AS_001 by liwenting

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									Ψ
   A level PSYCHOLOGY

 Welcome to Psychology

„The study of the mind & human behaviour‟
     Week 1
introduction to Ψ
let’s start with some illusions
What do you see?
One or two faces?
An extra piece or a piece missing?
Donkey or seal?
Flickering dots
Young or old man?
How many horses?
Eskimo or red Indian?
A knight in the trees
Stare at the dot & rock!
Which line is the longest?
Never ending staircase
Sax face
Copy this shape
A bridge-ship?
What do you see?
Imaginary grey dots
The man is a liar!
Copy this shape
Two faces or a vase?
A young or old woman?
Stroop effect
 2 trials (conditions)
A boring Penguin
A Techno penguin
Personality. Pick a shape which you
     think describes you best?
                       Triangle


                       Square


                       Circle


                       Explosion
Personality. What does it mean?

                     Triangle. Easy going,  like other
                      people‟s company & optimistic
                      about life.


                     Square. Level headed, intelligent
                      & serious, a very giving & likeable
                      person


                     Circle. A quiet & gentle person,
                      keeps themselves to themselves &
                      is close to family & friends
       Oh dear!



   Explosion.
An unhealthy obsession
  with food, Alcohol &
          Sex!!!!
Penguins dream of getting to mars
…and have made it cause they have
  tried really hard to get there
A Penguin in a box
Why study human behaviour?....
               Because…..

Some things about us are really interesting…
Really Interesting
..& some things not so interesting..
 Some things we have found out
have been important in helping us
understand why we do the things
           we do……
                   FOR EXAMPLE
        Why do we like some people and not others?

              How can we improve our memory?

   What are the consequences of not having a good
                      childhood?

                  How do we cope with stress?

       What is the difference between right & wrong?
               More Questions
                       Why do we obey others?

                      What makes us aggressive?

   Why can’t children see things from another person’s
                       perspective?

              Why do we stereotype people?

              Why do we call people ‘weird’?
  What exactly is a ‘Freak’ & why do
   we call people names like this?


Think of other names we call people besides
 freak & write them down in a spider graph
 starting with the word „freak‟ in the middle.
What is a ‘freak’?




      freak
             What is psychology?
      Psychology attempts to study our mind & behaviour
       in order to gain a better understanding towards why
                      we do the things we do.
        There are two ways in which psychology works:
1.    We research behaviour by carrying out studies such as
       experiments, observations, questionnaires & surveys.
2.     We apply what we find to real life settings in order to
                       order to help people.
             Help who exactly?
   Forensic psychologists study criminal behaviour &
       work in prisons & for the police. They can
     suggest ways to catch criminals & how to help
       them become better people once they are
                         caught.

    Child psychologists work with children and help
    them develop & can help children learn better &
               become more sociable .
                psychologists
   Clinical psychologists work in hospitals & clinics
& help people who have become mentally ill as a
  result of brain damage or trauma & look for
           ways to help them recover.

   Organisational psychologists help businesses
    become more efficient by suggesting ways to
    improve & as result, their employees become
             more productive at work
  Other Psychologists

            Sport psychologists
Help sportspeople improve their performance


       Educational psychologists
   Help children with learning difficulties


         Teacher/lecturer
          

   Help students get A grades
How do we explain behaviour?
             Interactive pavlov
   http://www.psypress.co.uk/pip/resources/slp/t
    opic.asp?chapter=ch08&topic=ch08-sc-01
Explaining behaviour
           Behavioural

            Cognitive

       Psychodynamics

            Biological
       Behavioural approach
 Attempts to explain behaviour by suggesting that we
                   learn to behave by
   Classical conditioning. Learning by association..

      Operant conditioning. Learning by direct
                     reinforcement.
 Social learning theory. Learning by observing and
imitating others especially if they are being rewarded in
 some way for their behaviour & also if we see them as
                      role models.
        Cognitive approach
 Attempts to explain behaviour by the way we
 think about our behaviour. It suggests that the
brain is an information processing system which
 involves making sense of the world around us.
  Firstly, sensation, then perception, attention,
memory & forgetting, language, learning and so
                         on.
             Psychodynamics
    Attempts to explain behaviour by suggesting
         that we behave the way we do due to
     unconscious, internal forces that motivate us
       derived from our childhood experiences.
   Psycho-sexual stages of development (OAPLP).
       Personality theory (id, ego, superoego).
          Biological approach
   Attempts to explain behaviour by our physical
        make up. This includes genetics, brain
     biochemistry, brain structure and hormonal
                     responses.
Week 2 (5)
    Cognitive Psychology


               Memory

   Differences between STM & LTM
In terms of capacity, duration & coding
      HUMAN MEMORY

     What are your earliest memories?

Why do we remember some things more than
                others?
         What is memory?


„Memory is the process of encoding, storing &
            retrieving information.‟
    Short Term & Long Term Memory
    Memory: Is the process by which we hold information about
                 events in the past: Short & Long term.
It is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information.

 Short term memory (STM): Is memory for immediate events,
       they last a very short time & disappear unless they are
        Rehearsed; STM has a limited duration & capacity.

Long term memory (LTM): Is our store for memory of events in
  the past, it lasts from about 30 seconds to 100 years; potentially
                      unlimited duration & capacity.
An example of Rehearsal..
Repetitive behaviour
  The nature & structure of memory

 Duration: Is how long memory lasts for.

STM Key study: Peterson & Peterson trigram recall
 LTM key study: Bahrick et al. recall of yearbook
                      photos
 Factors that influence the duration of STM
  include rehearsal, brain damage and time.
                 Capacity:
Is the Amount that can be held in memory.
 STM key study: Miller serial digit span technique
  Factors that influence the capacity of STM
            include „chunking‟ & age.
            Chunking effect
               numbers
 Do you recognise these digits as a pattern?


08 9811 8118 106 6193 519 4501 274
          Chunking effect
              letters



FBIC IAC IDAS BOS ASAS BB CIT VSM SM SN
                     Encoding:
 Is the way that information is changed when stored
                           in memory.
   STM & LTM key study: Baddeley acoustic & semantic
                    coding in STM & LTM.
„The less alike words sound, whether or not their meanings are
       similar, the more likely you are to remember them.‟
 Factors that influence encoding include the nature of
         the stimulus (concrete or abstract) & age.
         Exercise - Duration
   Peterson & Peterson – the Brown-Peterson
                    technique
Exercise - Capacity
       Miller‟s study
  Exercise -Encoding
              Baddeley

Acoustic & semantic similar words
Week 3 (5)
Models of memory
Multi store model
Evidence in support of the multi- store model

   Studies of capacity, duration & encoding in both STM
                            & LTM

        Glanzer & Cunitz – Primacy & Recency effect

        Studies of brain-damaged patients – KF, HM
       Exercise – the P/R effect
   Glanzer & Cunitz – the primacy/recency effect.
Brain damage & memory loss
   Research studies on KF & HM.
    Criticisms of the multi store model
                    Over simplified
   It does not reflect real life as we do not rehearse
                   every thing to LTM
                   Other criticisms
               Working Memory
Consists of a Central executive, a phonological loop & a
                 visuo-spatial sketch pad.
 Each component works on different kinds of perceptual
                        information.

