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					                                                 Appendix 1
                                Data Contents of Africa Maize Research Atlas

                                            DISCLAIMER
To the best of our knowledge all data contained within the Africa Maize Research Atlas (Version 3.0)
may be freely used and reproduced for NON-COMMERCIAL purposes. All data and information on
the Africa Maize Research Atlas (Version 3.0) are supplied with no guarantee, implicit or explicit, as to
their accuracy. We have attempted to provide, to the best of our knowledge, accurate data and
information and all sources of data and information are described fully. However, neither the authors
nor CIMMYT can be responsible for decisions taken on account of these data or information.

Agricultural / Irrigation
Content: Fraction and area of 0.5° by 0.5° cell that was equipped for irrigation around 1995
Source: Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany.
Scale: 0.5° by 0.5° cell
Processing: The map generation process and the used data sets are described as Kassel World Water Series 4,
this document is available at: http://www.usf.uni-kassel.de/usf/archiv/dokumente.en.htm. Original ArcInfo
grids converted to shapefiles.

File Names:
File                        Contents
Irrarea                     Area (sq Km) of 0.5° by 0.5° cell that was equipped for irrigation around 1995
Irrfrac                     Fraction (%) of 0.5° by 0.5° cell that was equipped for irrigation around 1995

MapExplorer Projects:
File                        Contents
Irrigated.mep               Fraction and area of 0.5° by 0.5° cell equipped for irrigation around 1995

Attributes of Files (Key fields only):
File: irrarea.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode                         Area (sq Km) of 0.5° by 0.5° cell that was equipped for irrigation around 1995

File: irrfrac.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode                         Fraction (%) of 0.5° by 0.5° cell that was equipped for irrigation around 1995




                                                         26
Agricultural / Maize_Mega_Environments
Content: CIMMYT revised maize mega-environments 2000.
Source: Hartkamp et al. 2000. Maize Production Environments Revisited. A GIS-based Approach. CIMMYT.
Scale: Variable
Processing: None

File Names:
File                       Contents
Nafrica.shp                CIMMYT revised maize mega-environments 2001 for northern Africa
safrica.shp                CIMMYT revised maize mega-environments 2001 for southern Africa

MapExplorer Projects:
File                       Contents
Maize_ME.mep               CIMMYT revised maize mega-environments 2001

Attributes of Files (Key fields only):
File: asiame.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Name                             Name of mega-environment
Daylength                        Daylength (Hrs)
Meantemp                         Mean Temperature of mega-environment
Z_m_rain                         4 month growing season precipitation




                                                      27
Agricultural / Maize_Sites
Content: Maize research stations locations.
Source: Various
Scale: N/A
Processing: Converted to shapefile.

File Names:
File                             Contents
Maize_sites_all                  Locations of all Maize research stations.
Priority_Sites                   Key sites for which climate similarity maps are available

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
Maize_Site.mep                   Maize research stations

Attributes of Files (Key fields only):
File: maize_sites.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Site                             Research station name
Longitude                        Longitude (decimal degrees)
Latitude                         Latitude (decimal degrees)
Country                          Country name
Elevation                        Elevation (m)
Comments                         Comments relating to site




                                                                  28
Agricultural / Site_Similarity (part Zipped)
Contents: Climate similarity maps for 87 maize research sites (see Appendix 2 for a complete listing of sites).
         The similarity maps were generated using the Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien,
         1997). For each site the 5 month optimal climate model was used for zone generation and two
         different zones were generated using absolute climate variable ranges:
         1. precipitation +/- 100 mm, evapotranspiration +/- 100mm, mean max and min temperature +/- 2
              deg C.
         2. precipitation +/- 300 mm, evapotranspiration +/- 300 mm, mean max and min temperature +/- 3
              deg C.
Source: Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997).
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: MapExplorer projects were generated automatically from a batch file of locations using an AML
         script (A. Rodriguez, CIMMYT unpublished). Resulting MapExplorer projects show not only the
         final climate similarity zone (where all conditions are true), but also the zones of the individual
         climate variables.

File Names:
Each site has a separate folder (site name). Within this folder are the MapExplorer project (.mep) and a text
file (.txt) – this file contains all available interpolated climatic information for the site.
Each site has a folder (site name) which contains two sub-directories (Africa and 5mthoptimum). Raw data
(shape files) for each site are held within the 5mthoptimum folder. The data content is explained by using
Arabhavi as an example – all sites follow the same system. The first two letters represent the site (Ar =
Arabhavi – simply first two letters of site name) and an arbitrary number is assigned to each site (1 in case of
Arabhavi). Climate parameters are represented by the following codes: et = evapotranspiration, it = min temp,
pr = precipitation, xt = max temp. The code sh is used to denote that the file is a shape file.

Example - Arabhavi
File            Contents
Aretsh1         Evapotranspiration zone (+/- 100mm of 5 month opt value at site)
Aritsh1         Min temp zone (+/- 2 deg C of 5 month opt value at site)
Arprsh1         Precipitation zone (+/- 100mm of 5 month opt value at site)
Arsh1           Climate similarity zone 1 (Intersection of all individual climatic zones – 100mm & 2 deg)
Arxtsh1         Max temp zone (+/- 2 deg C of 5 month opt value at site)
Ext_300_3       Climate similarity zone 2 (300 mm & 3 deg)

Ar1info.txt       Text file (open in word, wordpad or Excel) with ALL interpolated climate data for site
Ar1.mep           MapExplorer project file for 100 mm & 2 deg zone
Zone300.mep       MapExplorer project file for 300 mm & 3 deg zone

NOTE: Data for Thirty of the sites have been zipped to conserve space




                                                       29
Agricultural / Yield_Maps
Contents: Simulated maize yields for two varieties (Katumani and MH16) in the Horn of Africa, derived by
         linking CERES maize crop model to GIS (Corbett and Collis, 1998). Full details of the methodology
         for these maps can be found within the Yields_methodology file in the Methods folder. N.B. These
         yield maps were produced very much as a “proof of concept” and used crude inputs for the
         CERES maize model (e.g., in terms of soil type).
Source: Corbett and Collis 1998
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: None
File Names:
File                               Contents
Katumani                           Simulated maize yield for Katumani in the Horn of Africa
MH16                               Simulated maize yield for MH16 in the Horn of Africa
Methods/Yield_methodology          Detailed methodology for determination of the simulated yield maps

MapExplorer Projects:
File                                                Contents
Yields.mep                                          Simulated maize yields for Katumani and MH16 in the Horn of Africa

Attributes of Katumani.shp (Structure of MH16.shp exactly the same. ONLY mean variables are
described in full, but code names are the same for all i.e., min, max, std)

Field                      Type                                     Width   Dec.   Description
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Shape,                     FIELD_SHAPEPOLY,                         8,      0
Area,                      FIELD_DECIMAL,                           12,     3
Perimeter,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           12,     3
Katuc_,                    FIELD_DECIMAL,                           11,     0
Katuc_id,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           11,     0
Value,                     FIELD_DECIMAL,                           11,     0
Count,                     FIELD_DECIMAL,                           11,     0
Ea5mthoptm,                FIELD_DECIMAL,                           11,     0
Zozonesoil,                FIELD_DECIMAL,                           11,     0
Run_no,                    FIELD_DECIMAL,                           6,      0
Totpreopt,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           12,     4
Dwap_mean,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4      Mean wt of planting material (kg DM/ha)
Dwap_min,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Dwap_max,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Dwap_std,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Cwam_mean,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4      Mean canopy dry wt at maturity (kg/ha)
Cwam_min,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Cwam_max,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Cwam_std,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwam_mean,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4      Mean yield at maturity (kg DM/ha)
Hwam_min,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwam_max,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwam_std,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwah_mean,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4      Mean yield at harvest (kg DM/ha) [Display field]
Hwah_min,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwah_max,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwah_std,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Bwah_mean,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4      Mean harvested byproduct dry wt (kg DM/ha)
Bwah_min,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Bwah_max,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Bwah_std,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwum_mean,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4      Mean harvest product individual wt (mg DM)
Hwum_min,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwum_max,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
Hwum_std,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
H_am_mean,                 FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4      Mean harvest product number at maturity (No /sq m)
H_am_min,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
H_am_max,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4
H_am_std,                  FIELD_DECIMAL,                           10,     4



                                                                            30
H_um_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean harvest product number per unit at maturity
H_um_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
H_um_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
H_um_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ir_m_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean no. of irrigation applications during season
Ir_m_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ir_m_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ir_m_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ircm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total seasonal irrigation applied (mm)
Ircm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ircm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ircm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Prcm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total seasonal precipitation (mm)
Prcm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Prcm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Prcm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Etcm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total seasonal evapotranspiration (mm)
Etcm_min ,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Etcm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Etcm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Rocm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total seasonal runoff (mm)
Rocm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Rocm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Rocm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Drcm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total seasonal water drainage (mm)
Drcm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Drcm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Drcm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Swxm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean extractable soil H2O in profile at maturity (cm)
Swxm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Swxm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Swxm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ni_m_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean No. of N applications during season
Ni_m_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ni_m_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ni_m_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nicm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total inorganic N applied (kg/ha)
Nicm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nicm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nicm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nfxm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total N fixed during season (kg/ha)
Nfxm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nfxm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nfxm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nucm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean N uptake by plant during season (kg/ha)
Nucm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nucm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nucm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nlcm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean N leached from profile during season (kg/ha)
Nlcm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nlcm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Nlcm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Niam_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean soil inorganic N at maturity (kg/ha)
Niam_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Niam_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Niam_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Cnam_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean N content of plant tops at maturity (kg/ha)
Cnam_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Cnam_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Cnam_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Gnam_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean harvested product N content at maturity (kg/ha)
Gnam_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Gnam_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Gnam_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Recm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total crop residue applied (kg/ha)
Recm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Recm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Recm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4



