years (40.6%).
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    PERCEIVED CHANGES BROUGHT BY
     USE OF PHYSICAL PUNISHMENT.
   the result of the survey shows that,
    parents who were spanked while growing
    up as children, 71.0% of them felt that
    become disciplined children, 9.7% said
    they were left injured, 7.3% hardened,
    7.3% lost their confidence and 4.8% did
    not change them at all.

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   The high rating (71.0%) on change of
    discipline could be attributed to lack of
    knowledge of the parents to differentiate
    between corporal punishment and
    discipline.




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                SHOULD PARENTAL PHYSICAL
                    PUNISHMENT BE STOPPED?
   Despite the above effects of corporal
    punishment 67(54%) of the parents
    interviewed said they would not like
    Physical Punishment to be stopped.
    However, 89(62.2%) of the children said
    they would like Physical Punishment
    stopped, 79(55.2%) of them also said they
    wouldn’t like to beat their children.

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          ALTERNATIVES TO CORPORAL
         PUNISHMENT AND CONCLUSION
(Teachers)
   Student Recognition Program.
    Positive Reinforcement.
   Guidance and Counseling.
   Alternative Punishments.
   Setting Rules and Expectations.
   Teacher Training programs.


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(Parents)
   Problem solving skills.
   Reinforce that “peace begins at home.”
   Feel love and compassion for yourself
    for all of the ways that you’ve been
    hurt. You will teach your children
    kindness only to the extent that you are
    truly kind.
   Address bullying behavior whenever it
    occurs.     Parents    sometimes   bully
    children,
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one sibling bullies another, and certain
  children bully others. Adults need to
  ensure that they stop bullying, and they
  need love to open their hearts to a kinder
  way of being. Recurrent victims of
  bullying need psychological intervention
  to increase their empowerment including
  their capacity to speak up and define
  their boundaries.
 Stop teasing and calling your children
  “bad” names.

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   Respecting the child’s growing need.
    Parents and teachers should respect the
    child’s growing need and guide them
    appropriately instead of punishing them
    or ignoring them.
   Modeling negotiation and problem-
    solving. Parents and other stakeholders
    should learn the use of principled
    negotiation    to    develop    win-win
    solutions through identifying common
    interest and objective measures to
    resolve differences.
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 Learning more about normal
  developmental stages.
 Recognizing   anger triggers and
  form strategies for managing it
 Discussion with the children.
 Listening to the child’s perspective
  and understand his/her point of
  view.


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         CONCLUSION/LESSONS LEARNT

   The use of words such as a good
    smacking, tapping and scolding are often
    used instead of ‘hitting’ or caning. They
    signal that hitting children is an approved
    disciplinary strategy. Child maltreatment
    professionals may have to insist on terms
    such as ‘hitting’ and ‘physically
    attacking’, which condemn rather than
    support such behavior by parents,
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   just as we found it necessary to rid out
    terms that implicitly justify corporal
    punishment. People who defend the use
    of corporal punishment are not usually
    keen to distinguish between it and
    discipline. But light slaps and heavy
    beatings lie on the same continuum of
    physical assault.
    Physical    punishment     has     been
    consistently demonstrated to be an
    ineffective and potentially harmful
    method of managing children’s behavior.
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It places them at risk of physical injury. Its
  use is a violation of children’s rights to
  physical integrity and dignity.
 Therefore, based on the findings of this
  survey, we have found that the level of
  awareness of corporal punishment is low;
  some parents use physical punishment
  because       they     do     not     know
  better/alternative ways of disciplining
  children and most parents do not
  differentiate between corporal punishment
  and discipline.
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                    RECOMMENDATIONS.

   Public awareness -campaigns to deliver a
    clear accurate message consistently and
    persistently that hurting children, as
    punishment is unacceptable and places
    them at risk of physical and psychological
    harm.
   Public education strategies- must be
    launched to increase people’s knowledge
    of child development, effective
    parenting, alternative positive discipline
    methods and existing support programs in
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   Law reform-the laws of Kenya must
    provide the same protection to children
    from physical assault as it gives to adults;
    and the Government of Kenya must meet
    its obligations under the United Nations
    Convention on the Rights of the Child.
   ANPPCAN should lobby the Government to
    amend the Education Act of 1968 and the
    Education (School Discipline) Regulations
    to abolish the use of corporal punishment
    in all Kenyan schools, public and private,
    and establish alternative discipline.
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    Support network- there is need to
     strengthen the existing steering
     committees involving parents, NGO’s and
     other stakeholders to monitor the general
     welfare of children in Kenya with regard
     to discipline issues.
    ANPPCAN Kenya chapter should set up
     reporting and processing centers for child
     abuse cases including physical
     punishment in both Ambira and Soweto
     community.