      The Central Executive. „The Control centre‟ (is like
                         attention).
            Phonological loop „The Inner ear‟.
            Articulatory loop „The Inner voice.‟
         Visuo-spatial sketch pad „The inner eye‟.
Working memory
WM 2
  Evidence in support of the working
           memory model
The dual task technique (it is easier to do two tasks that use a different processing
         system (verbal and visual) than two tasks that use the same system
                                     similar).APFCC

 The word-length effect (people cope better with short words in WM than long
                                 words).APFCC

Studies on the sketch pad (picturing memories) and brain-damaged patients (KF
     could remember visual but not verbal information in STM, which means
                        there must be at least two systems.

  However, not much is known about the capacity or functioning of the central
   executive. It is not clear what happens to other kinds of memory such as taste
                                       or smell.
Exercise - evidence

     Dual task technique

     Word length effect
            Criticisms of WM
   Not much known about the role of the central
                   executive
Week 4 (5)
            Theories of forgetting
                          Definition
 ‘The inability to recall or recognise information which was
           previously learned or placed in memory.’

Forgetting may happen due to a memory not being available
 (it has disappeared) or not being accessible (can’t recall it).
      STM explanations: Decay &
            displacement
Decay means the memory has fades away over time.
  This is because it hasn’t been rehearsed or just is
 not used. However, it does not explain why we can
      remember old memories or something just
   ‘reappears’ in our minds. (Such as in a dream).
   Key study – The Brown-Peterson technique.

Recall of trigrams was worse after 18 secs than it was
   after 3 seconds. However, poorer recall could be
  due to interference (counting backwards) that was
                used to prevent rehearsal.
     STM explanations: Decay & displacement
                     Displacement
Displacement means old memories are replaced by newer ones (just
                      like books on a shelf).




              Key Study – the serial probe technique
  A participant is given a set of 16 digits. One digit (the probe) is
  repeated and the participant tries to recall the digit that follows it.
   Recall is much better if the probe is nearer to the end of the list
                           than near the start.
  LTM explanations: Interference theory & Retrieval
                      failure

   Interference means similar memories interfere
   disrupt and confuse each other. The more similar
  the information is, the more likely interference will
                         happen.
 Proactive interference is when old memories affect
  new ones (calling a new boyfriend by your old bf’s
                         name).
Retroactive interference means new memories affect
      old memories (going to change gears in an
   automatic when you are used to driving a manual
                       geared car).
                   Retrieval failure
Retrieval failure means we cannot access a memory even though we know it in
   our memory somewhere. It means we do not have the right cues in order to
                                  remember.

                       Memories are remembered best:
 When the cue is similar to what we are trying to remember.(cue dependent)
 When we recall the information in the same place as we originally memorised
                               it.(context state)


           Key Study - Godden & Baddeley –deep sea divers study
When we memorised something when we were happy and recall it when we are
                            happy (mood state)
                         Emotional factors
                           in forgetting
                            Flashbulb memories
                                 Definition

 ‘Accurate and long-lasting memories formed at times of high emotion, such as significant
                                  public or personal events’.
                            e.g. 9/11, death of Princess Diana.

It is as if a flash photograph was taken at the moment of the event and every detail indelibly
                   printed in memory. Flashbulb memories enhance memory recall.

   One suggestion is that the hormones released at a time of high emotion may enhance
                                          memory.
                   KEY STUDY - Flashbulb memory of Sept 11th, 2001
                                  09/11
 Investigated whether this event, which produced a strong emotional response,
    was recalled with accuracy over a long period of time or whether memory of
                           this event was prone to errors.
   People were questioned immediately after the attacks and then a year later.

                                   Such as;
where they were? What they were doing? What time it was? Who they were with?
                               How they felt? Etc.
                Nearly all Americans had a perfect fm of 9/11.

 Therefore, fm‟s are more detailed, vivid and accurate than ordinary memories.
   fm‟s appear to exist for particularly dramatic, surprising, shocking events. It
    would appear that personal relevance of the event is a vital factor of fm‟s.
          Flashbulb memories

Brown & Kulik. JFK study of fm

                                       Moments before the assassination of JFK.

   In Brown & Kulik‟s study 75% of black Americans
     reported fm‟s for the death of Martin Luther King
        compared to only 33% of white Americans.
    The opposite was reported for the death of JFK.
                            Repression
                                        Definition
„According to Freud, a form of ego defence where anxiety-provoking memories are kept out of
        conscious awareness as a means of coping. e.g. .negative childhood experiences.‟
                          Repression Inhibits memory recall.


              Levinger and Clark.Emotionally charged words study


                              Hate                                Day
                              War                                Space
                             Death                                Light
                             Punish                              Flower
                           Destruction                            Chip
                              Hurt                               Sound
                             Blood                                Easy
                            Murder                                Road
                               Kill                               Tree
                     Free association
                                    Procedure

Participants were given a list of words and were asked to say what came into their
     mind when they saw each word. This is called word association. During the
    task GSRs were measured as an indicator of stress levels. Finally, participants
     were given the cue words again and asked to recall the associations they had
                                     just reported.

People took longer to think of the associations to the negative words suggesting
              they had repressed them because they caused anxiety.
                  GSR‟s were higher for the negative words.

   However, this theory is difficult to test for ethical and practical reasons.
 Some people seem to have repressed their memories of being abused and these
       memories can be accessed during psychotherapy or hypnotherapy.

Some evidence shows that people are prone to suggestion and leading questions.
Week 5 (5)
     Critical Issue: Eye Witness
          Testimony (EWT)
The study of EWT is concerned with how accurately
 people are able to remember events (especially crimes)
    which they had witnessed. The consequences of
inaccurate EWT can be serious especially as jurors have
       been highly influenced by such evidence.

 We therefore, need to think of ways what causes
unreliable evidence and what we can do to improve it.
    These include reconstructive memory, leading
questions and the effects of fear and anxiety on recall.
         Reconstructive memory
  Reconstructive memory: Bartlett stated that memory doesn‟t
      work like a camera as with fm‟s. instead we are prone to
     reconstruct our memories based on our existing schemas
   (knowledge of the world) and that we „fill in the gaps‟ when we
               are unable to remember all the details.

Bartlett‟s studied reconstructive memory using the story „the war of
    the ghosts‟. English participants read an unfamiliar American
   Indian folk story. When the story was repeated at later stages he
   found that it became shorter, and more understandable from an
  English point of view. It had been reconstructed/translated to fit
  the schemas that the English participants had about story telling.
The war of the ghosts
                    Schemas
Schemas are organised packages of information about
  objects, events etc, which are built up by experience
  and stored in LTM. They help us to understand our
              world and new experiences.