                                    31
Onam_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean organic soil N at maturity (kg/ha)
Onam_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Onam_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Onam_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ocam_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean organic soil C at maturity (kg/ha)
Ocam_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ocam_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Ocam_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Po_m_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean No. of P applications during season
Po_m_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Po_m_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Po_m_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Pocm_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean total P applied (kg/ha)
Pocm_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Pocm_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Pocm_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Cpam_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean P in plant tops at maturity (kg/ha)
Cpam_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Cpam_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Cpam_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Spam_mean,   FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4    Mean soil P content at maturity (kg/ha)
Spam_min,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Spam_max,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4
Spam_std,    FIELD_DECIMAL,   10,   4




                                    32
Cartographic
Contents: Latitude and longitude grid in 5 degree intervals for the region covered by the Asia Maize Research
         Atlas.
Source: ESRI Data & Maps, 2001
Scale: 5 degree intervals
Processing: Clipped to approximate area of Africa Maize Research Atlas.

File Names:
File                           Contents
Latlong               Latitude/longitude grid in 5 degree intervals

MapExplorer Projects: None

Attributes of Latlong.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Value,                Latitude or longitude value
Degree10,             Yes or No for 10 degree line
Degree15,             Yes or No for 15 degree line
Degree20,             Yes or No for 20 degree line
Degree30,             Yes or No for 30 degree line




                                                                  33
Climate / Monthly (part Zipped)
Contents: Long-term (30 year averages) monthly climate data - precipitation, evapotranspiration, max and min
         temperature, season start, and season length. Five climate models are included: annual, 5 month
         optimum, trigger, dry, and quarters. The descriptions of these models are:
Annual: Total annual rainfall and evapotranspiration, mean maximum and minimum annual temperatures.
Five month optimum: The five consecutive months of maximum precipitation to potential evapotranspiration
         ratio (P/PE). Total precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, and max and min temperatures for
         these five months were calculated.
Trigger: The longest run of consecutive months where P/PE  0.5. Total precipitation and potential
         evapotranspiration, and the mean max and min temperatures for the first three months of the run
         were calculated and these became the season climate values. Only the first three months were used,
         not the entire season. If the season was only one or two months long, then the one or two months
         immediately following the season were included in the calculation of the climatology even though the
         P/PE ratio was less then 0.5 for those months.
Dry: The longest run of months where P/PE  0.5. Total precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, and
         the mean max and min temperatures for the first three months of the run were calculated and these
         became the season climate values. Only the first three months were used, not the entire season. If the
         season was only one or two months long, then the one or two months immediately following the
         season were included in the calculation of the climatology even though the P/PE ratio was greater
         then 0.5 for those months.
Quarters: Four “quarters” models were developed: wettest, driest, warmest, and coolest. These are simply the
         three months of the year that exhibit respectively the most precipitation, the least precipitation, the
         highest mean temperature and the lowest mean temperature. These are not calendar quarters, but the
         three consecutive months that exhibit the particular characteristic.
Source: Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997).
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: All grids: Clipped grids to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape format. Precip and
         evap grids: Reclassified grid into 50mm intervals. Temperature grids: Converted grid values to
         integers.

MapExplorer Projects:
File                       Contents
5Month.mep                 5 month optimal precip, evap, max and min temperature, and season start
Annual.mep                 Annual precip, evap, max and min temp.
CoolQtr.mep                Coolest quarter precip, evap, max and min temp, and season start
DryQtr.mep                 Driest quarter precip, evap, max and min temp, and season start
DryS1.mep                  Dry season 1 precip, evap, max and min temp, season start and length
TriggerS1.mep              Trigger season 1 precip, evap, max and min temp, season start and length
WarmQtr.mep                Warmest quarter precip, evap, max and min temp and season start
WetQtr.mep                 Wettest quarter precip, evap, max and min temp and season start

Attributes of 5 month optimal evap.shp (All climate parameter files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Display field, value = climate value

Attributes of 5 month optimal start.shp (All start.shp files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode,             Start month of season (Numeric)
Month,                Start month of season (text)

Note: All but 5 Month Optimal and Annual climate models have been zipped to conserve space




                                                      34
Climate / Met_Stations
Contents: Locations of major meteorological stations and meteorological stations used to produce climate
         surfaces
Source: Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997)
Scale: Unknown
Processing: Clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File                       Contents
Met_Stations1              Major meteorological stations obtained from FAO CROPWAT database
Met_Stations2              Met. stations used to produce climate surfaces. Source CRES, Australia

MapExplorer Projects: None

Attributes of Met_Stations1.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Ctryname,             Country name
Name,                 Station name
Country,              Country
Elevation,            Elevation (m)

Attributes of Met_Station2.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Country,              Country name
Station,              Station name
Lat,                  Latitude
Latdeg,               Latitude (degrees)
Latmin,               Latitude (minutes)
Long,                 Longitude
Longdeg,              Longitude (degrees)
Longmin,              Longitude (minutes)
Elev,                 Elevation (m)
Noyear,               Number of years with data
Latdd,                Latitude (decimal degrees)
Longdd,               Longitude (decimal degrees)




                                                                  35
Demographic / Populated_Places
Content: Built up areas selected from the Digital Chart of the World (cities) and populated places from ESRI.
Source: Cities - Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) {original source Digital Chart of
         the World, ESRI}. Pop Places – ESRI Data & Maps ,2001
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Processing: Clipped data to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N. Selected category “Built up area”, which represents
         major urban centers. For Zimbabwe all text labels were edited to reflect modern names.
File Name: cities.shp
MapExplorer Projects: None

Attributes of cities.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Text,                 Name of built up area
Type,                 Built up area
X_coord,              Longitude
Y_coord,              Latitude


Attributes of populated_places.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Name                  Place name
Category              Place category
Fips_cntry            FIPS country code
Country               Country name




                                                                  36
Demographic / Population
Contents: District level human population estimates (1960, 1970, 1980, 1990)
Source: NCGIA-UNEP-GRID African Population Database.
Resolution: 2.5 Arc-minutes for population density
Website: http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/global/africa/
Processing: All data clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File                        Contents
population                  District level population estimates (1960, 1970, 1980, 1990)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
Pop1990.mep                      District level Population (1990)

Attributes of population.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Sqkm,                 Area of the polygon (sq km)
Admsqkm,              Area of the admin unit (sq km)
Code,                 L-Land IS-Island IW-Inland water
Country,              ISO country Id
Name1,                Name 1st subnational level unit
Name2,                Name 2nd subnational level unit
Name3,                Name 3rd subnational level unit
P60,                  Total estimated population 1960
P70,                  Total estimated population 1970
P80,                  Total estimated population 1980
P90,                  Total estimated population 1990




                                                                  37
Demographic / Population_Density
Contents: District level human population density (1990)
Source: NCGIA-UNEP-GRID African Population Database.
Resolution: 2.5 Arc-minutes for population density
Website: http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/global/africa/
Processing: All data clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format. Population density
         data: grid converted to integers and reclassified into the following population density classes: 0-2, 3-
         5, 6-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-100, 101-200, 201-500, 501-1000, >1000.
File Names:
File                        Contents
Pop_density                 Population density (1990)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                          Contents
PopDensity90                  Population density (per km sq) (1990)

Attributes of Files (Key fields only):
File: pop_density.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category,                        Population density (people/sq km)




                                                            38
Derived_Climate / Ann_Precip_Zones (Zipped)
Contents: Four annual precipitation zones <400 mm, 400-600 mm, 600-800 mm, and >800 mm.
Source: Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997).
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: Extracted zones from annual surfaces and converted to shape file.
File Names:
File             Contents
Zone400          Annual precip < 400 mm
Zone600          Annual precip 400-600 mm
Zone800          Annual precip 600-800 mm
Zone800 +        Annual precip > 800 mm

MapExplorer Projects: none




                                                 39
Derived_Climate / Grow_Season_Dekad (Zipped)
Contents: Growing season length and start using ten day interval climate surfaces. Growing season definition
         was based on a P/PE ratio of  0.5. Data on season length and season start are presented for two
         growing seasons: Season 1, which is the first season after January 1st , and Season 2, which is the
         second season of the year. In the majority of cases season 1 represents the major season, it is only in
         limited areas of East Africa that this is not the case. The ten day climate surfaces were generated from
         the long-term average monthly climate surfaces by a smoothing process which was as follows: for the
         first 10 day period of a particular month one-third of the value of the preceding month and two-thirds
         of the value of the month in question were combined; for the second 10 day period the actual value of
         month in question was used; and for the third 10 day period two-thirds of the actual monthly value
         was combined with one-third of the value of the following month.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The ten day climate surfaces were created from the original monthly surfaces by the smoothing
         technique described above. Season lengths and starts were then calculated using these grids. The
         grids were then clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File                        Contents
Length1                     Length of first growing season (No. of dekads)
Length2                     Length of second growing season (No. of dekads)
Start1                      Start of first growing season (dekad)
Start2                      Start of second growing season (dekad)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                       Contents
SeasonDekad.mep            Growing season (P/PE  0.5) lengths and starts for the first and second growing
                           seasons.

