Ψ A level PSYCHOLOGY Welcome to Psychology „The study of the mind & human behaviour‟ Week 1 introduction to Ψ let’s start with some illusions What do you see? One or two faces? An extra piece or a piece missing? Donkey or seal? Flickering dots Young or old man? How many horses? Eskimo or red Indian? A knight in the trees Stare at the dot & rock! Which line is the longest? Never ending staircase Sax face Copy this shape A bridge-ship? What do you see? Imaginary grey dots The man is a liar! Copy this shape Two faces or a vase? A young or old woman? Stroop effect 2 trials (conditions) A boring Penguin A Techno penguin Personality. Pick a shape which you think describes you best? Triangle Square Circle Explosion Personality. What does it mean? Triangle. Easy going, like other people‟s company & optimistic about life. Square. Level headed, intelligent & serious, a very giving & likeable person Circle. A quiet & gentle person, keeps themselves to themselves & is close to family & friends Oh dear! Explosion. An unhealthy obsession with food, Alcohol & Sex!!!! Penguins dream of getting to mars …and have made it cause they have tried really hard to get there A Penguin in a box Why study human behaviour?.... Because….. Some things about us are really interesting… Really Interesting ..& some things not so interesting.. Some things we have found out have been important in helping us understand why we do the things we do…… FOR EXAMPLE Why do we like some people and not others? How can we improve our memory? What are the consequences of not having a good childhood? How do we cope with stress? What is the difference between right & wrong? More Questions Why do we obey others? What makes us aggressive? Why can’t children see things from another person’s perspective? Why do we stereotype people? Why do we call people ‘weird’? What exactly is a ‘Freak’ & why do we call people names like this? Think of other names we call people besides freak & write them down in a spider graph starting with the word „freak‟ in the middle. What is a ‘freak’? freak What is psychology? Psychology attempts to study our mind & behaviour in order to gain a better understanding towards why we do the things we do. There are two ways in which psychology works: 1. We research behaviour by carrying out studies such as experiments, observations, questionnaires & surveys. 2. We apply what we find to real life settings in order to order to help people. Help who exactly? Forensic psychologists study criminal behaviour & work in prisons & for the police. They can suggest ways to catch criminals & how to help them become better people once they are caught. Child psychologists work with children and help them develop & can help children learn better & become more sociable . psychologists Clinical psychologists work in hospitals & clinics & help people who have become mentally ill as a result of brain damage or trauma & look for ways to help them recover. Organisational psychologists help businesses become more efficient by suggesting ways to improve & as result, their employees become more productive at work Other Psychologists Sport psychologists Help sportspeople improve their performance Educational psychologists Help children with learning difficulties Teacher/lecturer Help students get A grades How do we explain behaviour? Interactive pavlov http://www.psypress.co.uk/pip/resources/slp/t opic.asp?chapter=ch08&topic=ch08-sc-01 Explaining behaviour Behavioural Cognitive Psychodynamics Biological Behavioural approach Attempts to explain behaviour by suggesting that we learn to behave by Classical conditioning. Learning by association.. Operant conditioning. Learning by direct reinforcement. Social learning theory. Learning by observing and imitating others especially if they are being rewarded in some way for their behaviour & also if we see them as role models. Cognitive approach Attempts to explain behaviour by the way we think about our behaviour. It suggests that the brain is an information processing system which involves making sense of the world around us. Firstly, sensation, then perception, attention, memory & forgetting, language, learning and so on. Psychodynamics Attempts to explain behaviour by suggesting that we behave the way we do due to unconscious, internal forces that motivate us derived from our childhood experiences. Psycho-sexual stages of development (OAPLP). Personality theory (id, ego, superoego). Biological approach Attempts to explain behaviour by our physical make up. This includes genetics, brain biochemistry, brain structure and hormonal responses. Week 2 (5) Cognitive Psychology Memory Differences between STM & LTM In terms of capacity, duration & coding HUMAN MEMORY What are your earliest memories? Why do we remember some things more than others? What is memory? „Memory is the process of encoding, storing & retrieving information.‟ Short Term & Long Term Memory Memory: Is the process by which we hold information about events in the past: Short & Long term. It is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information. Short term memory (STM): Is memory for immediate events, they last a very short time & disappear unless they are Rehearsed; STM has a limited duration & capacity. Long term memory (LTM): Is our store for memory of events in the past, it lasts from about 30 seconds to 100 years; potentially unlimited duration & capacity. An example of Rehearsal.. Repetitive behaviour The nature & structure of memory Duration: Is how long memory lasts for. STM Key study: Peterson & Peterson trigram recall LTM key study: Bahrick et al. recall of yearbook photos Factors that influence the duration of STM include rehearsal, brain damage and time. Capacity: Is the Amount that can be held in memory. STM key study: Miller serial digit span technique Factors that influence the capacity of STM include „chunking‟ & age. Chunking effect numbers Do you recognise these digits as a pattern? 08 9811 8118 106 6193 519 4501 274 Chunking effect letters FBIC IAC IDAS BOS ASAS BB CIT VSM SM SN Encoding: Is the way that information is changed when stored in memory. STM & LTM key study: Baddeley acoustic & semantic coding in STM & LTM. „The less alike words sound, whether or not their meanings are similar, the more likely you are to remember them.‟ Factors that influence encoding include the nature of the stimulus (concrete or abstract) & age. Exercise - Duration Peterson & Peterson – the Brown-Peterson technique Exercise - Capacity Miller‟s study Exercise -Encoding Baddeley Acoustic & semantic similar words Week 3 (5) Models of memory Multi store model Evidence in support of the multi- store model Studies of capacity, duration & encoding in both STM & LTM Glanzer & Cunitz – Primacy & Recency effect Studies of brain-damaged patients – KF, HM Exercise – the P/R effect Glanzer & Cunitz – the primacy/recency effect. Brain damage & memory loss Research studies on KF & HM. Criticisms of the multi store model Over simplified It does not reflect real life as we do not rehearse every thing to LTM Other criticisms Working Memory Consists of a Central executive, a phonological loop & a visuo-spatial sketch pad. Each component works on different kinds of perceptual information. The Central Executive. „The Control centre‟ (is like attention). Phonological loop „The Inner ear‟. Articulatory loop „The Inner voice.