When schemas relate to social situations they are called
                        scripts.

These scripts consist of stereotypical behaviours and are
   typical for a given occasion (going to a restaurant).
                            Bransford
Bransford & Johnson showed that schemas are important in helping us deal with
    information. They showed participants statements of an event (flying a kite).
   People were able to recall more of the statements later when they knew the
                      statements were about how to fly a kite.
Schemas can be important when considering EWT as they can affect memory in
                                  a number of ways:
  We tend to ignore information we do not understand or fit with our existing
                                        schemas.
   We remember the basics of some events but not necessarily all the details.
 We use our schemas to fill in the gaps of what might have happened (we guess).
         Our memories may well be stereotyped (Allport & Postman).
 Recent studies similar to Bartlett‟s have found high levels of accuracy and not
                              much „filling in the gaps‟.
    However, schemas have also shown to be very accurate for many events.
                     schemas
   In a now-famous experiment by Bransford and
    Johnson, subjects read an ambigious text
    passage by itself or one accompanied by either
    of two illustrations. Although both contained
    identical graphic elements, only the one with
    elements organized in a contextually sensible
    way (bottom left image) facilitated better recall
    of the story.
The balloon scenario
                         Balloon story
   If the balloons popped the sound wouldn't be able to carry since everything
    would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also
    prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well
    insulated. Since the whole operation depends upon a steady flOw of
    electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of
    course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to
    carry that far. An additional problem is that a string could break on the
    instrument. Then there could be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear
    that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer
    potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could
    go wrong
Week 6 (5)
                    Leading questions

    Loftus‟s Research: The effects of language/leading questions on recall
 Loftus suggests that the language used to question witnesses can change what
                             they actually remembered.

                             The Car Accident study

Participants were asked a different question after watching a film of the same car
                                        crash

                    “How fast were the cars going when they
                                     Hit
                                   Crashed
                                   Smashed
                                   Collided
                                Each other?”
Car crash
                    Loftus’s findings
  It was found that the word used in the question affected the estimated speed.
     Participants estimated 40 mph for the „smashed‟ condition, but only 34 mph
                                for the „hit condition.

    One week later, participants were asked if they had seen any broken glass.
     Although there was no broken glass, 32% of the „smashed‟ condition said
               they had compared to only 14% of the „hit‟ condition.
In another experiment, Loftus & Zanni showed another film of a car crash. Some
    eyewitnesses were asked if they had seen „the‟ broken headlight and others if
        they had seen „a‟ broken headlight. 17% of the „the‟ broken headlight
    condition reported seeing it compared to only 7% of the „a‟ broken headlight
                                      condition.
    However, people are not so easily misled if the information is ridiculously
                                       obvious.
     Loftus has been critisised as most of her work is lab based and artificial.
                          Fear & Anxiety

Freud believed that people forget about some events because they make us too anxious.
   He stated that these events were so traumatic that they were forced into the
   unconscious (I just want to forget about what happened). Freud referred to this as
   Repression

Loftus reported „the weapons focus‟ study in which an attempt was made to create an
    emotional situation that reflected real life.
Participants saw a man coming out of a lab either carrying a pen in greasy hands or
    carrying a blood-covered knife.
Later, they were asked to ID the man. Only 33% of those in the „weapon‟ condition could
    ID the man, whereas 49% of those in the „pen‟ condition correctly IDd the man.
We can conclude that people has focused more on the weapon because it caused more
    anxiety and less attention was paid to the man.
However, we have to question the ethics of the weapons focus study and more recently,
    research shows that victims of real crime make more accurate eyewitnesses than
    bystanders. This questions repression theory.
             The Cognitive Interview
                                    Improving EWT
   The (Enhanced) Cognitive Interview….is a technique used by the police to help obtain
                                more accurate information
                                   from witnesses.
                  During an interview a witness will be encouraged to;
     Recreate the context of the event by imagining the setting (context dependent
                                        memory).
        Report every detail about the incident, no matter how trivial or vague.
                         Recall the event in different orders.
   Recall the event from different perspectives such as imagining what another person
                                       might have seen.
                 During police interviews, it is now standard procedure to:
                                 Minimise distractions
                                 Try to reduce anxiety
                               Do not hurry the witness
                    Avoid interrupting & asking leading questions
             Enhancing recall
The cognitive interview has been a valuable tool in improving
EWT. It is most effective if it is used ASAP after the event. The
 cognitive interview has shown to improve recall by up to 35%
            more than the traditional police interview.

       Others factors that may improve recall include:
           How long a person watched the event
             How close they were to the event
                       Good visibility
        How familiar was the person to the witness
                How novel the situation was
      The amount of time between the event and recall
 Others factors that may improve
              recall

    How long a person watched the event
      How close they were to the event

               Good visibility

  How familiar was the person to the witness

        How novel the situation was

 Amount of time between the event and recall
Week 7 (5)
Summary of memory
      STM/LTM
   Models of memory

  Theories of forgetting

         EWT
Term 2
       Week 8
Developmental psychology
       Attachments in Development
Development of attachments

Attachment can be described as „a strong emotional bond between two people, characterised by mutual affection and the
                                                       need to be close.‟
The key characteristics of attachment are seeking proximity, distress on separation, pleasure when reunited, and general
                                            orientation towards primary caregiver.


  Schaffer & Emerson studied 60 babies in Glasgow. They were observed at home and asked their
             parents to report at what age they showed separation anxiety and stranger anxiety.
                  Findings suggested three stages in the development of attachments:
                              Asocial, indiscriminate, specific attachments.
 Specific attachments were made to those who were socially interactive with, and were responsive to
                                              their babies‟ needs.
 However, recent research shows that babies are able to form specific attachments at an earlier time
    than that suggested by Shaffer & Emerson. Also, they used observations and mother‟s accounts
                         of their babies‟ behaviour, both methods are prone to bias.
                  Individual Differences
Ainsworth studied the quality (security) of children‟s attachments using a procedure called the „strange‟
                                                   situation.
   In the SS, observers watch how children aged between 12-18 months behave during a series of
                            structured episodes that take place in a lab setting:
 The mother brings a child into the lab, a room where there are toys and comfortable furniture. They
                       play with the toys together. Then a stranger enters the room.
   A series of episodes occurs in which the child is left alone or left with the stranger. The child is
                        „comforted‟ by the stranger or by its mother if it gets upset.