Attributes of length1.shp (Length2.shp has exactly the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Length of season (No. of dekads)

Attributes of Start1.shp (Start2.shp has exactly the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Dekad                 Start of season (dekad)

N.B. Values in the Dekad field for start shape files DO NOT represent dates, so Jan 1 represents the
first ten day period of January and NOT the date Jan 1 st.
When a season lasts for the whole year (i.e., 36 dekads). Season start is set to the default of Jan 1.




                                                       40
Derived_Climate / Grow_Season_Month (Zipped)
Content: Growing season lengths and start of seasons, for both long and short seasons, based on differing
         precipitation : potential evapotranspiration (P/PE) ratios. The P/PE values used for season definition
         were: 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, and 0.5. Climate variables used in these calculations were long-term (30
         year) monthly averages.
Source: Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997).
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: Grids clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
Directory                   Files                       Description
Long_Season_Length          ppe30_length                Long season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.30
                            ppe35_length                Long season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.35
                            ppe40_length                Long season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.40
                            ppe45_length                Long season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.45
                            ppe50_length                Long season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.50

Long_Season_Start          ppe30_start                Long season start (month) where P/PE  0.30
                           ppe35_start                Long season start (month) where P/PE  0.35
                           ppe40_start                Long season start (month) where P/PE  0.40
                           ppe45_start                Long season start (month) where P/PE  0.45
                           ppe50_start                Long season start (month) where P/PE  0.50

Short_Season_Length        ppe30_length               Short season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.30
                           ppe35_length               Short season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.35
                           ppe40_length               Short season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.40
                           ppe45_length               Short season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.45
                           ppe50_length               Short season length (no. months) where P/PE  0.50

Short_Season_Start         ppe30_start                Short season start (month) where P/PE  0.30
                           ppe35_start                Short season start (month) where P/PE  0.35
                           ppe40_start                Short season start (month) where P/PE  0.40
                           ppe45_start                Short season start (month) where P/PE  0.45
                           ppe50_start                Short season start (month) where P/PE  0.50

MapExplorer Projects
File                       Contents
Season1Month               Growing season start and lengths for longest season (all P/PE ratios)
Season2Month               Growing season start and lengths for shortest season (all P/PE ratios)

Attributes of long season ppe50_length.shp (All season length shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Length                Season length (no. months)

NB. When a season lasts for the whole year (i.e., 12 months). Season start is set to the default of Jan




                                                      41
Attributes of long season ppe50_start.shp (All season start shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Month                 Start of season (month)




                                                   42
Derived_Climate / PPE_Variable (Zipped)
Sub-Directory: GDD
Contents: Growing degree days (GDD) for the longest growing season, determined by a variable P/PE ratio
         (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, or 0.5). P/PE ratio used was determined by annual precipitation zones. Four annual
         precipitation zones were used and corresponding P/PE ratios are given in parentheses: <400 mm
         (P/PE  0.2), 400-600 mm (P/PE  0.3), 600-800 mm (P/PE  0.4), and >800 mm (P/PE  0.5). The
         ten day interval climate surfaces were used in the generation of the GDD surface and the model used
         was the model developed by Jim Kiniry (Kiniry, 1991) i.e., “Kiniry” model. This model uses a base
         temperature of 8°C, an optimum temperature of 34°C, and a maximum temperature of 44°C.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: GDD surfaces were derived as described above. The grids were then clipped to box 20W-52E,
         35S-15N, converted to integer values and reclassified in the following way: 0-500, 501-1500, 1501-
         1600, 1601-1700, 1701-1800, 1801-1900, 1901-2000, 2001-2100, 2101-2200, 2201-2300, 2301-
         2400, 2401-2500, 2501-2600, 2601-2700, 2701-2800, 2801-2900, 2901-3000, 3001+. The resulting
         GDD surfaces were then clipped with the appropriate precipitation zone. Grids were then converted
         to shape file format and a Category field added.
File Names:
File               Contents
GDD02              GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is <400 mm and
                   the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2
GDD03              GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is 400-600 mm
                   and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.3
GDD04              GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is 600-800 mm
                   and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.4
GDD05              GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is >800 mm and
                   the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5

MapExplorer Projects:
File                      Contents
PPEvarGDD.mep             GDD for longest season determined by variable P/PE ratio (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5)

Attributes of GDD02.shp (All GDD shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category              Growing degree day category




                                                     43
Derived_Climate / PPE_Variable (Zipped)
Sub-Directory: Season_Length / Season_Start
Contents: Growing season length and start using ten day interval climate surfaces. Growing season definition
         was based on a variable P/PE ratio (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, or 0.5). P/PE ratio used was determined by annual
         precipitation zones. Four annual precipitation zones were used and corresponding P/PE ratios are
         given in parentheses: <400 mm (P/PE  0.2), 400-600 mm (P/PE  0.3), 600-800 mm (P/PE  0.4),
         and >800 mm (P/PE  0.5). Data on season length and season start are presented for longest season
         of the year. The ten day climate surfaces were generated from the long-term average monthly climate
         surfaces by a smoothing process which was as follows: for the first 10 day period of a particular
         month one-third of the value of the preceding month and two-thirds of the value of the month in
         question were combined; for the second 10 day period the actual value of month in question was
         used; and for the third 10 day period two-thirds of the actual monthly value was combined with one-
         third of the value of the following month.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The ten day climate surfaces were created from the original monthly surfaces by the smoothing
         technique described above. Season lengths and starts were then calculated using these grids. The
         grids were then clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N. The resulting surfaces were then clipped with the
         appropriate precipitation zone. Grids were then converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File               Contents
Length02           Season length (No. of dekads) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is
                   <400 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2
Length03           Season length (No. of dekads) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is
                   400-600 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.3
Length04           Season length (No. of dekads) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is
                   600-800 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.4
Length05           Season length (No. of dekads) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is
                   >800 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5
Start02            Season start (dekad) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is <400 mm
                   and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2
Start03            Season start (dekad) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is 400-600
                   mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.3
Start04            Season start (dekad) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is 600-800
                   mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.4
Start05            Season start (dekad) for the longest growing season, where annual precipitation is >800 mm
                   and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5

MapExplorer Projects:
File                      Contents
PPEvarLength.mep          Composite season length map - variable P/PE ratios and 4 annual precip zones
PPEvarStart.mep           Composite season start map - variable P/PE ratios and 4 annual precip zones

N.B. Values in the Dekad field for start shape files DO NOT represent dates, so Jan 1 represents the
first ten day period of January and NOT the date Jan 1 st.
When a season lasts for the whole year (i.e., 36 dekads). Season start is set to the default of Jan 1.

Attributes of Length02.shp (All length shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode,             Season length (No. of dekads)




                                                     44
Attributes of Start02.shp (All start shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Dekad,                Season Start (dekad)




                                                    45
Derived_Climate / PPE02 (Zipped)
Sub-Directory: GDD
Contents: Growing degree days (GDD) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2.
         The ten day interval climate surfaces were used in the generation of the GDD surface and the model
         used was the model developed by Jim Kiniry (Kiniry, 1991) i.e., “Kiniry” model. This model uses a
         base temperature of 8°C, an optimum temperature of 34°C, and a maximum temperature of 44°C.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The GDD surface was derived as described above. The grid was then clipped to box 20W-52E,
         35S-15N, converted to integer values and reclassified in the following way: 0-500, 501-1500, 1501-
         1600, 1601-1700, 1701-1800, 1801-1900, 1901-2000, 2001-2100, 2101-2200, 2201-2300, 2301-
         2400, 2401-2500, 2501-2600, 2601-2700, 2701-2800, 2801-2900, 2901-3000, 3001+. The grid was
         then converted to shape file format and a Category field added.
File Names:
File              Contents
GDD02             GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2

MapExplorer Projects:
File            Contents
PPE02.mep       GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2

Attributes of GDD02.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category,             Growing degree day category




                                                                  46
Derived_Climate / PPE02 (Zipped)
Sub-Directory: Season_Length / Season_Start
Contents: Growing season length and start using ten day interval climate surfaces. Growing season definition
         was based on a P/PE ratio of  0.2. Data on season length and season start are presented for longest
         season of the year. The ten day climate surfaces were generated from the long-term average monthly
         climate surfaces by a smoothing process which was as follows: for the first 10 day period of a
         particular month one-third of the value of the preceding month and two-thirds of the value of the
         month in question were combined; for the second 10 day period the actual value of month in question
         was used; and for the third 10 day period two-thirds of the actual monthly value was combined with
         one-third of the value of the following month.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The ten day climate surfaces were created from the original monthly surfaces by the smoothing
         technique described above. Season lengths and starts were then calculated using these grids. The
         grids were then clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File              Contents
Length            Season length for longest season where P/PE >= 0.2
Start             Season start for longest season where P/PE >= 0.2

MapExplorer Projects:
File            Contents
PPE02.mep       Season length and start for longest season where P/PE >= 0.2

Attributes of Length.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              No. of dekads for season

Attributes of Start.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Dekad                 Start dekad for season

NB. When a season lasts for the whole year (i.e., 36 dekads). Season start is set to the default of Jan 1.