‟ Visuo-spatial sketch pad „The inner eye‟. Working memory WM 2 Evidence in support of the working memory model The dual task technique (it is easier to do two tasks that use a different processing system (verbal and visual) than two tasks that use the same system similar).APFCC The word-length effect (people cope better with short words in WM than long words).APFCC Studies on the sketch pad (picturing memories) and brain-damaged patients (KF could remember visual but not verbal information in STM, which means there must be at least two systems. However, not much is known about the capacity or functioning of the central executive. It is not clear what happens to other kinds of memory such as taste or smell. Exercise - evidence Dual task technique Word length effect Criticisms of WM Not much known about the role of the central executive Week 4 (5) Theories of forgetting Definition ‘The inability to recall or recognise information which was previously learned or placed in memory.’ Forgetting may happen due to a memory not being available (it has disappeared) or not being accessible (can’t recall it). STM explanations: Decay & displacement Decay means the memory has fades away over time. This is because it hasn’t been rehearsed or just is not used. However, it does not explain why we can remember old memories or something just ‘reappears’ in our minds. (Such as in a dream). Key study – The Brown-Peterson technique. Recall of trigrams was worse after 18 secs than it was after 3 seconds. However, poorer recall could be due to interference (counting backwards) that was used to prevent rehearsal. STM explanations: Decay & displacement Displacement Displacement means old memories are replaced by newer ones (just like books on a shelf). Key Study – the serial probe technique A participant is given a set of 16 digits. One digit (the probe) is repeated and the participant tries to recall the digit that follows it. Recall is much better if the probe is nearer to the end of the list than near the start. LTM explanations: Interference theory & Retrieval failure Interference means similar memories interfere disrupt and confuse each other. The more similar the information is, the more likely interference will happen. Proactive interference is when old memories affect new ones (calling a new boyfriend by your old bf’s name). Retroactive interference means new memories affect old memories (going to change gears in an automatic when you are used to driving a manual geared car). Retrieval failure Retrieval failure means we cannot access a memory even though we know it in our memory somewhere. It means we do not have the right cues in order to remember. Memories are remembered best: When the cue is similar to what we are trying to remember.(cue dependent) When we recall the information in the same place as we originally memorised it.(context state) Key Study - Godden & Baddeley –deep sea divers study When we memorised something when we were happy and recall it when we are happy (mood state) Emotional factors in forgetting Flashbulb memories Definition ‘Accurate and long-lasting memories formed at times of high emotion, such as significant public or personal events’. e.g. 9/11, death of Princess Diana. It is as if a flash photograph was taken at the moment of the event and every detail indelibly printed in memory. Flashbulb memories enhance memory recall. One suggestion is that the hormones released at a time of high emotion may enhance memory. KEY STUDY - Flashbulb memory of Sept 11th, 2001 09/11 Investigated whether this event, which produced a strong emotional response, was recalled with accuracy over a long period of time or whether memory of this event was prone to errors. People were questioned immediately after the attacks and then a year later. Such as; where they were? What they were doing? What time it was? Who they were with? How they felt? Etc. Nearly all Americans had a perfect fm of 9/11. Therefore, fm‟s are more detailed, vivid and accurate than ordinary memories. fm‟s appear to exist for particularly dramatic, surprising, shocking events. It would appear that personal relevance of the event is a vital factor of fm‟s. Flashbulb memories Brown & Kulik. JFK study of fm Moments before the assassination of JFK. In Brown & Kulik‟s study 75% of black Americans reported fm‟s for the death of Martin Luther King compared to only 33% of white Americans. The opposite was reported for the death of JFK. Repression Definition „According to Freud, a form of ego defence where anxiety-provoking memories are kept out of conscious awareness as a means of coping. e.g. .negative childhood experiences.‟ Repression Inhibits memory recall. Levinger and Clark.Emotionally charged words study Hate Day War Space Death Light Punish Flower Destruction Chip Hurt Sound Blood Easy Murder Road Kill Tree Free association Procedure Participants were given a list of words and were asked to say what came into their mind when they saw each word. This is called word association. During the task GSRs were measured as an indicator of stress levels. Finally, participants were given the cue words again and asked to recall the associations they had just reported. People took longer to think of the associations to the negative words suggesting they had repressed them because they caused anxiety. GSR‟s were higher for the negative words. However, this theory is difficult to test for ethical and practical reasons. Some people seem to have repressed their memories of being abused and these memories can be accessed during psychotherapy or hypnotherapy. Some evidence shows that people are prone to suggestion and leading questions. Week 5 (5) Critical Issue: Eye Witness Testimony (EWT) The study of EWT is concerned with how accurately people are able to remember events (especially crimes) which they had witnessed. The consequences of inaccurate EWT can be serious especially as jurors have been highly influenced by such evidence. We therefore, need to think of ways what causes unreliable evidence and what we can do to improve it. These include reconstructive memory, leading questions and the effects of fear and anxiety on recall. Reconstructive memory Reconstructive memory: Bartlett stated that memory doesn‟t work like a camera as with fm‟s. instead we are prone to reconstruct our memories based on our existing schemas (knowledge of the world) and that we „fill in the gaps‟ when we are unable to remember all the details. Bartlett‟s studied reconstructive memory using the story „the war of the ghosts‟. English participants read an unfamiliar American Indian folk story. When the story was repeated at later stages