                   Three types of attachment were identified from the observations:

Secure 70% (explores the room happily when mum is present, gets upset when she leaves, but is happy
                           again when she returns. The child prefers mum to stranger.
 Insecure resistant 15% (child does little exploring and is wary of stranger. Gets upset when mum leaves
                          and is angry when she returns, seeking and rejecting contact).
Insecure avoidant 15% (child is not bothered when mum leaves or when she returns. Child is indifferent
                                               to mum and stranger).
                                Disorganised 1% (child is dazed and confused).
The ‘strange situation’
                Ainsworth’s findings
                                Strange situation cont.
  Secure children tested when they were older were still found to have secure
                              attachments to their mum.
 Securely attached children were also more popular and had better social skills
     later on in life (Hazan & Shaver, Early attachments type and later relationships).
   However, it may be that warm and caring mothers are more likely to have
                              securely attached children.
    It may be that a child‟s innate personality is responsible for the type of
                                attachment it develops.
 Some children responded differently depending on which parent was present.
This suggests the quality of the child‟s relationship with its parent rather than its
                       personality (mummy‟s boy, daddy‟s girl).
               Cross cultural variations
The table below summarises the findings from research by Kroonenberg using the SS in different
    cultures and shows that secure attachment is the most common form of attachment all over the
    world.

% Country SecureAvoidantResistantstudiesGB752231Sweden742241Germany573583Japan685272

Explanations for these findings:
Research shows that Differences within cultures (between social classes) are greater than between
    cultures.
There are different child-rearing styles that may account for the differences and the strange situation is
    a purely „strange‟ situation to be in.
German children are taught from an early age to be more independent.
Sweden invests in its children providing high quality day care and giving parenting advice.
Japanese children are rarely left unattended by their mothers
Week 9
                    Explaining attachment

                                              Learning theory
                           All behaviours are acquired through conditioning
                       According to CC, Food (UCS) produces pleasure (UCR).
                       Mum is associated with this pleasure and becomes a (CS).
Thus, the baby has learned to associate its mum with the pleasure it feels when it is fed and so seeks to
                                                  be close to her.
According to OC, rewarded behaviours are repeated. After food, the hunger drive is reduced and this
    is rewarded. Therefore, when the baby is hungry again it repeats the behaviour (crying) that leads
   to drive reduction. Since the mum is the person who feeds the baby, the baby wants to be close to
                                         her and so becomes attached.
However, research has shown that babies do not always become attached to the one who feeds them.
        Harlow‟s monkey study showed that the supply of food was not enough for attachment to
                                                      develop.
 This is a reductionist theory, in that it tries to explain a complex human behaviour in simple terms.
                                                Research support
                                 Schaffer &Emerson – Glasgow babies
                                 Harlow – contact comfort in monkeys
Harlow’s monkey study
                           Bowlby (evolutionary theory)



   Bowlby suggested that there was a critical period (2.5 years) for the child to
     develop a normal relationship with its PCG, if this did not happen then it
                             might lead to emotional damage.
     He also said that a child usually only has one strong attachment figure
                                          (monotropy).
The attachment is adaptive in that it increases the child‟s chances of survival and
      reproduction owing to innate social releasers (crying) to gain attention and
                                  comfort from the PCG.
                                    Research support
                                  Lorenz – imprinting
   Hazan & Shaver -Early attachments and later behaviour (The Love quiz).
Freud’s psychodynamic approach suggests that children seek oral satisfaction
   (an innate drive=the pleasure principle). So, the one who feeds it becomes the love
                                              object
Week 10
                      Deprivation & Privation

                                                  Deprivation
  A child may be separated from one or both caregivers for a number of reasons, including divorce, death or
                                                    hospitalisation.
 When the separation involves the loss of the primary attachment figure and consequent bond disruption, this is
                                                  called deprivation.

                                       Bowlby – the maternal deprivation hypothesis.
Bowlby suggested that if a bond had not been formed or had been broken during the first 2 and a half years of a child‟s life ,and if no
   substitute mother was available, then this may have serious negative, developmental, emotional and intellectual effects later on in the
                                      Childs‟ life These effects would be permanent and irreversible.

 Early research looked into the effects of separation and found three progressive stages that children showed in
                                              response to being separated:

                                Protest (intense period of lots of crying and distress.
                 Despair (less crying and becomes apathetic and uninterested in its surroundings.
            Detachment (the child appears less distressed but is indifferent to mum when she reappears.

         Research shows that short term separation may have long term negative effects on some children
    KEY STUDY – Bowlby „44 thieves‟

    Bowlby compared 44 petty thieves with 44 other badly behaved children.
 He labelled 32% of the thieves as „affectionless psychopaths‟ (antisocial behaviour &
     unable to show emotion) because they lacked any remorse or guilt for their
                                        actions.
   86% of the affectionless psychopaths had experienced „early and prolonged
     separation from their PCG‟s compared to very few of the other children he
                                        studied.
  One of the main criticisms of Bowlby‟s study is that the data might have been
                           unreliable (retrospective study).
             We also cannot say that separation leads people to steal.
It might have been that a poor home environment was related to behavioural and
                                emotional problems.
                          Privation


 Privation is the lack of an attachment. The effects of privation are
     more long lasting are severe than the effects of deprivation or
                                separation.
                               Key Studies
                            Curtiss - Genie
                      Koluchova - Czech Twins
            Freud & Dann -Concentration camp children
These case studies provide insights into exceptional cases that could
    not have been studied in any other way. The contents of case
    studies are selective so we cannot make generalisations from a
                             single case study.
       The effects of institutionalisation

 Hodges & Tizard studied the effects of privation from studies of care homes.
        65 children had been placed in care before the age of 4 months.
   By the age of 4 years, 24 children had been adopted, 15 went back to their
                       families, and 26 stayed in the care home.
             The children were assessed at 4, 8 and 16 years of age.
                             Findings & conclusions
 Adopted children formed the closest attachments and those who went back to
        their families had less good relationships with their natural parents.
These children were attention seekers and were less socially skilled than a control
                                         group.
  However, some of the children dropped out of the study before it finished.
   Their might have been individual differences in the families and how they
                              looked after their children.
Week 11
           Critical issue: Day Care
Day care is a form of temporary care usually outside the home and not by family members.
                                 Effects of day care
                                       Negative
                  Separation may lead to emotional deprivation
            The quality of care may not be as good as that at home.
                                       Positive
                        It can be a stimulating environment
                        There may be a high quality of care
      Mums with children at home all the time may become depressed
                              (Provides a good outlet).
                              Individual differences
       Insecure children may not cope very well (shyness, frightened)
              Improving day care

 Provide a clean and healthy environment where
    children can play both indoors and outdoors
                 with plenty of room.
 Provide a safe and stimulating environment with
   a variety of activities including play, sleep and
                          food.
 A good staff to child ratio. 1:3 for infants to 1:6
                  for older toddlers.
 Provide well-qualified staff with a staff turnover.
Week 12
          Effects of Social development

 „Developing social skills for effective communication later on in life where a child learns to
                                    interact positively with others‟

                              Negative effects
Some children become aggressive if separated from their PCG for more than a
          certain amount of time as rated by their parents and teachers.

                                 Positive effects
Children in better quality care are friendlier and interact better with others than
                             those in lower quality care.
              Positive effects on socially disadvantaged children.

        Some research has found no effects on social development
              Cognitive development
  „Changes in a person‟s mental structures, abilities and processes that happen
                          throughout a person‟s lifetime‟.