                                                                  47
Derived_Climate / PPE03 (Zipped)
Sub-Directory: GDD
Contents: Growing degree days (GDD) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.3.
         The ten day interval climate surfaces were used in the generation of the GDD surface and the model
         used was the model developed by Jim Kiniry (Kiniry, 1991) i.e., “Kiniry” model. This model uses a
         base temperature of 8°C, an optimum temperature of 34°C, and a maximum temperature of 44°C.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The GDD surface was derived as described above. The grid was then clipped to box 20W-52E,
         35S-15N, converted to integer values and reclassified in the following way: 0-500, 501-1500, 1501-
         1600, 1601-1700, 1701-1800, 1801-1900, 1901-2000, 2001-2100, 2101-2200, 2201-2300, 2301-
         2400, 2401-2500, 2501-2600, 2601-2700, 2701-2800, 2801-2900, 2901-3000, 3001+. The grid was
         then converted to shape file format and a Category field added.
File Names:
File              Contents
GDD03             GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.3

MapExplorer Projects:
File            Contents
PPE03.mep       GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.3

Attributes of GDD03.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category              Growing degree day category




                                                                  48
Derived_Climate / PPE03 (Zipped)
Sub-Directory: Season_Length / Season_Start
Contents: Growing season length and start using ten day interval climate surfaces. Growing season definition
         was based on a P/PE ratio of  0.3. Data on season length and season start are presented for longest
         season of the year. The ten day climate surfaces were generated from the long-term average monthly
         climate surfaces by a smoothing process which was as follows: for the first 10 day period of a
         particular month one-third of the value of the preceding month and two-thirds of the value of the
         month in question were combined; for the second 10 day period the actual value of month in question
         was used; and for the third 10 day period two-thirds of the actual monthly value was combined with
         one-third of the value of the following month.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The ten day climate surfaces were created from the original monthly surfaces by the smoothing
         technique described above. Season lengths and starts were then calculated using these grids. The
         grids were then clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File              Contents
Length            Season length for longest season where P/PE >= 0.3
Start             Season start for longest season where P/PE >= 0.3

MapExplorer Projects:
File            Contents
PPE03.mep       Season start and length for longest season where P/PE >= 0.3

Attributes of Length.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode,             No. of dekads for season

Attributes of Start.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Dekad                 Start dekad for season




                                                                  49
Derived_Climate / PPE04 (Zipped)
Sub-Directory: GDD
Contents: Growing degree days (GDD) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.4.
         The ten day interval climate surfaces were used in the generation of the GDD surface and the model
         used was the model developed by Jim Kiniry (Kiniry, 1991) i.e., “Kiniry” model. This model uses a
         base temperature of 8°C, an optimum temperature of 34°C, and a maximum temperature of 44°C.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing:The GDD surface was derived as described above. The grid was then clipped to box 20W-52E,
         35S-15N, converted to integer values and reclassified in the following way: 0-500, 501-1500, 1501-
         1600, 1601-1700, 1701-1800, 1801-1900, 1901-2000, 2001-2100, 2101-2200, 2201-2300, 2301-
         2400, 2401-2500, 2501-2600, 2601-2700, 2701-2800, 2801-2900, 2901-3000, 3001+. The grid was
         then converted to shape file format and a Category field added.
File Names:
File              Contents
GDD04             GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.4

MapExplorer Projects:
File            Contents
PPE04.mep       GDD (Kiniry) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.4

Attributes of GDD04.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category              Growing degree day category




                                                                  50
Derived_Climate / PPE04 (Zipped)
Sub-Directory: Season_Length / Season_Start
Contents: Growing season length and start using ten day interval climate surfaces. Growing season definition
         was based on a P/PE ratio of  0.4. Data on season length and season start are presented for longest
         season of the year. The ten day climate surfaces were generated from the long-term average monthly
         climate surfaces by a smoothing process which was as follows: for the first 10 day period of a
         particular month one-third of the value of the preceding month and two-thirds of the value of the
         month in question were combined; for the second 10 day period the actual value of month in question
         was used; and for the third 10 day period two-thirds of the actual monthly value was combined with
         one-third of the value of the following month.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The ten day climate surfaces were created from the original monthly surfaces by the smoothing
         technique described above. Season lengths and starts were then calculated using these grids. The
         grids were then clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File              Contents
Length            Season length for longest season where P/PE >= 0.4
Start             Season start for longest season where P/PE >= 0.4

MapExplorer Projects:
File            Contents
PPE04.mep       Season start and length for longest season where P/PE >= 0.4

Attributes of Length.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode,             No. of dekads for season

Attributes of Start.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Dekad                 Start dekad for season




                                                                  51
Edaphic / Soils
Contents: FAO soil types derived from the FAO Digital Soil Map of the World and Derived Soil Properties
         (ver 3.5, November 1995).
Source: FAO Digital Soil Map of the World and Derived Soil Properties (ver 3.5, November 1995).
Scale: 1:5,000,000
Processing: Merged regional files then clipped to box 60E-165E, 15S-40N.

File Names:
File                             Contents
Soils                            FAO soil types

MapExplorer Projects
File                             Contents
Soil.mep                         FAO soil types

Attributes of Files (Key fields only):
File:soils.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Faosoil                          FAO soil classification
Fao_type                         Main FAO group
Cntname                          Country code
Country_na                       Country name
Fao_class                        Main FAO soil group as text




                                                                  52
Edaphic / Soil_Props
Contents: FAO soil types derived from the FAO Digital Soil Map of the World and Derived Soil Properties
         (ver 3.5, November 1995).
Source: FAO Digital Soil Map of the World and Derived Soil Properties (ver 3.5, November 1995).
Scale: 1:5,000,000
Processing: Clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format. The soil pH was created
         by merely assigning a pH value to a particular FAO soil type.
File Names:
File                      Contents
Depth                     Modal soil depth (5 cats. - very shallow (<10cm) to very deep (150-300cm)
Drain                     Modal soil drainage (7 categories. - excessively drained to very poorly drained)
Ewat                      Modal easily available soil water (6 categories. - <20mm to >200mm)
pH                        Topsoil (0-30cm) and subsoil (30-100cm) pH, assigned by FAO soil type
Swhc                      Modal soil water holding capacity (5 categories. - <50mm to >200mm)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
SoilProps.mep                    Soil depth, drainage, easily available soil water, pH, soil water holding capacity

Attributes of depth.shp (drain.shp, ewat.shp, swhc.shp all have the same structure and differ only in the
contents of Category field)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category              Soil depth category

Attributes of ph.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Faosoil,              FAO soil unit
Fao_type,             Code for FAO soil type
Country_na,           Country name
Phwater_to,           Topsoil (0-30cm) pH
Phwater_su,           Subsoil (30-100cm) pH




                                                                  53
Grow_Degree_Day
Sub-Directory: GDD-Commercial
Contents: Growing degree days (GDD) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5.
         The ten day interval climate surfaces were used in the generation of the GDD surface and the model
         used was the model widely used by commercial maize companies in the US i.e., “Commercial”
         model. This model uses a base temperature of 10°C, an optimum temperature of 30°C, and a
         maximum temperature of 30°C. SADC region only.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The GDD surface was derived as described above. The grid was then clipped to box 20W-52E,
         35S-15N, converted to integer values and reclassified in the following way: 0-500, 501-600, 601-
         700, 701-800, 801-900, 901-1000, 1001-1100, 1101-1200, 1201-1300, 1301-1400, 1401-1500,
         1501-1600, 1601-1700, 1701-1800, 1801-1900, 1901-2000, 2001-2100, 2101-2200, 2201-2300,
         2301-2400, 2401-2500, 2501-2600, 2601-2700, 2701-2800, 2801-2900, 2901-3000, 3001+. The grid
         was then converted to shape file format and a Category field added.
File Names:
File                       Contents
gddcom                     Growing degree days for longest growing season (P/PE  0.5)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
GDDcom.mep                       Growing degree days for longest growing season (P/PE  0.5)

Attributes of gdd.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category              Growing degree day category




                                                                  54
Grow_Degree_Day
Sub-Directory: GDD-Flat-Top
Contents: Growing degree days (GDD) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5.
         The ten day interval climate surfaces were used in the generation of the GDD surface and the model
         used was the “flat-top” GDD model - standardized with a base of 8C and a maximum of 30C.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The GDD surface was derived as described above. The grid was then clipped to box 20W-52E,
         35S-15N, converted to integer values and reclassified in the following way: 0-500, 501-1500, 1501-
         1600, 1601-1700, 1701-1800, 1801-1900, 1901-2000, 2001-2100, 2101-2200, 2201-2300, 2301-
         2400, 2401-2500, 2501-2600, 2601-2700, 2701-2800, 2801-2900, 2901-3000, 3001+. The grid was
         then converted to shape file format and a Category field added.
File Names:
File                       Contents
gdd                        Growing degree days for longest growing season (P/PE  0.5)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
GDDFlatTop.mep                   Growing degree days for longest growing season (P/PE  0.5)