he found that it became shorter, and more understandable from an English point of view. It had been reconstructed/translated to fit the schemas that the English participants had about story telling. The war of the ghosts Schemas Schemas are organised packages of information about objects, events etc, which are built up by experience and stored in LTM. They help us to understand our world and new experiences. When schemas relate to social situations they are called scripts. These scripts consist of stereotypical behaviours and are typical for a given occasion (going to a restaurant). Bransford Bransford & Johnson showed that schemas are important in helping us deal with information. They showed participants statements of an event (flying a kite). People were able to recall more of the statements later when they knew the statements were about how to fly a kite. Schemas can be important when considering EWT as they can affect memory in a number of ways: We tend to ignore information we do not understand or fit with our existing schemas. We remember the basics of some events but not necessarily all the details. We use our schemas to fill in the gaps of what might have happened (we guess). Our memories may well be stereotyped (Allport & Postman). Recent studies similar to Bartlett‟s have found high levels of accuracy and not much „filling in the gaps‟. However, schemas have also shown to be very accurate for many events. schemas In a now-famous experiment by Bransford and Johnson, subjects read an ambigious text passage by itself or one accompanied by either of two illustrations. Although both contained identical graphic elements, only the one with elements organized in a contextually sensible way (bottom left image) facilitated better recall of the story. The balloon scenario Balloon story If the balloons popped the sound wouldn't be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends upon a steady flOw of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that a string could break on the instrument. Then there could be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could go wrong Week 6 (5) Leading questions Loftus‟s Research: The effects of language/leading questions on recall Loftus suggests that the language used to question witnesses can change what they actually remembered. The Car Accident study Participants were asked a different question after watching a film of the same car crash “How fast were the cars going when they Hit Crashed Smashed Collided Each other?” Car crash Loftus’s findings It was found that the word used in the question affected the estimated speed. Participants estimated 40 mph for the „smashed‟ condition, but only 34 mph for the „hit condition. One week later, participants were asked if they had seen any broken glass. Although there was no broken glass, 32% of the „smashed‟ condition said they had compared to only 14% of the „hit‟ condition. In another experiment, Loftus & Zanni showed another film of a car crash. Some eyewitnesses were asked if they had seen „the‟ broken headlight and others if they had seen „a‟ broken headlight. 17% of the „the‟ broken headlight condition reported seeing it compared to only 7% of the „a‟ broken headlight condition. However, people are not so easily misled if the information is ridiculously obvious. Loftus has been critisised as most of her work is lab based and artificial. Fear & Anxiety Freud believed that people forget about some events because they make us too anxious. He stated that these events were so traumatic that they were forced into the unconscious (I just want to forget about what happened). Freud referred to this as Repression Loftus reported „the weapons focus‟ study in which an attempt was made to create an emotional situation that reflected real life. Participants saw a man coming out of a lab either carrying a pen in greasy hands or carrying a blood-covered knife. Later, they were asked to ID the man. Only 33% of those in the „weapon‟ condition could ID the man, whereas 49% of those in the „pen‟ condition correctly IDd the man. We can conclude that people has focused more on the weapon because it caused more anxiety and less attention was paid to the man. However, we have to question the ethics of the weapons focus study and more recently, research shows that victims of real crime make more accurate eyewitnesses than bystanders. This questions repression theory. The Cognitive Interview Improving EWT The (Enhanced) Cognitive Interview….is a technique used by the police to help obtain more accurate information from witnesses. During an interview a witness will be encouraged to; Recreate the context of the event by imagining the setting (context dependent memory). Report every detail about the incident, no matter how trivial or vague. Recall the event in different orders. Recall the event from different perspectives such as imagining what another person might have seen. During police interviews, it is now standard procedure to: Minimise distractions Try to reduce anxiety Do not hurry the witness Avoid interrupting & asking leading questions Enhancing recall The cognitive interview has been a valuable tool in improving EWT. It is most effective if it is used ASAP after the event. The cognitive interview has shown to improve recall by up to 35% more than the traditional police interview. Others factors that may improve recall include: How long a person watched the event How close they were to the event Good visibility How familiar was the person to the witness How novel the situation was The amount of time between the event and recall Others factors that may improve recall How long a person watched the event How close they were to the event Good visibility How familiar was the person to the witness How novel the situation was Amount of time between the event and recall Week 7 (5) Summary of memory STM/LTM Models of memory Theories of forgetting EWT Term 2 Week 8 Developmental psychology Attachments in Development Development of attachments Attachment can be described as „a strong emotional bond between two people, characterised by mutual affection and the need to be close.