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					     Hazardous Materials Incidents
           by Chris Hawley




CHAPTER 7: Terrorism Awareness
           Chapter 7: Overview
•   Type of terrorism
•   Potential targets
•   Indicators of terrorism
•   Incident actions
•   General groupings of warfare agents
•   Detection of terrorism agents
•   Federal assistance
•   Basic incident priorities
•   Summary
   Terrorism in the United States
• This chapter examines terrorism response
  as well as HAZMAT crimes.
  – HAZMAT crimes
    • Crimes using chemicals as a weapon
    • Usually targeted at individuals
           Terrorism Incidents
• The United States has not seen daily terrorism
  events, as often occurs in other parts of the
  world.
  – Recent years have shown some large scale events,
    with large losses of life.
  – Events in the U.S. are not as common as incidents
    that attack U.S. interests in foreign countries.
  Large Scale Terrorism Incidents
• Attacks of September 11, 2001
  – World Trade Center
  – Pentagon
  – Shanksville, PA
• Oklahoma City bombing April 19, 1995
• World Trade Center bombing 1993
• Salmonella attack, Oregon 1984
               Terrorism Events
• Olympic park bombing and others
  – Clinic bombing
  – Bar bombing
     • Alleged bomber Eric Rudolph
• Aum Shinryko Tokyo subway attack
  – Aum completed 19 other attacks
  – Important group to study
• Unabomber
                Other Events
•   Ricin
•   Butyric acid
•   Border bomb
•   White powder responses
•   Shoe bomber
•   Abdullah al Muhajir
•   Embassy bombings 2003
             Types of Terrorism
• International
  – Perception that
    international terrorism is
    greatest threat
  – False
• Domestic
  – Presents greatest threat
  – Most common
            Terrorism Definition
• Terrorism is a violent act or an act dangerous to
  human life, in violation of the criminal laws of the
  United States or any segment, to intimidate or
  coerce a government, the civilian population, or
  any segment thereof, in furtherance of political
  or social objectives.
               Potential Targets
• Public assembly             • FBI, ATF, and IRS
• Federal, state, and local     offices
  government buildings        • Military installations
• Mass transit systems        • Women’s reproductive
• High economic areas           health clinics
• Telecommunications          • Fur stores
  facilities                  • Genetic research
• Historical or symbolic        buildings
  buildings                   • Churches and
                                synagogues
           Assessing Threats
• Does the potential terrorist have
  – Education to make or pull off the attack?
  – Access to raw materials?
  – Access to production equipment?
  – Access to dissemination equipment?
  – Motivation to kill?
       Indicators of Terrorism (1 of 2)
• Most terrorism events (93%) are explosive in
  nature.
  – Pipe bombs most common
• The Department of Justice uses OTTO.
  –   Occupancy and location
  –   Type of event
  –   Timing of the event
  –   On-scene warning signs
       Indicators of Terrorism (2 of 2)

• One of the best indicators will be a pattern of
  unexplained illness or injury.
   – Multiple patients
   – Multiple seizures
   – Unusual odors
         Incident Actions (1 of 2)
• Mass Casualty EMS
  Incident
  + Hazardous Materials
  Release and/or
  Explosive Devices
  + Crime Scene
  Considerations
  = Incident
  Management
  Challenges
Incident Actions (2 of 2)
            • Command issues may
              present the most
              significant challenge to
              responders.
            • Site management and
              control present
              significant problems.
            • Accountability is crucial.
 General Grouping of Warfare Agents

• Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
• Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC)
• Biological, nuclear, incendiary, chemical,
  and explosive (BNICE)
• Chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear
  and explosive (CBRNE)
             Military Designation
•   Tabun (GA)               •   Sarin (GB)
•   Soman (GD)               •   Thickened soman (TGD)
•   V agent (VX)             •   Mustard (H)
•   Distilled mustard (HD)   •   Nitrogen mustard (HN)
•   Lewisite (L)             •   Hydrogen cyanide (AC)
•   Cyanogen chloride (CK)   •   Chlorine (CL)
•   Phosgene (CG)            •   Tear gas (CS)
•   Mace (CN)                •   Pepper spray (OC)
             Nerve Agents
• High-strength organophosphate pesticides
  (OPP)
• Developed by the military
• Cause immediate effects
• Very toxic materials
• For example, sarin
     Nerve Agent Signs and Symptoms
              (SLUDGEM)
•   Salivation –drooling
•   Lacrimation – tearing eyes
•   Urination – may lose control and urinate on themselves
•   Defecation – may lose control of their bowels (diarrhea)
•   Gastro-intestinal – nausea and vomiting
•   Emisis – vomiting
•   Miosis – pinpointing of the pupils
              Blister Agents
• Also called vesicants
  – From the vesicles (blisters) formed upon
    contact
• Not designed to kill, but to incapacitate
• May cause delayed reactions
• For example, mustard agent
     Blood and Choking Agents
• Common industrial materials
• Two categories
  – Blood agents
  – Choking agents
• Hydrogen cyanide and chlorine, for
  example
           Signs and Symptoms
• Dizziness, difficulty breathing, nausea, and
  general weakness
• Cyanides
  – Breathing initially rapid and deep, followed by
    respiratory depression, usually leading to death
• Chlorine and phosgene
  – Difficulty breathing, respiratory distress, eye irritation,
    and (in higher amounts) skin irritation
  – Phosgene may present delayed effects, while
    chlorine’s effects are immediate.
                   Irritants
• Used for riot control
• Not designed to kill
  – Short-term effects
• For example, mace and pepper spray
   Irritants - Signs and Symptoms
• The signs and symptoms for a slight exposure to
  a high dose are the same with the exception of
  increasing severity.
  – Eye and respiratory irritation
• There is no real treatment except removal to
  fresh air.
  – In 15-20 minutes, the symptoms will begin to
    disappear.
    Biological Agents and Toxins
• First large-scale attack in the U.S. was
  biological.
  – Salmonella in Oregon made 715 people ill.
• Anthrax attack in 2001 left five people
  dead.
  – Hysteria created panic with white powders.
         Other Biological Agents
•   Anthrax
•   Plague
•   Tularemia
•   Ricin
    – Most common
    – Several arrests a year
    – Good assassin’s weapon
    Signs and Symptoms of Anthrax
              Exposure
• 1-4 day period of malaise, fatigue, and fever
• Muscle tenderness, and a non-productive cough
  followed by a rapid onset of
  – Respiratory distress
  – Cyanosis and sweating
• Recent cases also had profound
  – Heavy sweating
  – Nausea and vomiting
   Nuclear and Radiation Threats
• Two types of events
  – Nuclear detonation
  – Radiological dispersion device (RDD)
Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD)

• This is not a nuclear bomb
• Conventional explosive distributes a
  radioactive material.
• Technologically is difficult.
• Effective radiation monitoring can prevent
  inadvertent exposure.
           Explosive Statistics
• On average
  – 3,000 bomb incidents a year
  – 32 people killed a year
  – 277 injured annually
• 11-year history has shown only 4-5 secondary
  devices for 33,000 bomb incidents (U.S.).
    Detection of Terrorism Agents
• Test Strips
  – M-8 indicating paper
  – M-9 indicating tape
  – HAZMAT Smart Strip
         Colorimetric Sampling
• Tests available for
  warfare agents
  – Multiple tube tests
  – Single tube tests
• Very reliable
            Electronic Devices
• Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)
  – Detects warfare agents
  – Detects irritants
  – Detects explosives and drugs
• Surface acoustical wave (SAW)
  – Detects warfare agents
• Flame spectrophotometry
  – Detects warfare agents
  Biological Agent Detection (1 of 2)
• Handheld assays
  – Should use reader to improve
    accuracy
  – Some have accuracy issues
• Polymerase chain reaction
  (PCR)
  – Replicates the DNA of the
    sample
  – Looks to match DNA
  – Lab-based systems very
    accurate
  Biological Agent Detection (2 of 2)
• FBI and CDC have established more than 70
  labs nationwide to test for biological agents.
  – Consult with the local FBI WMD Coordinator for more
    information.
• Always screen samples.
  – Fire, corrosive, toxic, and radiation hazards
    Federal Response Agencies
• FBI
  – Hazardous Materials Response Unit (HMRU)
  – ERT
• National Guard Civil Support Teams (CST)
• FEMA (Federal Emergency Management
  Agency)
  – Urban Search and Rescue (USAR)
• DOD
  – Technical Escort Unit (TEU)
            Incident Priorities (1 of 2)
• Rescue live victims.              • Remove live victims.
   – Use full protective clothing      – Leave the dead.
     and SCBA.                      • Ensure police presence.
• Avoid contact with any               – Terrorist may be around
  materials.                        • Watch for secondary
• Use quick in – quick out            devices.
  approach.                         • Avoid staging equipment
• Do not treat victims in             together.
  hazard area.
          Incident Priorities (2 of 2)
• Request HAZMAT and        • Isolate victims.
  Bomb Squad.               • Establish triage areas.
• Limit personnel working
  in hazard area.           • Notify area hospitals.
• Notify emergency          • Remember the incident is
  management.                 a crime scene.
• Request USAR for          • Preserve evidence.
  collapses.                • Consult with specialists.
                    Summary
•   Type of terrorism
•   Potential targets
•   Indicators of terrorism
•   Incident actions
•   General groupings of warfare agents
•   Detection of terrorism agents
•   Federal assistance
•   Basic incident priorities

				
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