Attributes of gdd.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category              Growing degree day category




                                                                  55
Grow_Degree_Day
Sub-Directory: GDD-Kiniry
Contents: Growing degree days (GDD) for the longest growing season, determined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5.
         The ten day interval climate surfaces were used in the generation of the GDD surface and the model
         used was the model developed by Jim Kiniry (Kiniry, 1991) i.e., “Kiniry” model. This model uses a
         base temperature of 8°C, an optimum temperature of 34°C, and a maximum temperature of 44°C.
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: The GDD surface was derived as described above. The grid was then clipped to box 20W-52E,
         35S-15N, converted to integer values and reclassified in the following way: 0-500, 501-1500, 1501-
         1600, 1601-1700, 1701-1800, 1801-1900, 1901-2000, 2001-2100, 2101-2200, 2201-2300, 2301-
         2400, 2401-2500, 2501-2600, 2601-2700, 2701-2800, 2801-2900, 2901-3000, 3001+. The grid was
         then converted to shape file format and a Category field added.
File Names:
File                       Contents
Gdd05                      Growing degree days for longest growing season (P/PE  0.5)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
GDDKiniry.mep                    Growing degree days for longest growing season (P/PE  0.5)

Attributes of gdd05.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category,             Growing degree day category




                                                                  56
Hydrographic
Contents: Major and minor rivers / lakes
Source: Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) [original source UN-FAO]
Scale: nominally 1:5,000,000
Processing: Clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format
File Names:
File              Contents
rivers_maj        Major rivers and lakes
rivers_min        Minor rivers

MapExplorer Projects: None




                                                   57
Imagery
Contents: Geo-referenced images (bmp’s) showing cloud-free view of earth (1996) and shaded relief. NB:
World files (contain the geo-referencing information) MUST be in same directory as the bitmaps to get correct
positioning.
Source: ESRI Data & Maps, 2001
Scale: 4km grid cell at Equator
Processing: Sampled and converted to geo-referenced bitmap using ArcGIS.
File Names:
File                       Contents
Worldsat_Central.bmp       NOAA weather satellite image, central Africa
Worldsat_Central.bpw       World file for NOAA weather satellite image, central Africa
Worldsat_NE.bmp            NOAA weather satellite image, north-east Africa
Worldsat_NE.bpw            World file for NOAA weather satellite image, north-east Africa
Worldsat_NW.bmp            NOAA weather satellite image, north-west Africa
Worldsat_NW.bpw            World file for NOAA weather satellite image, north-west Africa
Worldsat_South.bmp         NOAA weather satellite image, southern Africa
Worldsat_South.bpw         World file for NOAA weather satellite image, southern Africa
Worldsat_West.bmp          NOAA weather satellite image, western Africa
Worldsat_West.bpw          World file for NOAA weather satellite image, western Africa
Relief_Central.bmp         Shaded relief image central Africa
Relief_Central.bpw         World file for shaded relief image central Africa
Relief_NE.bmp              Shaded relief image north-east Africa
Relief_NE.bpw              World file for shaded relief image north-east Africa
Relief_NW.bmp              Shaded relief image north-west Africa
Relief_NW.bpw              World file for shaded relief image north-west Africa
Relief_South.bmp           Shaded relief image southern Africa
Relief_South.bpw           World file for shaded relief image southern Africa
Relief_West.bmp            Shaded relief image western Africa
Relief_West.bpw            World file for shaded relief image western Africa

MapExplorer Projects:
File                      Contents
Maize_site.mep            Maize research stations with worldsat backdrop




                                                     58
Natural_Resources / Landuse (Zipped)
Content: Land cover determined from remote sensing and classified using the University of Maryland Global
         Landcover Facility Legend (13 categories).
Source: Global Landcover, University of Maryland Global Landcover Facility
Resolution: 1 km grid cell size
Website: http://gaia.umiacs.umd.edu:8811/landcover/index.html
Processing: For whole region: Resampled on 5km grid. Ran a majority filter (using 8 neighbours and majority
         option in ArcInfo). Converted to shapefile and merged attribute table. Individual Landuse categories:
         Resampled on 2km grid. Selected individual landuse categories. Converted to shapefiles. Merged
         attribute files for large files.
File Names:
Files                                   Contents
Bare                                    Land classified as bare ground
Cropland                                Land classified as cropland
Cshrub                                  Land classified as closed shrubland
Dbforest                                Land classified as deciduous broadleaf forest
Ebforest                                Land classified as evergreen broadleaf forest
grassland                               Land classified as grassland
landuse                                 Land cover for region
oshrub                                  Land classified as open shrubland
urban                                   Land classified as urban and built-up
water                                   Land classified as water (and Goode’s interrupted space)
wgrassland                              Land classified as wooded grassland
woodland                                Land classified as woodland

MapExplorer Projects:
File                                        Contents
Cropland.mep                                All cropland
Landcover.mep                               All land cover categories in region

Attributes of Files (Key fields only):
File:bare.shp (All individual landuse category files have the same structure)
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode                         Numeric code for land use category (12 = bare ground in this case)

File:Landuse.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode                         Numeric code for landuse
Landuse                          Landuse text description




                                                                  59
Natural_Resources / Protected_Areas (Zipped)
Content: Protected areas
Source: A Global Overview of Forest Conservation. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) and
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). 1997.
Resolution: 1:1million
Processing: Merged regional files
File Names:
Files                               Contents
Prot_areas                          Protected areas

MapExplorer Projects: None

Attributes of Files (Key fields only):
File:prot_areas.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Areaname                         Protected area name
Iso3                             ISO country code
Long_name                        Full country name
Lat                              Mid point Latitude (dec. degrees) of protected area
Lon                              Mid point Longitude (dec. degrees) of protected area
Year                             Year protected area created
Size                             Area of protected area (ha)
Iucncat                          IUCN category
Desig_abbr                       Designation abbreviation
Designate                        Designation




                                                         60
Nutrition / Protein
Contents: Protein intake from maize related to maize consumption at the country level.
Source: FAO STAT database 1992. Country borders from ESRI ArcView 3.0a sample data.
Scale: Country borders 1:3,000,000. Nutrition data at country level.
Processing: Clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File                        Contents
maize_protein               Protein intake provided by maize (%)
total_protein               Total human protein intake (g/cap/day)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
Proteins.mep                     Protein intake provided by maize and total human protein intake

Attributes of Maize_Protein.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Name                  Country name
Abbrevname            Abbreviated country name
Fips_code             FIPS country code
Wb_cntry              WEBS country code
Tot_prot              Total protein intake (g/cap/day)
Z_mz_prot             % protein provided by maize
Category_m,           Display field - protein from maize

Attributes of Total_Protein.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Name                  Country name
Abbrevname            Abbreviated country name
Fips_code             FIPS country code
Wb_cntry              WEBS country code
Tot_prot              Total protein intake (g/cap/day)
Z_mz_prot              % protein provided by maize
Category_t            Display field - total protein




                                                                  61
Nutrition / VitaminA
Contents: Vitamin A deficiency related to maize consumption at the country level.
Source: FAO STAT database 1992. Country borders from ESRI ArcView 3.0a sample data.
Scale: Country borders 1:3,000,000. Nutrition data at country level.
Processing: Clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N and converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File                      Contents
vita                      Vitamin A deficiency and human maize consumption (% of total calories)

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
VitA.mep                         Vitamin A deficiency and human maize consumption

Attributes of VitA.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Name                  Country name
Abbrevname            Abbreviated country name
Fips_code             FIPS country code
Wb_cntry              WEBS country code
Vita_def              Vitamin A deficiency
Maize_tot             Maize consumption (% of tot cals)




                                                                  62
Political / Country
Content: Country borders for the region covered by the Africa Maize Research Atlas and All Africa country
borders
Source: ESRI Data & Maps, 2001 (all Africa). Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997),
         which originated from Uwe Dicheman, UNEP-GRID, EROS Data Center (area covered by Africa
         Maize Research Atlas).
Scale: Approx. 1:3 million (borders) and 1:1 million (clip_borders)
Processing: Converted to shape file format and clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N.
File Names:
File                       Contents
Borders.shp                All Africa country borders
clip_borders.shp           Africa Maize Research Atlas region borders

MapExplorer Projects: none

Attributes of borders.shp
Field                            Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Fips_cntry                       FIPS country code
Gmi_cntry                        GMI country code
Iso_2digit                       ISO 2 digit country code
Iso_3digit                       ISO 3 digit country code
Cntry_name                       Short country name
Long_name                        Long country name
Pop_cntry                        1994 estimated population
Curr_type                        Currency type
Curr_code                        Currency code
Landlocked                       If country is landlocked (y/n)
Sqkm                             Area of country (sq km)
Sqmi                             Area of country (sq miles)

Disclaimer: The borders used are presented exactly as in the original source and do not reflect any
official CIMMYT policy towards disputed boundaries.