‟ The key characteristics of attachment are seeking proximity, distress on separation, pleasure when reunited, and general orientation towards primary caregiver. Schaffer & Emerson studied 60 babies in Glasgow. They were observed at home and asked their parents to report at what age they showed separation anxiety and stranger anxiety. Findings suggested three stages in the development of attachments: Asocial, indiscriminate, specific attachments. Specific attachments were made to those who were socially interactive with, and were responsive to their babies‟ needs. However, recent research shows that babies are able to form specific attachments at an earlier time than that suggested by Shaffer & Emerson. Also, they used observations and mother‟s accounts of their babies‟ behaviour, both methods are prone to bias. Individual Differences Ainsworth studied the quality (security) of children‟s attachments using a procedure called the „strange‟ situation. In the SS, observers watch how children aged between 12-18 months behave during a series of structured episodes that take place in a lab setting: The mother brings a child into the lab, a room where there are toys and comfortable furniture. They play with the toys together. Then a stranger enters the room. A series of episodes occurs in which the child is left alone or left with the stranger. The child is „comforted‟ by the stranger or by its mother if it gets upset. Three types of attachment were identified from the observations: Secure 70% (explores the room happily when mum is present, gets upset when she leaves, but is happy again when she returns. The child prefers mum to stranger. Insecure resistant 15% (child does little exploring and is wary of stranger. Gets upset when mum leaves and is angry when she returns, seeking and rejecting contact). Insecure avoidant 15% (child is not bothered when mum leaves or when she returns. Child is indifferent to mum and stranger). Disorganised 1% (child is dazed and confused). The ‘strange situation’ Ainsworth’s findings Strange situation cont. Secure children tested when they were older were still found to have secure attachments to their mum. Securely attached children were also more popular and had better social skills later on in life (Hazan & Shaver, Early attachments type and later relationships). However, it may be that warm and caring mothers are more likely to have securely attached children. It may be that a child‟s innate personality is responsible for the type of attachment it develops. Some children responded differently depending on which parent was present. This suggests the quality of the child‟s relationship with its parent rather than its personality (mummy‟s boy, daddy‟s girl). Cross cultural variations The table below summarises the findings from research by Kroonenberg using the SS in different cultures and shows that secure attachment is the most common form of attachment all over the world. % Country SecureAvoidantResistantstudiesGB752231Sweden742241Germany573583Japan685272 Explanations for these findings: Research shows that Differences within cultures (between social classes) are greater than between cultures. There are different child-rearing styles that may account for the differences and the strange situation is a purely „strange‟ situation to be in. German children are taught from an early age to be more independent. Sweden invests in its children providing high quality day care and giving parenting advice. Japanese children are rarely left unattended by their mothers Week 9 Explaining attachment Learning theory All behaviours are acquired through conditioning According to CC, Food (UCS) produces pleasure (UCR). Mum is associated with this pleasure and becomes a (CS). Thus, the baby has learned to associate its mum with the pleasure it feels when it is fed and so seeks to be close to her. According to OC, rewarded behaviours are repeated. After food, the hunger drive is reduced and this is rewarded. Therefore, when the baby is hungry again it repeats the behaviour (crying) that leads to drive reduction. Since the mum is the person who feeds the baby, the baby wants to be close to her and so becomes attached. However, research has shown that babies do not always become attached to the one who feeds them. Harlow‟s monkey study showed that the supply of food was not enough for attachment to develop. This is a reductionist theory, in that it tries to explain a complex human behaviour in simple terms. Research support Schaffer &Emerson – Glasgow babies Harlow – contact comfort in monkeys Harlow’s monkey study Bowlby (evolutionary theory) Bowlby suggested that there was a critical period (2.5 years) for the child to develop a normal relationship with its PCG, if this did not happen then it might lead to emotional damage. He also said that a child usually only has one strong attachment figure (monotropy). The attachment is adaptive in that it increases the child‟s chances of survival and reproduction owing to innate social releasers (crying) to gain attention and comfort from the PCG. Research support Lorenz – imprinting Hazan & Shaver -Early attachments and later behaviour (The Love quiz). Freud’s psychodynamic approach suggests that children seek oral satisfaction (an innate drive=the pleasure principle). So, the one who feeds it becomes the love object Week 10 Deprivation & Privation Deprivation A child may be separated from one or both caregivers for a number of reasons, including divorce, death or hospitalisation. When the separation involves the loss of the primary attachment figure and consequent bond disruption, this is called deprivation. Bowlby – the maternal deprivation hypothesis. Bowlby suggested that if a bond had not been formed or had been broken during the first 2 and a half years of a child‟s life ,and if no substitute mother was available, then this may have serious negative, developmental, emotional and intellectual effects later on in the Childs‟ life These effects would be permanent and irreversible. Early research looked into the effects of separation and found three progressive stages that children showed in response to being separated: Protest (intense period of lots of crying and distress. Despair (less crying and becomes apathetic and uninterested in its surroundings. Detachment (the child appears less distressed but is indifferent to mum when she reappears. Research shows that short term separation may have long term negative effects on some children KEY STUDY – Bowlby „44 thieves‟ Bowlby compared 44 petty thieves with 44 other badly behaved children. He labelled 32% of the thieves as „affectionless psychopaths‟ (antisocial behaviour & unable to show emotion) because they lacked any remorse or guilt for their actions. 86% of the affectionless psychopaths had experienced „early and prolonged separation from their PCG‟s compared to very few of the other children he studied. One of the main criticisms of Bowlby‟s study is that the data might have been unreliable (retrospective study). We also cannot say that separation leads people to steal. It might have been that a poor home environment was related to behavioural and emotional problems. Privation Privation is the lack of an attachment. The effects of privation are more long lasting are severe than the effects of deprivation or separation. Key Studies Curtiss - Genie Koluchova - Czech Twins Freud & Dann -Concentration camp children These case studies provide insights into exceptional cases that could not have been studied in any other way. The contents of case studies are selective so we cannot make generalisations from a single case study. The effects of institutionalisation Hodges & Tizard studied the effects of privation from studies of care homes. 