                               Negative effects
     Lack of stimulation affects mental development, reduced exploration.

                                Positive effects
Anderson‟s longitudinal study in Sweden showed that high quality care increases
    IQ levels and performance at school in children when tested later at 8-13
              years compared to those who did not attend day care.

      Some research has found no effects on cognitive development
                  Week 13
   Summary of developmental psychology

         Attachments in development

             Deprivation & privation

                      Day care
         Week 14


Past papers examination practice
      Term 3
    Week 15/16/17

Revision for unit 1 exam
          Week 18
             Stress



   Stress as a bodily response
        Sources of stress

      Stress management
                                            STRESS
                                                     Definition of stress
             „A state of physiological arousal and psychological tension caused by something from the environment.‟
                „The perceived demands of the environment are greater than a person‟s perceived ability to cope.‟
                                             Stress as a physiological response
The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones that are carried by the blood to other body organs.
                                                       Perceived stressor
                                                 Hypothalamus

        Stimulates Pituitary gland                                                                   SAM
                                                   (Releases ACTH)


                                                 Adrenal medulla

                                            (Releases adrenaline and noradranaline)

                                               Stimulates Adrenal cortex
                                            (Releases cortisol)
The visual system
        THE GENERAL ADAPTATION
               SYNDROME
  Selye proposed the GAS to help explain the short term effects of the body‟s response to stressors and how too much
                                           prolonged stress can lead to illness.

                                             The three stages of the GAS
Alarm Reaction – Stress response systems are activated – the pituitary gland produces ACTH and the adrenal medulla produces
                                                            Adrenaline.
       Resistance – The body is adapting to cope with the stressor but the organism is becoming susceptible to illness.
 Exhaustion – If the body is put under prolonged stress then its ability to cope starts to fail and exhaustion sets in. May result in
                            damaging the immune system and stress related illnesses become more likely.

                                                       Evaluation of the GAS
 Seyle‟s work was unethical because he subjected rats to nocuous agents. However, it did lead to the recognition that there wa s a link
                                                            between stress and illness.
As his work was based on animals it only focused on the physiological response of stress. However, Selye did later accept the importance
                                                       of cognitive and emotional factors.
                                    It is difficult to generalise findings with animals to humans.
               There may be different physiological responses to different stressors as shown by individual differences.
 STRESS AND PHYSICAL ILLNESS

  There is lots of evidence to support the relationship between stress and illness. If the
     energy activated during times of stress is not used up, then dangerous high levels of
   glucose and fatty acids stay in the blood and increase the risk of CHD by blocking the
                                  blood supply to the heart.
                             Stress can affect the body either:
                                          Directly
Excessive levels of glucose and fatty acids in the blood increase the risk of cardiovascular
                                             disease.
            High blood pressure damages blood vessels and leads to clotting.
                 Excessive levels of cortisol release are related to arthritis.
           Damage to the immune system by preventing the growth of T cells.
                                        Indirectly.
Stress may lead people to behave in ways that increase their chances of becoming ill. E.g.
    smoking, drinking, poor eating habits, lack of exercise. Stress can also be responsible
                  for people behaving in dangerous and unpredictable ways.
       Key Research studies into the relationship between stress and illness.



                                                              
                                                              ⅔
  Williams – those who score high on the anger scale are 2 more likely to have a heart
                           attack than those who do not score highly.
                Krantz – CHD – reduced blood supply to the heart muscles.
      Kiecolt-Glaser - Found that Immune system suppression is related to exam stress.
             Holmes and Rahe - found that Life Changes are related to illness
    Marmot – Stress at work – the job-strain model (high demand-low control theory).
 Showed that civil servants on low grades (with little control) were more likely to develop
                           heart attacks than those on higher grades).
Brady - Showed that monkeys with control were more likely to develop ulcers when given
                                         control of a lever.
  Rodin & Langer showed that elderly people living in a home were happier and lived
       longer if they had some control over certain aspects of their lives (allowed visitors,
                                         having hobbies).
         This suggests that personal control can reduce stress and improve health.
  Week 19
Sources of Stress
                                       Sources of stress

                                                        Life events & stress
Life changes: Events in a person‟s life that force a significant change or adjustment. They can be seen as significant sources of stress.
                                                  Key Study - Holmes & Rahe
Life events (mostly negative), cause people to change. This causes stress and makes them more susceptible to
                                                                    illness.
Research looked at the relationship between life events measured by life change units (LCU‟s) and the onset of
                                                                    illness.
  They found positive correlations between high SRRS scores and the risk/onset of physical or mental illness.
However, this might be unreliable data. Different types, severity and length of time of illnesses were reported.

        However, Is the SRRS a valid measure as it only focuses on acute stress rather than chronic stress.
                                               Delongis et al.
Daily Hassles & Uplifts scale of 53 items found stronger correlations between scores on their scale and health
                                       status than SRRS scores and health.
 Their scale measured ongoing stressors such as money worries, general health, work, sex, family, crime, losing
                                                  things, exams.
                     Stress & the workplace

Workplace stressors involve some aspect of a person‟s job which produces a stress reaction in the body.
      These include environmental stressors such as Noise, Temperature and crowding.
       There are also many other factors in the workplace that acts as stressors:
   Key study – Marmot found that those in jobs of higher grades developed fewer
                  cardiovascular problems that those in low grade positions.
This could be explained by the fact that those with low position jobs are paid less, have
                    less control, and have poorer social support networks.
Other research has found that the following can also cause people a great deal of stress:
                          Role ambiguity (lack of job description)
                       Poor relationships (with boss or colleagues)
   Job insecurity (part time work/peace work/temporary employment/contract)
                 Shift work (leads to metabolism/body clock problems)
             Perceived inadequacy & lack of recognition of achievement
        Individual differences that modify the effects of stressors




                 Freidman & Rosenmann
 Found that Personality type A people are more at risk of
                      developing CHD.
                     Cooper (Culture)
  Research suggests that those who live in collectivist
       cultures cope better with stressful situations.
                      Taylor (Gender)
during stressful situations, men show greater increases in
   blood pressure and stress hormones than women do.
  Week 20
Stress management
         STRESS MANAGEMENT

Stress management can be defined as different ways in which
       people try to cope with the negative effects of stress.
We might use physical methods to change the way our body
     reacts to stress, or psychological methods to change the
              way we deal with a stressful situation.
 Physical methods of reducing stress
                              Drugs

  Benzodiazepines (Valium) help by producing lots of GABA.
      This chemical is the body‟s natural form of anxiety relief.
It also reduces serotonin activity which increases neurotransmitter
   activity. People who are anxious need high levels of GABA and
        low levels of serotonin to help make them less anxious.

 Beta-blockers are used to slow down the heart rate and reduce
     blood pressure levels that otherwise could lead to serious
  problems for a person under stress. These drugs are often used
  by sportspeople by reducing the arousal of the ANS which may
                   hinder optimal performance.
        Strengths & weaknesses

Drugs provide a short term and quick remedy for
 stress. They require little effort for the user and
             they are relatively cheap.