                                                                  63
Political / Districts
Contents: Administrative boundaries 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order. 1st order boundaries are country borders. The
         classification of 2nd and 3rd order boundaries varies from country to country. Districts is used as this
         represents common-usage terminolgy.
Source: Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997). [Original source Uwe Dicheman, UNEP-
         GRID, EROS Data Center].
Scale: Unknown
Processing: Clipped to box 20W-52E, 35S-15N.
File Name: Districts.shp

MapExplorer Projects: None

Attributes of districts.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Name1,                FIELD_CHAR,                       16,        0      Region name
Name2,                FIELD_CHAR,                       16,        0      District name

Disclaimer: The borders used are presented exactly as in the original source and do not reflect any
official CIMMYT policy towards disputed boundaries.




                                                                  64
SADC / Area_Tables
Contents: SADC region only. Summary area tables, giving areas (hectares) by SADC country for the
        following data sets:
        Climate Risk, Elevation, FAO soil types, Growing Degree Days (Flat-Top model, and Kiniry model);
        also for Kiniry model areas of gdd categories by elevation zones [lowlands, mid-altitude, highlands]
        and CIMMYT mega-environments [highland temperate, lowland tropics, mid-altitude, sub-tropical,
        temperate, tropical highland, highland tropical transitional]), GDD (in season defined as: longest
        season where P/PE  0.2, using 10 day interval climate surfaces), GDD (in season defined as: longest
        season where P/PE  0.3, using 10 day interval climate surfaces), GDD (in season defined as: longest
        season where P/PE  0.4, using 10 day interval climate surfaces), landcover, topsoil pH, season
        length / start (season defined as: longest season where P/PE  0.5, using 10 day interval climate
        surfaces), season precipitation (P/PE  0.5), season length / start (season defined as: longest season
        where P/PE  0.2, using 10 day interval climate surfaces), season precipitation (P/PE  0.2), season
        length / start (season defined as: longest season where P/PE  0.3, using 10 day interval climate
        surfaces), season precipitation (P/PE  0.3), season length / start (season defined as: longest season
        where P/PE  0.4, using 10 day interval climate surfaces), season precipitation (P/PE  0.4),and soil
        water holding capacity. CIMMYT mega-environments were defined as follows:

Mega-Environment           Mean Grow Season            Elevation (m)               Latitude
                           Temp (C)
Highland Temperate         15-20                                                   >30N&>30S
Lowland Tropical           >24                         0-1000                      30N-30S
Mid-Altitude               20-24                       800-1800                    30N-30S
Sub-Tropical               20-24                                                   >20N&>20S
Temperate                  20-22                                                   >30N&>30S
Highland Tropical          12.5-17                     >2000                       30N-30S
Highland Tropical          17-20                       1500-1800                   30N-30S
Transitional

Processing: All surfaces from which areas were derived were clipped to the SADC region and projected into
         an Albers equal area projection using the following parameters:
                  Projection: Albers Equal Area
                  Units: meters
                  First standard parallel: 18°S
                  Second standard parallel: 32°S
                  Central meridian: 24°E
                  Latitude of origin: 0
                  False easting: 0
                  False northing: 0
         Areas were then calculated from projected surfaces using the “Tabulate Areas” option in ArcView
         (3.0a). A country borders file from which water bodies had been erased was used in this analysis. The
         analysis extent was set to the extent of this borders file and a cell size of 1000m was used in all
         calculations. Areas were converted from m2 to hectares by dividing the m2 value by 10,000.

File Names:
File                               Contents
Climate_Risk\Establishment\
areas.xls                          Areas of risk categories (very low – very high) for establishment period by
                                   SADC countries, within GDD (Kiniry) range 1500-2500
Climate_Risk\Grain-Fill\
areas.xls                          Areas of risk categories (very low – very high) for grain-filling period by
                                   SADC countries, within GDD (Kiniry) range 1500-2500
Climate_Risk\Flowering\




                                                     65
areas.xls                        Areas of risk categories (very low – very high) for flowering period by
                                 SADC countries, within GDD (Kiniry) range 1500-2500
Climate_Risk\Post-Flowering\
areas.xls                        Areas of risk categories (very low – very high) for post-flowering period
                                 by SADC countries, within GDD (Kiniry) range 1500-2500
Climate_Risk\Pre-Flowering\
areas.xls                        Areas of risk categories (very low – very high) for pre-flowering period by
                                 SADC countries, within GDD (Kiniry) range 1500-2500
Elevation\areas.xls              Areas of elevation classes (100m / 500m intervals) by SADC countries
FAO-Soils\areas.xls              Areas of FAO soil types by SADC countries
GDD\Flat-Top_Model\
areas.xls                        Areas of gdd categories (“Flat-Top” 100 gdd ints) by SADC countries
GDD\Kiniry_Model\
Kiniry05.xls                     Areas of gdd categories (“Kiniry” 100 gdd ints) by SADC countries
GDD\ Kiniry_Model\Elevation\
Highland.xls                     Areas of gdd categories within highlands (>1800m) by SADC countries
Lowland.xls                      Areas of gdd categories within lowlands (0-600m) by SADC countries
mid-altitude.xls                 Areas of gdd categories within mid-altitudes (601-1800m) by SADC
                                 countries
GDD\ Kiniry_Model\Mega-Env\
High_Temperate.xls               Areas of gdd categories within mega-environment “highland temperate”
                                 by SADC countries
Low_Tropical.xls                 Areas of gdd categories within mega-environment “lowland tropical” by
                                 SADC countries
Mid_Altitude.xls                 Areas of gdd categories within mega-environment “mid-altitude” by
                                 SADC countries
Sub_Tropical.xls                 Areas of gdd categories within mega-environment “sub-tropical” by
                                 SADC countries
Temperate.xls                    Areas of gdd categories within mega-environment “temperate” by SADC
                                 countries
Tropical_High.xls                Areas of gdd categories within mega-environment “highland tropical” by
                                 SADC countries
Tropical_Trans.xls               Areas of gdd categories within mega-environment “highland tropical
                                 transitional” by SADC countries
Landcover\areas.xls              Areas of USGS landcover categories by SADC countries
pH\areas.xls                     Areas of FAO topsoil ph categories by SADC countries
PPE02\GDD\Kiniry02.xls           Areas of gdd categories (“Kiniry” 100 gdd ints) by SADC countries
                                 (longest season where P/PE  0.2)
PPE02\Season_Length\areas.xls    Areas of season lengths (longest season where P/PE  0.20) by SADC
                                 countries
PPE02\ Season_Precip\25percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.2) by SADC countries for 25% driest years
PPE02\ Season_Precip\75percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.2) by SADC countries for 75% driest years
PPE02\ Season_Precip\All-Years
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.2) by SADC countries for all years
PPE02\Season_Start\areas.xls     Areas of season starts (longest season where P/PE  0.20) by SADC
                                 countries
PPE03\GDD\Kiniry03.xls           Areas of gdd categories (“Kiniry” 100 gdd ints) by SADC countries
                                 (longest season where P/PE  0.3)




                                                   66
PPE03\Season_Length\areas.xls    Areas of season lengths (longest season where P/PE  0.30) by SADC
                                 countries
PPE03\ Season_Precip\25percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.3) by SADC countries for 25% driest years
PPE03\ Season_Precip\75percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.3) by SADC countries for 75% driest years
PPE03\ Season_Precip\All-Years
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.3) by SADC countries for all years
PPE03\Season_Start\areas.xls     Areas of season starts (longest season where P/PE  0.30) by SADC
                                 countries
PPE04\GDD\Kiniry04.xls           Areas of gdd categories (“Kiniry” 100 gdd ints) by SADC countries
                                 (longest season where P/PE  0.4)
PPE04\Season_Length\areas.xls    Areas of season lengths (longest season where P/PE  0.40) by SADC
                                 countries
PPE04\ Season_Precip\25percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.4) by SADC countries for 25% driest years
PPE04\ Season_Precip\75percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.4) by SADC countries for 75% driest years
PPE04\ Season_Precip\All-Years
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.4) by SADC countries for all years
PPE04\Season_Start\areas.xls     Areas of season starts (longest season where P/PE  0.40) by SADC
                                 countries
Seaslen\areas.xls                Areas of season lengths (longest season where P/PE  0.50) by SADC
                                 countries
Season_Precip\10percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.50) by SADC countries for 10% driest years
Season_Precip\25percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.50) by SADC countries for 25% driest years
Season_Precip\50percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.50) by SADC countries for 50% driest years
Season_Precip\75percent
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.50) by SADC countries for 75% driest years
Season_Precip\All_Years
areas.xls                        Areas of total precipitation classes within season (longest season where
                                 P/PE  0.50) by SADC countries for all years
Seasstart\areas.xls              Areas of season starts (longest season where P/PE  0.50) by SADC
                                 countries
Swhc\areas.xls                   Areas of soil water holding capacity categories by SADC countries

MapExplorer Projects: None




                                                   67
SADC / Borders
Contents: Boundaries of SADC region and major water bodies within SADC region.
Source: Country borders obtained from the Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien 1997), which
         originated from Uwe Dicheman, UNEP-GRID, EROS Data Center. Water bodies from major rivers
         theme.
Scale: Approx. 1:1 million
Processing: Original themes clipped to SADC region.
File Names:
File                       Contents
Borders                    Boundary of SADC region
Water                      Major water bodies within SADC region