65 children had been placed in care before the age of 4 months. By the age of 4 years, 24 children had been adopted, 15 went back to their families, and 26 stayed in the care home. The children were assessed at 4, 8 and 16 years of age. Findings & conclusions Adopted children formed the closest attachments and those who went back to their families had less good relationships with their natural parents. These children were attention seekers and were less socially skilled than a control group. However, some of the children dropped out of the study before it finished. Their might have been individual differences in the families and how they looked after their children. Week 11 Critical issue: Day Care Day care is a form of temporary care usually outside the home and not by family members. Effects of day care Negative Separation may lead to emotional deprivation The quality of care may not be as good as that at home. Positive It can be a stimulating environment There may be a high quality of care Mums with children at home all the time may become depressed (Provides a good outlet). Individual differences Insecure children may not cope very well (shyness, frightened) Improving day care Provide a clean and healthy environment where children can play both indoors and outdoors with plenty of room. Provide a safe and stimulating environment with a variety of activities including play, sleep and food. A good staff to child ratio. 1:3 for infants to 1:6 for older toddlers. Provide well-qualified staff with a staff turnover. Week 12 Effects of Social development „Developing social skills for effective communication later on in life where a child learns to interact positively with others‟ Negative effects Some children become aggressive if separated from their PCG for more than a certain amount of time as rated by their parents and teachers. Positive effects Children in better quality care are friendlier and interact better with others than those in lower quality care. Positive effects on socially disadvantaged children. Some research has found no effects on social development Cognitive development „Changes in a person‟s mental structures, abilities and processes that happen throughout a person‟s lifetime‟. Negative effects Lack of stimulation affects mental development, reduced exploration. Positive effects Anderson‟s longitudinal study in Sweden showed that high quality care increases IQ levels and performance at school in children when tested later at 8-13 years compared to those who did not attend day care. Some research has found no effects on cognitive development Week 13 Summary of developmental psychology Attachments in development Deprivation & privation Day care Week 14 Past papers examination practice Term 3 Week 15/16/17 Revision for unit 1 exam Week 18 Stress Stress as a bodily response Sources of stress Stress management STRESS Definition of stress „A state of physiological arousal and psychological tension caused by something from the environment.‟ „The perceived demands of the environment are greater than a person‟s perceived ability to cope.‟ Stress as a physiological response The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones that are carried by the blood to other body organs. Perceived stressor Hypothalamus Stimulates Pituitary gland SAM (Releases ACTH) Adrenal medulla (Releases adrenaline and noradranaline) Stimulates Adrenal cortex (Releases cortisol) The visual system THE GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME Selye proposed the GAS to help explain the short term effects of the body‟s response to stressors and how too much prolonged stress can lead to illness. The three stages of the GAS Alarm Reaction – Stress response systems are activated – the pituitary gland produces ACTH and the adrenal medulla produces Adrenaline. Resistance – The body is adapting to cope with the stressor but the organism is becoming susceptible to illness. Exhaustion – If the body is put under prolonged stress then its ability to cope starts to fail and exhaustion sets in. May result in damaging the immune system and stress related illnesses become more likely. Evaluation of the GAS Seyle‟s work was unethical because he subjected rats to nocuous agents. However, it did lead to the recognition that there wa s a link between stress and illness. As his work was based on animals it only focused on the physiological response of stress. However, Selye did later accept the importance of cognitive and emotional factors. It is difficult to generalise findings with animals to humans. There may be different physiological responses to different stressors as shown by individual differences. STRESS AND PHYSICAL ILLNESS There is lots of evidence to support the relationship between stress and illness. If the energy activated during times of stress is not used up, then dangerous high levels of glucose and fatty acids stay in the blood and increase the risk of CHD by blocking the blood supply to the heart. Stress can affect the body either: Directly Excessive levels of glucose and fatty acids in the blood increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. High blood pressure damages blood vessels and leads to clotting. Excessive levels of cortisol release are related to arthritis. Damage to the immune system by preventing the growth of T cells. Indirectly. Stress may lead people to behave in ways that increase their chances of becoming ill. E.g. smoking, drinking, poor eating habits, lack of exercise. Stress can also be responsible for people behaving in dangerous and unpredictable ways. Key Research studies into the relationship between stress and illness. ⅔ Williams – those who score high on the anger scale are 2 more likely to have a heart attack than those who do not score highly. Krantz – CHD – reduced blood supply to the heart muscles. Kiecolt-Glaser - Found that Immune system suppression is related to exam stress. Holmes and Rahe - found that Life Changes are related to illness Marmot – Stress at work – the job-strain model (high demand-low control theory). Showed that civil servants on low grades (with little control) were more likely to develop heart attacks than those on higher grades). Brady - Showed that monkeys with control were more likely to develop ulcers when given control of a lever. Rodin & Langer showed that elderly people living in a home were happier and lived longer if they had some control over certain aspects of their lives (allowed visitors, having hobbies). This suggests that personal control can reduce stress and improve health. Week 19 Sources of Stress Sources of stress Life events & stress Life changes: Events in a person‟s life that force a significant change or adjustment. They can be seen as significant sources of stress. Key Study - Holmes & Rahe Life events (mostly negative), cause people to change. This causes stress and makes them more susceptible to illness. Research looked at the relationship between life events measured by life change units (LCU‟s) and the onset of illness. They found positive correlations between high SRRS scores and the risk/onset of physical or mental illness. However, this