Drugs can also lead to addiction, side effects and
 may only be treating the symptoms and not the
                     problem.
                                 Biofeedback

„„is based on the principles of operant conditioning where a person is rewarded for reducing their
                                              stress levels.‟
     The person under stress is connected to a number of biological measuring devices (EEG,
               EMG), which gives them a reading of what is happening to their body.
      The person then learns to control any adverse feedback by using breathing techniques.
                            The procedure involves a number of stages:
                         The person is connected to the measuring device.
                 They are instructed to focus on reducing certain bodily functions.
                  Successful behaviours are repeated because they are rewarding.
                 The person learns to transfer their skills to everyday situations..
  Psychological methods of reducing stress
                   include:
                                              SIT
(Meichenbaum) teaches people skills to cope with stress and to achieve personal
                                               goals.
                              This consists of three phases:
                        1. Conceptualisation (Cognitive aspect)
                    Think about the problem and how it could be dealt with
                     2. Skills training practice (behavioural aspect)
 Practicing to relax by using breathing exercises; talking about the problem; positive self-talk
                                   (telling yourself you can do it)
                                  3. Real-life applications
                               Role-play , then in the real world
                             Hardiness training
           Hardiness training (Kobasa) teaches people to become „harder‟ about aspects of their lives.
                                             The three „C‟s of hardiness
                                        How to make a „hardier‟ personality
                                                         1. Focus
                             Being able to know when we are about to be, or become stressed
                                                   2. Reconstruction
                Thinking about how a past event was dealt with and how it could have been dealt with better
                                      3. Compensation for improvement
                   Rewarding ourselves for positive outcomes of a previous negative response to a stressor

RET (Ellis) believes that stress is caused by irrational thinking that leads a person to think of situations as a threat
                                                  and therefore, stressful.
                                    A=actual event appraisal (I‟ve failed my exam)
                                            B=beliefs (because I‟m lazy)
                                   C=consequences of „B‟ (I have to leave college)
                                                    Add the therapy
                                           D=dispute the irrational beliefs
                     E=the Effect of „D‟ is to restructure a persons beliefs about their ability
                        The Role of Control

   The ability to anticipate when we are about to face a potentially stressful situation and be
                             prepared for it. Control is real or imagined.

              We can take control over a situation by the following:
Using a social support network of family and friends (although men are less likely
                                to do this as women).
Using information about a situation that will give us a greater sense of control by
    putting things into perspective (not blowing things out of proportion, being
                                       rational).
Using a belief system such as religion which may give a person a sense of security
                              and stability in their lives.
 Changing a behaviour to help cope better with a situation (worrying about not
    passing exams by being more enthusiastic and motivated towards studying).
Brady’s ‘executive’ monkey
                      Locus of control
Locus of control describes the focus of people‟s sense of control in their lives.
   People who believe they have control over their successes and failures are
                     described as having an internal locus of control.
Those of us who believe that our lives are determined by outside influences such
    as believing in luck or fate are described are described as having an external
                                     locus of control.
              Most of us are somewhere in the middle of the two.
    Learned helplessness suggests that people who have had lots of bad
          experiences in life become apathetic towards certain situations.
           This is a characteristic of many people who are depressed.
Depressed people believe that they are worthless, that life is awful and that there
                                is no future for them.
Beck‟s cognitive triad attempts to change the way people think about their lives
                         by cognitive restructuring training.
  Week 21
Summary of stress
           Week 22
           Abnormality

    Defining abnormal behaviour
   Explaining abnormal behaviour
        Anorexia & Bulimia
An example of abnormal
Even more Abnormal
                             ABNORMALITY

                                         What is considered ABNORMAL?
  People recognise and label behaviours of others that they consider to be abnormal (you must be mad/mentally
                                                         disturbed).
  Labelling usually suggests that the behaviour is undesirable and potentially dangerous and so need some kind of
                                                         treatment.
   Even though there are a number of definitions of abnormality, not one of them is broad enough to cover all
                                            instances of abnormal behaviour.
               There are two main factors which influence the explanation of abnormal behaviour.
                                    These can be applied to any of the definitions.
                            The factors are historical time period and culture and society.

                                                      History
Demonic possession suggests that people who showed strange or bizarre behaviour was due to the fact they were
     possessed by an evil spirit. Treatment for possession involved „exorcising‟ the demons, which was often very
                                                         barbaric.
Witchcraft suggested that when a person became ill, the first thought was that they were cursed, people believed in
    the power of witches to heal as well as to cast spells over people. If people (usually women) were found guilty
                   of witchcraft (they usually were) then they were drowned or burned at the stake.
Lunatic asylums were introduced later for those considered mentally ill. People were usually held against their will
            and women who were considered to be promiscuous were often put into these kinds of places.
                                          Culture

    What is perceived as normal in one culture can be considered abnormal in another.
   For example, in western society hearing voices or hallucinating are viewed as signs of
    mental illness but in certain cultures, the same behaviours are is played by tribal witch
      doctors during rituals, and seen as vital communication links with the spirit world.
                                 Definitions of Abnormality
Statistical infrequency –setting a standard in terms of what the average person is doing. Statistically
                           infrequent means a behaviour is uncommon/rare.
                               The normal distribution curve & Sd.

                                                                 %
                                                      of population

                                                         Very           medium          very
                                               Unhappy          happy                     happy
         HAPPY OR UNHAPPY?

Where do we draw the line? At what point does someone move from
            happy to unhappy? What is average happy?

  The model does not take into account whether the behaviour is
 socially desirable or not. Do we assume that it is undesirable to be
                                unhappy?
 How can we convert a behaviour such as happiness into a score?
   It also fails to consider history and culture, it only measures
                               statistically.
    Deviation from the social norms
 Setting a standard in terms of what is socially acceptable. These
     include rules & regulations, both explicit & implicit, values
                          and belief systems.