MapExplorer Projects: None




                                                    68
SADC / Climate_Risk
Contents: SADC region only. Estimates of risk were produced by combining the long-term monthly
         precipitation surfaces (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) with rainfall probabilities from the MARKSIM
         (Ver. A01) precipitation generator (Jones and Thornton, 1997 and 1999). The resulting surfaces were
         then used to classify regions for risk of drought in five phases corresponding roughly to
         establishment, pre-flowering, flowering, post-flowering, and grain-filling phases
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997). Rainfall probability surfaces were derived from
         MARKSIM (Ver. A01) (Jones and Thornton, 1997 and 1999). All subsequent processing was carried
         out by CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: To provide one indication of risk, estimates of 75, 50, 25 and 10% rainfall probabilities were
         produced by combining the long-term monthly precipitation surfaces (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997)
         with rainfall probabilities from the MARKSIM (Ver. A01) precipitation generator (Jones and
         Thornton, 1997 and 1999). The 75, 50, 25 and 10% rainfall probabilities were estimated on a 0.1
         degree grid by generating 32 years of rainfall data with MARKSIM. These data were interpolated on
         a 5 km grid using the ArcInfo inverse distance routine, and then the probability surfaces were
         normalized relative to the surfaces of Corbett and O’Brien (1997).
                  We next used these surfaces to classify regions for risk of drought over five intervals
         corresponding roughly to establishment, pre-flowering, flowering, post-flowering, and grain-filling
         phases. These analyses considered only regions with 1500 to 2500 growing degree days (GDD) with
         P/PE < 0.5. For each grid cell, the total GDD period was divided into five equal GDD intervals. Then
         for each interval, risk was assessed on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = very high risk of drought and 5 =
         very low risk using these criteria:

         Very_High_Risk         P/PE < 0.5 where P is based on expected rainfall for >75% of years
         High_Risk              P/PE < 0.5 where P is based on expected rainfall for driest 75% of years
         Medium_Risk            P/PE < 0.5 where P is based on expected rainfall for driest 50% of years
         Low_Risk               P/PE < 0.5 where P is based on expected rainfall for driest 25% of years
         Very_Low_Risk          P/PE > 0.5 even in the driest 10% of years

File Names:
File                       Contents
Establishment\
Establishment              All risk categories (very low – very high) combined for the establishment period
Very_Low_Risk              Very low risk category only for the establishment period
Low_Risk                   Low risk category only for the establishment period
Medium_Risk                Medium risk category only for the establishment period
High_Risk                  High risk category only for the establishment period
Very_High_Risk             Very high risk category only for the establishment period
Pre-Flowering\
Preflower                  All risk categories (very low – very high) combined for the pre-flowering period
Very_Low_Risk              Very low risk category only for the pre-flowering period
Low_Risk                   Low risk category only for the pre-flowering period
Medium_Risk                Medium risk category only for the pre-flowering period
High_Risk                  High risk category only for the pre-flowering period
Very_High_Risk             Very high risk category only for the pre-flowering period
Flowering\
Flower                     All risk categories (very low – very high) combined for the flowering period
High_Risk                  High risk category only for the flowering period
Low_Risk                   Low risk category only for the flowering period
Medium_Risk                Medium risk category only for the flowering period
Very_High_Risk             Very high risk category only for the flowering period
Very_Low_Risk              Very low risk category only for the flowering period



                                                      69
Post-Flowering\
Postflower                All risk categories (very low – very high) for the post-flowering period
Very_Low_Risk             Very low risk category only for the post-flowering period
Low_Risk                  Low risk category only for the post-flowering period
Medium_Risk               Medium risk category only for the post-flowering period
High_Risk                 High risk category only for the post-flowering period
Very_High_Risk            Very high risk category only for the post-flowering period
Grain-Fill\
Grain-Fill                All risk categories (very low – very high) combined for the grain-filling period
Very_Low_Risk             Very low risk category only for the grain-filling period
Low_Risk                  Low risk category only for the grain-filling period
Medium_Risk               Medium risk category only for the grain-filling period
High_Risk                 High risk category only for the grain-filling period
Very_High_Risk            Very high risk category only for the grain-filling period

MapExplorer Projects:
File                      Contents
Establish.mep             Climate risk during establishment period
Flower.mep                Climate risk during flowering period
Grain.mep                 Climate risk during grain-filling period
PostFlower.mep            Climate risk during post-flowering period
PreFlower.mep             Climate risk during pre-flowering period

Attributes of Grain-Fill.shp (All climate risk shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Risk_categ            Risk Category (very high-very low)




                                                     70
SADC / GDD-Kiniry
Contents: SADC region only. Growing degree day (Kiniry gdd model based on season defined as P/PE  0.5 –
         see GDD-Kiniry section for full details) categories within elevation zones (lowlands [0-600m], mid-
         altitude [601-1800m], highlands [>1800m]) and also within CIMMYT 1991 mega-environments
         (highland temperate, lowland tropics, mid-altitude, sub-tropical, temperate, tropical highland,
         highland tropical transitional – see SADC Sub-Directory Area Tables for mega-environment
         definitions)
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: GDD grids were clipped to SADC borders and converted to shape file format. The resulting shape
         files were then clipped with the boundaries of elevation zones or CIMMYT mega-environments.
File Names:
File                        Contents
Gddhigh.shp                 GDD categories within the highlands (>1800m)
Gddlow.shp                  GDD categories within the lowlands (0-600m)
Gddmid.shp                  GDD categories within mid-altitudes (601-1800m)
Meht.shp                    GDD categories within mega-environment “highland temperate”
Melt.shp                    GDD categories within mega-environment “lowland tropical”
Mema.shp                    GDD categories within mega-environment “mid-altitude”
Mest.shp                    GDD categories within mega-environment “sub-tropical”
Mete.shp                    GDD categories within mega-environment “temperate”
Meth.shp                    GDD categories within mega-environment “tropical highland”
Mett.shp                    GDD categories within mega-environment “highland tropical transitional”

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
GDDelev.mep                      GDD categories within elevation ranges
GDDmegaenv.mep                   GDD categories within mega-environment categories

Attributes of gddhigh.shp (all elevation and mega-environment shape files have the same structure)

Field                 Contents
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Category,             GDD category




                                                                  71
SADC / Low_N
Contents: SADC region only. Climate similarity map for 8 maize research sites (Arusha, Catete, Chitedze,
         Golden Valley, Harare, Kabwe, Sebele, and Viljoenskroon) where low Nitrogen trials are being
         undertaken in the SADC region. Climate similarity maps were combined for all sites to produce one
         composite map. The similarity maps were generated using the Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett
         and O’Brien, 1997). Two climate similarity zones were generated for each site. The 5 month optimal
         climate model was used for zone generation in all cases:
         (i)      20% Climate Similarity Zone: +/- 20% precipitation and evapotranspiration, +/- 10% mean
                  max and min temperature.
         (ii)     10% Climate Similarity Zone: +/- 10% precipitation and evapotranspiration, +/- 10% mean
                  max and min temperature.
         The percentage values represent the variance allowed from the original site data to be considered
         similar.
Source: Spatial Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997).
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: Grids were clipped to the SADC region and converted to shape file format. Shape files for
         individual sites were merged to produce a composite. A shape file containing the lat/long of each
         SADC site was also created.

File Names:
File                             Contents
LowN_10.shp                      10% climate similarity zone for all Low Nitrogen trial sites combined
LowN_20.shp                      20% climate similarity zone for all Low Nitrogen trial sites combined
Lown_sites.shp                   Locations (Lat/Long) of all Low Nitrogen trial sites in SADC region

MapExplorer Projects:
File                             Contents
LowN.mep                         Climate similarity map for all Low Nitrogen trial sites combined

Attributes of LowN_10.shp (LowN_20.shp has the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Gridcode  Similarity zone

Attributes of Lown_sites.shp
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Site_name             Name of Low N trial site
Country               Country Name
Latitude              Latitude (decimal degree) of site
Longitude             Longitude (decimal degree) of site
Elevation_            Elevation (m) of site
Comments              Description of site