might be unreliable data. Different types, severity and length of time of illnesses were reported. However, Is the SRRS a valid measure as it only focuses on acute stress rather than chronic stress. Delongis et al. Daily Hassles & Uplifts scale of 53 items found stronger correlations between scores on their scale and health status than SRRS scores and health. Their scale measured ongoing stressors such as money worries, general health, work, sex, family, crime, losing things, exams. Stress & the workplace Workplace stressors involve some aspect of a person‟s job which produces a stress reaction in the body. These include environmental stressors such as Noise, Temperature and crowding. There are also many other factors in the workplace that acts as stressors: Key study – Marmot found that those in jobs of higher grades developed fewer cardiovascular problems that those in low grade positions. This could be explained by the fact that those with low position jobs are paid less, have less control, and have poorer social support networks. Other research has found that the following can also cause people a great deal of stress: Role ambiguity (lack of job description) Poor relationships (with boss or colleagues) Job insecurity (part time work/peace work/temporary employment/contract) Shift work (leads to metabolism/body clock problems) Perceived inadequacy & lack of recognition of achievement Individual differences that modify the effects of stressors Freidman & Rosenmann Found that Personality type A people are more at risk of developing CHD. Cooper (Culture) Research suggests that those who live in collectivist cultures cope better with stressful situations. Taylor (Gender) during stressful situations, men show greater increases in blood pressure and stress hormones than women do. Week 20 Stress management STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress management can be defined as different ways in which people try to cope with the negative effects of stress. We might use physical methods to change the way our body reacts to stress, or psychological methods to change the way we deal with a stressful situation. Physical methods of reducing stress Drugs Benzodiazepines (Valium) help by producing lots of GABA. This chemical is the body‟s natural form of anxiety relief. It also reduces serotonin activity which increases neurotransmitter activity. People who are anxious need high levels of GABA and low levels of serotonin to help make them less anxious. Beta-blockers are used to slow down the heart rate and reduce blood pressure levels that otherwise could lead to serious problems for a person under stress. These drugs are often used by sportspeople by reducing the arousal of the ANS which may hinder optimal performance. Strengths & weaknesses Drugs provide a short term and quick remedy for stress. They require little effort for the user and they are relatively cheap. Drugs can also lead to addiction, side effects and may only be treating the symptoms and not the problem. Biofeedback „„is based on the principles of operant conditioning where a person is rewarded for reducing their stress levels.‟ The person under stress is connected to a number of biological measuring devices (EEG, EMG), which gives them a reading of what is happening to their body. The person then learns to control any adverse feedback by using breathing techniques. The procedure involves a number of stages: The person is connected to the measuring device. They are instructed to focus on reducing certain bodily functions. Successful behaviours are repeated because they are rewarding. The person learns to transfer their skills to everyday situations.. Psychological methods of reducing stress include: SIT (Meichenbaum) teaches people skills to cope with stress and to achieve personal goals. This consists of three phases: 1. Conceptualisation (Cognitive aspect) Think about the problem and how it could be dealt with 2. Skills training practice (behavioural aspect) Practicing to relax by using breathing exercises; talking about the problem; positive self-talk (telling yourself you can do it) 3. Real-life applications Role-play , then in the real world Hardiness training Hardiness training (Kobasa) teaches people to become „harder‟ about aspects of their lives. The three „C‟s of hardiness How to make a „hardier‟ personality 1. Focus Being able to know when we are about to be, or become stressed 2. Reconstruction Thinking about how a past event was dealt with and how it could have been dealt with better 3. Compensation for improvement Rewarding ourselves for positive outcomes of a previous negative response to a stressor RET (Ellis) believes that stress is caused by irrational thinking that leads a person to think of situations as a threat and therefore, stressful. A=actual event appraisal (I‟ve failed my exam) B=beliefs (because I‟m lazy) C=consequences of „B‟ (I have to leave college) Add the therapy D=dispute the irrational beliefs E=the Effect of „D‟ is to restructure a persons beliefs about their ability The Role of Control The ability to anticipate when we are about to face a potentially stressful situation and be prepared for it. Control is real or imagined. We can take control over a situation by the following: Using a social support network of family and friends (although men are less likely to do this as women). Using information about a situation that will give us a greater sense of control by putting things into perspective (not blowing things out of proportion, being rational). Using a belief system such as religion which may give a person a sense of security and stability in their lives. Changing a behaviour to help cope better with a situation (worrying about not passing exams by being more enthusiastic and motivated towards studying). Brady’s ‘executive’ monkey Locus of control Locus of control describes the focus of people‟s sense of control in their lives. People who believe they have control over their successes and failures are described as having an internal locus of control. Those of us who believe that our lives are determined by outside influences such as believing in luck or fate are described are described as having an external locus of control. Most of us are somewhere in the middle of the two. Learned helplessness suggests that people who have had lots of bad experiences in life become apathetic towards certain situations. This is a characteristic of many people who are depressed. Depressed people believe that they are worthless, that life is awful and that there is no future for them. Beck‟s cognitive triad attempts to change the way people think about their lives by cognitive restructuring training. Week 21 Summary of stress Week 22 Abnormality Defining abnormal behaviour Explaining abnormal behaviour Anorexia & Bulimia An example of abnormal Even more Abnormal ABNORMALITY What is considered ABNORMAL? People recognise and label behaviours of others that they consider to be abnormal (you must be mad/mentally