           Social norms depend on a number of factors
 Cultural. What is normal in one culture may not be the case in
                            another culture.
Situational. Going to the toilet is normal, but not in the middle of
                             a supermarket
Age. A 3 year old can stare at someone, shout out, and even take
       their clothes off in public, without causing disruption.
   If 30 year old teacher did the same, people might well react
                               differently.
Deviation from the social norms
Social deviancy
  Gender. All cultures have certain dress codes for males and females. However, it is now more acceptable to wear
           unisex clothing. Examples of this are women wearing trousers and transvestites (lily Savage).
                  History. In Victorian times, attitudes towards sexuality were repressed.
               Women were seen as wicked, deviant or perverse if they had sex outside marriage.
             Attitudes towards masturbation were harsh, viewing it as an evil sin which led to blindness.
             Today, sexuality is everywhere and is commonly used to promote products, records and films.
  Homosexuality was also viewed as a mental illness until 1973. Imagine going to the doctors because you are gay!!
                     The legal position. It is socially unacceptable and illegal to kill someone.
                        However, if it happened in battle, a person would be regarded ass a hero.
The death penalty is also viewed as normal in some American states (although many regard this as immoral). What do
                                      people consider to be right or wrong in a hierarchy?
 Many people would put child abusers at the top of their list, others would put rape, torture or murder at the top. We
                             often hear people say that certain behaviours are „perverse‟ or „sick‟.
                             In this way they are making a comment on social acceptability.
Deviation from the ideal mental health
Deviation from the ideal mental health- setting a standard in terms of what is
                                       mentally healthy.
       This means behaving in a way according to the way we think about things.
               Jahoda suggests that ideal mental health consists of having:
                          A positive attitude towards yourself.
 The opportunity to self-actualise realise your potential (Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs).
                               The ability to resist stress.
Not being too dependent on others (being dependent on others for your own well-being gives
                             control of your life to other people).
                               An accurate idea of reality.
                      Do we ever achieve the „ideal mental health?
        Failure to function adequately
Failure to function adequately- setting a standard in terms of normal day to day living.
                  This means coping with the demands of daily living.

                              Seven features of failing to function
                                           Suffering
                                   Violation of moral codes
                                         Irrationality
                                       Maladaptiveness
                               Vividness & unconventionality
                              Unpredictability and loss of control
                                     Observer discomfort.

      Ultimately, any number of these features leads to social rejection and chastisement.
          Week 23
      Models of abnormality



Explaining abnormal behaviour
                     Models of Abnormality

                                       Assumptions are beliefs held without proof.
   Biological (or medical) model attempts to explain abnormal behaviour by suggesting the causes of mental
    disorders are the same as the causes of physical illnesses (chemical imbalances caused by infection or genetics).

        Therefore, mental illness may be diagnosed, labelled and treated in the same way as physical illness.

 Treatments typically involve drug treatment including anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, anti-psychotic and anti-manic
                                                        drugs.
               ECT involves producing a seizure by passing an electrical current through the brain.

Psychodynamic model attempts to explain abnormal behaviours by suggesting they are result of anxiety produced
                                    by unresolved, unconscious conflicts.
                    This happens due to the dynamics of the three parts of the mind.

   Defence mechanisms such as repression, where unacceptable thoughts are pushed into the unconsciousness,
                                          protect a person from harm.

However, traumatic events in early childhood may result in memories being repressed only to resurface later in life
                                        in the form of a psychological disorder.
                   Explaining abnormal
  Behavioural model attempts to explain abnormal behaviours by suggesting that they are learned
                         (OC, CC, and SLT) in the same way as any other behaviour.
Classical conditioning (as for abnormality). Learning inappropriate behaviour through association. If a
       person experiences a strong emotion when placed in a particular situation or confronted by a
                   particular object, they learn to associate this experience with the event.
                                      Behavioural treatments include
                                  Aversion therapy (used for addiction).
                     Flooding (confronting a fear or abnormal behaviour head on).
            Token economy (given tokens for positive behaviour in exchange for rewards.

   Cognitive model attempts to explain abnormal behaviours by suggesting they are the result of
                            irrational thoughts, expectations and attitudes.
      Psychological disorders can take a variety of forms, magnifying the difficulties of a task,
     ovewrgeneralising and arriving at sweeping conclusions and persistent negative thinking habits
                                         Treatments include
                                Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT).
      Week 24
   Anorexia & Bulimia
                                          AN & BN

                                           Characteristics of AN
                            Weight (less than 15% of expected for height and age)
                         Fear (An intense fear of being overweight or becoming fat)
               Refusing to eat adequate amounts of food, which results in deliberate weight loss)
          Distorted body image (usually by denying the seriousness of the current low of body weight)
              Amenorrhoea (in females, the absence of a least three connective menstrual cycles).

                                     Explaining eating disorders AN/BN
                                             Biological explanations
Brain Damage - Research shows that damage to parts of the hypothalamus can result in animals starving themselves
                                                         to death.
Malfunctioning of the „hunger centres‟ in this part of the brain, therefore, might explain eating disorders in humans.
   However, the evidence is inconclusive and we must be careful when comparing findings in animal studies to
                                                         humans.
  Twin studies have shown higher concordance rates for MZ twins compared to DZ twins for both AN & BN.
                     This suggested genetic factors may in part, help explain eating disorders.
           However, factors other than inherited genes are important in the development of AN/BN.
                                    AN & BN
Low levels of the nt serotonin in the brain suggest Biochemical factors may also be responsible for AN/BN.
   Antidepressant drugs (SSRI‟s) that increase serotonin reuptake help to stop binge eating in bulimics.
 However, it is difficult to say whether low levels of serotonin are the cause or the consequence of AN/BN.

                                        Psychological explanations

                                          Characteristics of BN
                                            Binging & purging
                                                Frequency
                                                Self esteem
                                            Different from AN
                                             KEY STUDIES
                  AN (Holland) – to investigate genetic factors an explanation for AN.
                 BN (Kendler) – to investigate genetic factors as an explanation for BN.
AN (Becker) – to investigate a relationship between cultural change and eating disorders among Fijian girls.
           BN (Cutts) – to investigate whether fear of weight gain underlies eating disorders.
     Week 25


Summary of abnormality
           Week 26
         Social influence
             Covers:

   Majority & minority influence
            Obedience

          Ethical issues
                    SOCIAL INFLUENCE

                                                           Definition
                          „The effects one person or group has on the attitudes or behaviour of another.‟
        Social influence is the effect of other people on a person‟s behaviour. It usually works in two ways:

     Conformity – Yielding to group pressures real or imagined which result in a cjhange in behaviour but not
                                                 necessarily attitude

                         Obedience – Responding to the demands of an authority figure.

                          These two types of social influence differ in a number of ways:

Nature of influence. With obedience, the influence is by direct commands („tidy your room!‟). With conformity, the
    pressure on a person to change their behaviour is an indirect group pressure (such as with fashion and trends).
    Some people show their conformity to a group to the type of clothes they wear and hairstyles they have.

 Power backing up the influence: With conformity, it is fear of being isolated by a group. With obedience, it is
                                                usually official punishment.
                         Obedience is usually to a leader, while conformity is to a group.
Obedience involves an explicit instruction that you are required to obey. Conformity is more voluntary, and involves
                           imitation such as doing something because „everyone else does it.‟
                                 An example of obedience is not breaking the law.
      Majority Influence (Conformity)

                                                            Definition
   „Occurs when real or imagined group pressure results in a person changing their behaviour and attitudes, opinions & beliefs‟ .

                                                     Types of conformity

   Informational Influence – because we believe in the superior status and judgements of others (this usually
   happens when people are in a new or novel situation, and are unsure how to respond, so they look to others for
                  guidance. (The best example of this is type of conformity is shown by Sherif).

Normative Influence – because we want to be liked by others (to fit in with the group) and be rewarded in some
                                              way for our actions.