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   ANPPCAN Kenya chapter should lobby the
    Government to implement a review of
    curriculum in teacher training colleges to
    incorporate     alternative     discipline
    methods to children.
   ANPPCAN Kenya chapter should also
    support and create awareness on the
    alternatives to corporal punishment
    through different forums including
    parents meetings.

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    ANPPCAN Kenya chapter should establish
     an office both in Soweto and Ambira
     community where reports of physical
     punishment on children could be
     reported.
    ANPPCAN Kenya chapter working with
     other NGO’s should develop target
     [Information,       Education,     and
     Communication (IEC)] materials for
     awareness creation for the low income
     earners and teach them on alternative
     discipline methods.
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   ANPPCAN Kenya chapter encourage
    parents to actively engage teenagers in
    positive activities/to positively use their
    leisure time.
    ANPPCAN Kenya chapter should lobby the
    Government to provide services that
    foster psychological recovery and social
    reintegration of children who have
    suffered negative effects of Physical
    Punishment.

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       Lobby the Government-ANPPCAN Kenya
        chapter should lobby the Governments
        to     consistently   communicate/pass
        message at the national, provincial,
        district and local levels to all parents
        other     stakeholders,   that   hurting
        children and youth under the pretext of
        discipline is not an acceptable method
        of managing their behavior.
       Awareness and education-ANPPCAN
        Kenya chapter should lobby the
        ministries of education and health,
        which deliver education,
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        health and social services, to be
        positioned to raise awareness and
        provide specific education about the
        physical punishment of children and
        effective approaches to
        discipline.Risks of physical
        punishment-ANPPCAN Kenya chapter
        working with the professionals should
        help parents and caregivers understand
        the risks of physical punishment and
        assist them in replacing its use with
        effective alternative discipline
        methods.
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   Professional training-ANPPCAN Kenya
    chapter should lobby the Government to
    ensure professional training of child care
    workers to include information about
    children’s physical, psychological and
    social development, predisposing factors
    to physical punishment, and alternative
    positive discipline methods of guiding and
    socializing children.
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       Community education-ANPPCAN Kenya
        chapter should start community
        education campaign to address
        stereotypic views of parents who
        regard the children as assets and
        predisposes them to PP. Such
        education should aim at promotion of
        respect for children and young people
        and the acknowledgement of child’s
        rights.

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   Children’s participation
    forum/mechanism-ANPPCAN Kenya
    chapter should facilitate the
    establishment of a forum/mechanism
    where children can freely be allowed to
    air their views in matters affecting their
    welfare. i.e. on issues of physical
    punishment.

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   Steering committees-There is need for
    ANPPCAN Kenya chapter to strengthen
    existing steering committees involving
    parents, NGO’s and other stakeholders
    to monitor the general welfare of
    children in Kenya.
   In-session workshops-ANPPCAN Kenya
    chapter should lobby the KNUT to
    sponsor in-session workshops to train
    current teachers on non-physically
    abusive methods of disciplining
    students.
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       Law enforcement officers’ -there is
        need for ANPPCAN Kenya chapter to
        train law enforcement officers on how
        to handle cases of PP because most of
        these cases are reported at their
        stations .
       Teachers' Service Commission-
        ANPPCAN Kenya chapter should lobby
        the Teachers' Service Commission to
        investigate thoroughly every incident
        of corporal punishment reported in
        the Kenyan media
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    and by parents and take appropriate and
    immediate disciplinary action against accused
    teachers found to have violated the
    regulations, including counseling, probation,
    suspension, and termination.
   Ministry of Education-ANPPCAN Kenya
    chapter should lobby the Ministry of
    Education to organize regular training
    programmes and strengthen guidance and
    counseling departments in schools. In
    addition,

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the Ministry of Education should
  disseminate widely its policy prohibiting
  the use of corporal punishment in
  schools.
 ANPPCAN Kenya should initiate public
  awareness campaigns to inform all
  Kenyans that physical punishment is
  harmful to children’s development and is
  ineffective as discipline.

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                    AHSANTE SANA!




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