disturbed). Labelling usually suggests that the behaviour is undesirable and potentially dangerous and so need some kind of treatment. Even though there are a number of definitions of abnormality, not one of them is broad enough to cover all instances of abnormal behaviour. There are two main factors which influence the explanation of abnormal behaviour. These can be applied to any of the definitions. The factors are historical time period and culture and society. History Demonic possession suggests that people who showed strange or bizarre behaviour was due to the fact they were possessed by an evil spirit. Treatment for possession involved „exorcising‟ the demons, which was often very barbaric. Witchcraft suggested that when a person became ill, the first thought was that they were cursed, people believed in the power of witches to heal as well as to cast spells over people. If people (usually women) were found guilty of witchcraft (they usually were) then they were drowned or burned at the stake. Lunatic asylums were introduced later for those considered mentally ill. People were usually held against their will and women who were considered to be promiscuous were often put into these kinds of places. Culture What is perceived as normal in one culture can be considered abnormal in another. For example, in western society hearing voices or hallucinating are viewed as signs of mental illness but in certain cultures, the same behaviours are is played by tribal witch doctors during rituals, and seen as vital communication links with the spirit world. Definitions of Abnormality Statistical infrequency –setting a standard in terms of what the average person is doing. Statistically infrequent means a behaviour is uncommon/rare. The normal distribution curve & Sd. % of population Very medium very Unhappy happy happy HAPPY OR UNHAPPY? Where do we draw the line? At what point does someone move from happy to unhappy? What is average happy? The model does not take into account whether the behaviour is socially desirable or not. Do we assume that it is undesirable to be unhappy? How can we convert a behaviour such as happiness into a score? It also fails to consider history and culture, it only measures statistically. Deviation from the social norms Setting a standard in terms of what is socially acceptable. These include rules & regulations, both explicit & implicit, values and belief systems. Social norms depend on a number of factors Cultural. What is normal in one culture may not be the case in another culture. Situational. Going to the toilet is normal, but not in the middle of a supermarket Age. A 3 year old can stare at someone, shout out, and even take their clothes off in public, without causing disruption. If 30 year old teacher did the same, people might well react differently. Deviation from the social norms Social deviancy Gender. All cultures have certain dress codes for males and females. However, it is now more acceptable to wear unisex clothing. Examples of this are women wearing trousers and transvestites (lily Savage). History. In Victorian times, attitudes towards sexuality were repressed. Women were seen as wicked, deviant or perverse if they had sex outside marriage. Attitudes towards masturbation were harsh, viewing it as an evil sin which led to blindness. Today, sexuality is everywhere and is commonly used to promote products, records and films. Homosexuality was also viewed as a mental illness until 1973. Imagine going to the doctors because you are gay!! The legal position. It is socially unacceptable and illegal to kill someone. However, if it happened in battle, a person would be regarded ass a hero. The death penalty is also viewed as normal in some American states (although many regard this as immoral). What do people consider to be right or wrong in a hierarchy? Many people would put child abusers at the top of their list, others would put rape, torture or murder at the top. We often hear people say that certain behaviours are „perverse‟ or „sick‟. In this way they are making a comment on social acceptability. Deviation from the ideal mental health Deviation from the ideal mental health- setting a standard in terms of what is mentally healthy. This means behaving in a way according to the way we think about things. Jahoda suggests that ideal mental health consists of having: A positive attitude towards yourself. The opportunity to self-actualise realise your potential (Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs). The ability to resist stress. Not being too dependent on others (being dependent on others for your own well-being gives control of your life to other people). An accurate idea of reality. Do we ever achieve the „ideal mental health? Failure to function adequately Failure to function adequately- setting a standard in terms of normal day to day living. This means coping with the demands of daily living. Seven features of failing to function Suffering Violation of moral codes Irrationality Maladaptiveness Vividness & unconventionality Unpredictability and loss of control Observer discomfort. Ultimately, any number of these features leads to social rejection and chastisement. Week 23 Models of abnormality Explaining abnormal behaviour Models of Abnormality Assumptions are beliefs held without proof. Biological (or medical) model attempts to explain abnormal behaviour by suggesting the causes of mental disorders are the same as the causes of physical illnesses (chemical imbalances caused by infection or genetics). Therefore, mental illness may be diagnosed, labelled and treated in the same way as physical illness. Treatments typically involve drug treatment including anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, anti-psychotic and anti-manic drugs. ECT involves producing a seizure by passing an electrical current through the brain. Psychodynamic model attempts to explain abnormal behaviours by suggesting they are result of anxiety produced by unresolved, unconscious conflicts. This happens due to the dynamics of the three parts of the mind. Defence mechanisms such as repression, where unacceptable thoughts are pushed into the unconsciousness, protect a person from harm. However, traumatic events in early childhood may result in memories being repressed only to resurface later in life in the form of a psychological disorder. Explaining abnormal Behavioural model attempts to explain abnormal behaviours by suggesting that they are learned (OC, CC, and SLT) in the same way as any other behaviour. Classical conditioning (as for abnormality). Learning inappropriate behaviour through association. If a person experiences a strong emotion when placed in a particular situation or confronted by a particular object, they learn to associate this experience with the event. Behavioural treatments include Aversion therapy (used for addiction). Flooding (confronting a fear or abnormal behaviour head on). Token economy (given tokens for positive behaviour in exchange for