     Internalisation is an example of this. Changing your mind and your behaviour (as in religious conversion).

                      Compliance – This usually happens because of the demands of the situation.
                                   Change your behaviour but not your mind (Asch).

                  Identification – This is conforming to a social role that is expected of a person
                 Change your behaviour to fit in with the group (The Stamford prison experiment).
                        Why people yield (conform)
                          to majority influence

                            Research on conformity

Sherif – the Autokinetic effect (a visual illusion where a stationery spot of light
     in a darkened room appears to move). Estimates of how far the light had
    moved were affected by the estimates of others in the group. Sherif found
               that estimates converged and a group norm emerged.

Participant123Estimate of distance light moves (cm)Individually3117In front of
                          group677Individually again778
  People will conform to the group because they are unsure about what to do
                            (informational conformity).
                Asch‟s conformity study
    People sometimes conform even when they personally disagree. This is
                           normative conformity.

  Asch investigated the effects of majority group pressure in people when the
                  correct answer to a certain question was obvious.
  The task involved estimating lengths of lines. The group is shown a line and
    others must say which of the 3 others is the same length. The group would
   say their estimates clockwise with the actual participant being last to estimate.

     Asch found that the average conformity rate was 32% for all trials.
                74% of all participants conformed at least once.
However, people were less likely to conform if the majority was not unanimous
                                   in their answers.
Conformity is high if a task is made more difficult or if a majority is perceived as
                                  having high status.
                    Example of cards used in the experiment
Asch’s Lines
 Stimulus cards
                      Scenario

Asch



                             Table
       Experimenter                   Confederate




                        Participant
                variations
Variations on the original study and what
influences Normative conformity in Asch’s
                experiment.

              Size of the Group
          Status of group members
              Difficulty of task

            Deviant in the group
                     Minority Influence
‘A form of social influence where people reject the established norms of the
               majority and move to a position of the minority.’

             Factors affecting the success of minority influence

                       Consistency of their argument
                 Flexibility to be objective where necessary
        Whether they are making sacrifices to make their views heard
        Are their views expressed in a way that makes sense to a majority
       Are their views relevant by reflecting a shift in current trends or attitudes

    If these factors are successful then this may lead to conversion of a
                    majority to accepting the minority view.
                             Key study
                                  Moscovici

                 Is the slide ‘Bluey-green or Greeny-blue??’




 6 males and 6 females were asked to estimate the colour of 36 slides. 2 of the
   group were confederates, who were told to wait until a group consensus was
             forming, and then argue together for a different colour.

       32% of the groups adopted the confederates estimate at least once.
This shows that a minority was able to influence the majority (even though there
                             were only four of them).
Stanford prison
Zimbardo
                         Conforming to role

 This is when people conform to the social expectations of the particular roles they are playing.
      Conforming to a given role means conformity in all aspects of a persons‟ behaviour.
                        This is shown be the Stanford prison experiment.
          22 male volunteers were chosen to take part in a simulated prison experiment.
They agreed to play the role of either prisoner or guard for 14 days in a mock jail at the university.
 The volunteers were given few instructions on how to behave or what was expected of them.
 The volunteers were chosen on the basis that they were stable, responsible and mature people.

 The experiment had to stop after 6 days as the guards had become very hostile and cruel to the
                  prisoners, making them do many unreasonable and humiliating tasks.
       This shows the powerful influence of the situation and role expectations on behaviour.
  It is also worthwhile to note that a similar experiment was conducted in the UK recently with
                                        surprisingly similar results.

            This experiment showed more resistance to authority from the prisoners.
The ‘Guvnor’
  Zimbardo
     Week 27

Obedience to authority
         Obedience & Resisting obedience
„Obedience to authority means complying with the demands or orders of an authority figure. There is usually less opportunity to resist
                                               than with requests from ordinary people.‟

                                                        KEY STUDIES

                                              Milgram – Electric shock study

                                    “A study on the effects of punishment on learning”
                 Participants were chosen to be the „teacher‟ and the confederate was the „learner.‟
                The learner was taken into the next room, where the participant could not see him.
            The participant was shown a machine with gradings of electric shocks ranging from 0-450V.
                                They believed the learner was wired to the machine.
  To deceive the participant a small shock was given to them so that they believed they were giving real shocks.
                        They were then instructed to ask the learner a number of questions.
  If the learner got a question wrong, the teacher was to give them a shock, increasing the shock levels for each
                                               question that was incorrect.
Results showed that 65% of the participants were prepared to go all the way to 450v, and nobody stopped before
                                  300v, which is still enough to probably kill someone.
              The man himself
   The „Germans are different‟.hypothesis
Milgram’s experiment
Electric shock box
    The results of the 40 „normal‟ men who took part in Milgram‟s original experiment




Voltage at which participant stopped and refused to
                     continue                            Number of participants

                      300                                        5
                      315                                        4
                      330                                        2
                      345                                        1
                      360                                        1
                      375                                        1
                      450                                        26
                    How Could they do that?

  The main reasons given for why the participants obeyed in Milgram‟s experiment were due to the
   demands of the situation, the presence of the experimenter (informational influence?) who would
       also takes responsibility for the outcomes (diffusion of responsibility for the participant?).

Milgram‟s research is important because it shows just how far so-called „normal‟ people are prepared
                        to go when put in a situation where they are given orders.
                  It challenges the myth that „only evil people commit evil deeds.‟

   Milgram showed that obedience was due to situational factors and not individual characteristics.
    However, there is evidence for an authoritarian personality as measured by Adorno‟s F scale.
   The idea of Deindividuation which takes responsibility away from a person due to them being
                                              anonymous.

Milgram‟s experiment and variations on the original have both internal validity (the participants believed
       what they were doing was real) and ecological validity (the findings can be applied to real-life
                      situations rather than just artificial laboratory experiments).
 Meeus & Raajmakers – Interview study

    Further research by Meeus & Raajmakers support
                    Milgrim‟s experiments.
 Their experiment was similar to Milgram‟s except that in
      their study, the participant was required to make
   stressful comments to an unemployed job applicant (a
                           stranger).
 Results showed baseline obedience levels were 91% in
                          their study.
There were a total of 19 variations on the experiment with
   different levels of obedience for different independent
                           variables.
Week 28

Ethical issues
                        Ethical Issues
Q. To what extent can research such as that carried out by Zimbardo and Milgram be
                                          Justified?

               A01 –Description of ethical issues relating to the research
                               Deception & informed consent
                          Giving participants the right to with draw
               Protecting the participants from physical & Psychological harm

        A02 – Commentary on specific ethical issues relating to the research
                              Deception & informed consent
                         Giving participants the right to with draw
              Protecting the participants from physical & Psychological harm

            A02 – Any other commentary on the ethics of the research
                 Why was the research subjected to so much criticism?
        Making excuses for historical atrocities? Milgram and the „obedience alibi‟
                      What value did Zimbardo‟s research have?

								
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