                                                                  72
SADC / PPE_Variable
Contents: Total precipitation within season using ten day interval climate surfaces. Growing season definition
         was based on a variable P/PE ratio (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, or 0.5). P/PE ratio used was determined by annual
         precipitation zones. Four annual precipitation zones were used and corresponding P/PE ratios are
         given in parentheses: <400 mm (P/PE  0.2), 400-600 mm (P/PE  0.3), 600-800 mm (P/PE  0.4),
         and >800 mm (P/PE  0.5). Precipitation data are given for the average of all years, the 75% driest
         years, and 25% driest years.
Source: Precipitation surfaces used for the calculation of “all years” came from the Spatial Characterization
         Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997). Precipitation surfaces for all other categories were derived by
         sampling on a 0.1 degree grid from MARKSIM (ver. A01) (Jones and Thornton, 1997 and 1999) and
         then interpolating.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Source: The original long-term monthly average climate surfaces were derived from the Spatial
         Characterization Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997) and all subsequent processing was carried out by
         CIMMYT.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size)
Processing: Total within season precipitation was calculated by summing up dekad values corresponding to
         the appropriate season. The grids were then clipped to the SADC region. The resulting surfaces were
         then clipped with the appropriate precipitation zone. Grids were then converted to shape file format.
File Names:
File                        Contents
\25percent\precip02         Season precipitation in the 25% driest years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is <400 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2
\25percent\precip03         Season precipitation in the 25% driest years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is 400-600 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of 
                            0.3
\25percent\precip04         Season precipitation in the 25% driest years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is 600-800 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of 
                            0.4
\25percent\precip05         Season precipitation in the 25% driest years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is >800 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5
\75percent\precip02         Season precipitation in the 75% driest years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is <400 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2
\75percent\precip03         Season precipitation in the 75% driest years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is 400-600 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of 
                            0.3
\75percent\precip04         Season precipitation in the 75% driest years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is 600-800 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of 
                            0.4
\75percent\precip05         Season precipitation in the 75% driest years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is >800 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5
\All_Years\precip02         Season precipitation averaged for all years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is <400 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.2
\All_Years\precip03         Season precipitation averaged for all years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is 400-600 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of 
                            0.3
\All_Years\precip04         Season precipitation averaged for all years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is 600-800 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of 
                            0.4
\All_Years\precip05         Season precipitation averaged for all years for the longest growing season, where
                            annual precipitation is >800 mm and the season is defined by a P/PE ratio of  0.5
MapExplorer Projects:
File                                 Contents
AllYears.mep                         Total within season precipitation composite map for all years



                                                      73
Driest25%.mep                        Total within season precipitation composite map for the 25% driest years
Driest75%.mep                        Total within season precipitation composite map for the 75% driest years

Attributes of Precip25.shp (All within season precipitation shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Display Field. Value represents upper limit of 50 mm precipitation interval i.e., value of 200
                      means total precipitation is in range 150-200mm.


Attributes of Zone400.shp (All annual precipitation zone shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Precip,               Arbitrary label for precip zone
Count,                No. of original polygons in zone




                                                        74
SADC / PPE02 (Zipped)
Contents. SADC region only. Total precipitation within the longest season of the year (where P/PE  0.2).
         Data are given for the average of all years, the 75% driest years, and 25% driest years.
Source: Precipitation surfaces used for the calculation of “all years” came from the Spatial Characterization
         Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997). Precipitation surfaces for all other categories were derived from
         MARKSIM (ver. A01) (Jones and Thornton, 1997 and 1999).
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: Grids were clipped to the SADC region and converted to shape file format.

File Names:
File                                 Contents
25Percent\precip25                   Total within season precipitation for the 25% driest years
75Percent\precip75                   Total within season precipitation for the 75% driest years
100Percent\precip100                 Total within season precipitation for all years

MapExplorer Projects:
File                                 Contents
Precip02.mep                         Total within season precip for the 25%, 75% driest years and all years

Attributes of Precip25.shp (All within season precipitation shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Display Field. Value represents upper limit of 50 mm precipitation interval i.e., value of 200
                      means total precipitation is in range 150-200mm.




                                                        75
SADC / PPE03 (Zipped)
Contents. SADC region only. Total precipitation within the longest season of the year (where P/PE  0.3).
         Data are given for the average of all years, the 75% driest years, and 25% driest years.
Source: Precipitation surfaces used for the calculation of “all years” came from the Spatial Characterization
         Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997). Precipitation surfaces for all other categories were derived from
         MARKSIM (ver. A01) (Jones and Thornton, 1997 and 1999).
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: Grids were clipped to the SADC region and converted to shape file format.

File Names:
File                                 Contents
25Percent\precip25                   Total within season precipitation for the 25% driest years
75Percent\precip75                   Total within season precipitation for the 75% driest years
100Percent\pre100                    Total within season precipitation for all years

MapExplorer Projects:
File                                 Contents
Precip03.mep                         Total within season precip for the 25%, 75% driest years and all years

Attributes of Precip25.shp (All within season precipitation shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Display Field. Value represents upper limit of 50 mm precipitation interval i.e., value of 200
                      means total precipitation is in range 150-200mm.




                                                        76
SADC / PPE04 (Zipped)
Contents. SADC region only. Total precipitation within the longest season of the year (where P/PE  0.4).
         Data are given for the average of all years, the 75% driest years, and 25% driest years.
Source: Precipitation surfaces used for the calculation of “all years” came from the Spatial Characterization
         Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997). Precipitation surfaces for all other categories were derived from
         MARKSIM (ver. A01) (Jones and Thornton, 1997 and 1999).
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: Grids were clipped to the SADC region and converted to shape file format.

File Names:
File                                 Contents
25Percent\precip25                   Total within season precipitation for the 25% driest years
75Percent\precip75                   Total within season precipitation for the 75% driest years
100Percent\pre100                    Total within season precipitation for all years

MapExplorer Projects:
File                                 Contents
Precip04.mep                         Total within season precip for the 25%, 75% driest years and all years

Attributes of Precip25.shp (All within season precipitation shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Display Field. Value represents upper limit of 50 mm precipitation interval i.e., value of 200
                      means total precipitation is in range 150-200mm.




                                                        77
SADC / Season_Precip
Contents. SADC region only. Total precipitation within the longest season of the year (where P/PE  0.5).
         Data are given for the average of all years, the 75% driest years, 50% driest years, 25% driest years,
         and 10% driest years.
Source: Precipitation surfaces used for the calculation of “all years” came from the Spatial Characterization
         Tool (Corbett and O’Brien, 1997). Precipitation surfaces for all other categories were derived by
         sampling on a 0.1 degree grid from MARKSIM (ver. A01) (Jones and Thornton, 1997 and 1999) and
         then interpolating.
Resolution: 3 Arc-minutes (approx 5 km grid cell size).
Processing: Grids were clipped to the SADC region and converted to shape file format.

File Names:
File                                 Contents
10Percent\precip10                   Total within season precipitation for the 10% driest years
25Percent\precip25                   Total within season precipitation for the 25% driest years
50Percent\precip50                   Total within season precipitation for the 50% driest years
75Percent\precip75                   Total within season precipitation for the 75% driest years
All_Years\precip100                  Total within season precipitation for all years

MapExplorer Projects:
File            Contents
Precip.mep      Total within season precip for the 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% driest years and all years

Attributes of Precip10.shp (All within season precipitation shape files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Display Field. Value represents upper limit of 50 mm precipitation interval i.e., value of 200
                      means total precipitation is in range 150-200mm.




                                                        78
Topographic / Elevation
Content: Digital Elevation Model for the region covered by the Africa Maize Research Atlas.
Source: Globe DEM, NOAA
Resolution: 30 Arc-seconds (approx. 1 km grid cell size).
Website: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/topo/
Processing: Whole region: Merged original three grid tiles. Resampled to 5km grid. Reclassified grid into
         100m intervals. Ran majority filter. Split into north and south regions (clipped at equator). Converted
         to shape file.
         Ranges: Selected ranges (lowland 0-600 m, Mid-Altitude 601-1800 m, Highland > 1800 m) from
         original 1 km grid and converted to shapes.
File Names:
File                       Contents
Highland.shp               Highland areas > 1800 m
Lowland.shp                Lowland areas 0-600 m
Mid-Alt                    Mid-Altitude areas 601-1800 m
Elev_north                 Generalized elevation for northern region
Elev_south                 Generalized elevation for southern region

MapExplorer Projects:
File                       Contents
Elev.mep                   Generalized elevation for region
Ranges.mep                 Three broad elevation zones: low (0-600m), Mid (601-1800m), and high (>1800m)


Attributes of Lowland.shp (All elevation range files have the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Category              Elevation zone description

Attributes of elevation_e.shp (Elevation west has the same structure)
Field                 Contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Gridcode              Generalized elevation value (m)




                                                       79
References
Collis, S.N., and J.D. Corbett. 1998. A methodology for linking spatially interpolated climate surfaces with
   crop growth simulation models. Under preparation.
Corbett, J.D., and R.F. O’Brien. 1997. The spatial characterization tool. Texas Agricultural Experimental
   Station; Texas A&M University System, Blacklands Research Center Report No. 97-03. (CD-ROM
   Publication).
FAO. 1995. Digital Soil Map of the World and Derived Soil Properties. Version 3.5, November 1995. CD-
   ROM publication. FAO, Rome.
Hartkamp, A.D., J.W. White, A. Rodriguez-Aguilar, M. Bänziger, G. Srinivasan, Granados, G., and Crossa, J.
   2000. Maize Production Environments Revisited. A GIS-based Approach. Mexico D.F.: CIMMYT
Jones. P.G., and Thornton P.K. (1997). Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall related to a third order
   Markov model. Agric. For. Meteor. 86:128-138
Jones. P.G., and Thornton P.K. (1999). Linking a third order Markov rainfall model to interpolated climate
   surfaces. Agric. For. Meteor. in press.
Kiniry, J. 1991. Maize phasic development. p55-70. In Modeling Plant and Soil Systems. Agronomy
   Monograph No. 13. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.




                                                     80

				
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