rewards. Cognitive model attempts to explain abnormal behaviours by suggesting they are the result of irrational thoughts, expectations and attitudes. Psychological disorders can take a variety of forms, magnifying the difficulties of a task, ovewrgeneralising and arriving at sweeping conclusions and persistent negative thinking habits Treatments include Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Week 24 Anorexia & Bulimia AN & BN Characteristics of AN Weight (less than 15% of expected for height and age) Fear (An intense fear of being overweight or becoming fat) Refusing to eat adequate amounts of food, which results in deliberate weight loss) Distorted body image (usually by denying the seriousness of the current low of body weight) Amenorrhoea (in females, the absence of a least three connective menstrual cycles). Explaining eating disorders AN/BN Biological explanations Brain Damage - Research shows that damage to parts of the hypothalamus can result in animals starving themselves to death. Malfunctioning of the „hunger centres‟ in this part of the brain, therefore, might explain eating disorders in humans. However, the evidence is inconclusive and we must be careful when comparing findings in animal studies to humans. Twin studies have shown higher concordance rates for MZ twins compared to DZ twins for both AN & BN. This suggested genetic factors may in part, help explain eating disorders. However, factors other than inherited genes are important in the development of AN/BN. AN & BN Low levels of the nt serotonin in the brain suggest Biochemical factors may also be responsible for AN/BN. Antidepressant drugs (SSRI‟s) that increase serotonin reuptake help to stop binge eating in bulimics. However, it is difficult to say whether low levels of serotonin are the cause or the consequence of AN/BN. Psychological explanations Characteristics of BN Binging & purging Frequency Self esteem Different from AN KEY STUDIES AN (Holland) – to investigate genetic factors an explanation for AN. BN (Kendler) – to investigate genetic factors as an explanation for BN. AN (Becker) – to investigate a relationship between cultural change and eating disorders among Fijian girls. BN (Cutts) – to investigate whether fear of weight gain underlies eating disorders. Week 25 Summary of abnormality Week 26 Social influence Covers: Majority & minority influence Obedience Ethical issues SOCIAL INFLUENCE Definition „The effects one person or group has on the attitudes or behaviour of another.‟ Social influence is the effect of other people on a person‟s behaviour. It usually works in two ways: Conformity – Yielding to group pressures real or imagined which result in a cjhange in behaviour but not necessarily attitude Obedience – Responding to the demands of an authority figure. These two types of social influence differ in a number of ways: Nature of influence. With obedience, the influence is by direct commands („tidy your room!‟). With conformity, the pressure on a person to change their behaviour is an indirect group pressure (such as with fashion and trends). Some people show their conformity to a group to the type of clothes they wear and hairstyles they have. Power backing up the influence: With conformity, it is fear of being isolated by a group. With obedience, it is usually official punishment. Obedience is usually to a leader, while conformity is to a group. Obedience involves an explicit instruction that you are required to obey. Conformity is more voluntary, and involves imitation such as doing something because „everyone else does it.‟ An example of obedience is not breaking the law. Majority Influence (Conformity) Definition „Occurs when real or imagined group pressure results in a person changing their behaviour and attitudes, opinions & beliefs‟ . Types of conformity Informational Influence – because we believe in the superior status and judgements of others (this usually happens when people are in a new or novel situation, and are unsure how to respond, so they look to others for guidance. (The best example of this is type of conformity is shown by Sherif). Normative Influence – because we want to be liked by others (to fit in with the group) and be rewarded in some way for our actions. Internalisation is an example of this. Changing your mind and your behaviour (as in religious conversion). Compliance – This usually happens because of the demands of the situation. Change your behaviour but not your mind (Asch). Identification – This is conforming to a social role that is expected of a person Change your behaviour to fit in with the group (The Stamford prison experiment). Why people yield (conform) to majority influence Research on conformity Sherif – the Autokinetic effect (a visual illusion where a stationery spot of light in a darkened room appears to move). Estimates of how far the light had moved were affected by the estimates of others in the group. Sherif found that estimates converged and a group norm emerged. Participant123Estimate of distance light moves (cm)Individually3117In front of group677Individually again778 People will conform to the group because they are unsure about what to do (informational conformity). Asch‟s conformity study People sometimes conform even when they personally disagree. This is normative conformity. Asch investigated the effects of majority group pressure in people when the correct answer to a certain question was obvious. The task involved estimating lengths of lines. The group is shown a line and others must say which of the 3 others is the same length. The group would say their estimates clockwise with the actual participant being last to estimate. Asch found that the average conformity rate was 32% for all trials. 74% of all participants conformed at least once. However, people were less likely to conform if the majority was not unanimous in their answers. Conformity is high if a task is made more difficult or if a majority is perceived as having high status. Example of cards used in the experiment Asch’s Lines Stimulus cards Scenario Asch Table Experimenter Confederate Participant variations Variations on the original study and what influences Normative conformity in Asch’s experiment. Size of the Group Status of group members Difficulty of task Deviant in the group Minority Influence ‘A form of social influence where people reject the established norms of the majority and move to a position of the minority.’ Factors affecting the success of minority influence Consistency of their argument Flexibility to be objective where necessary Whether they are making sacrifices to make their views heard Are their views expressed in a way that makes sense to a majority Are their views relevant by reflecting a shift in current trends or attitudes If these factors are successful then this may lead to conversion of a majority to accepting the minority view. Key study Moscovici Is the slide ‘Bluey-green or Greeny-blue??’ 6 males and 6 females were asked to estimate the colour of 36 slides. 2 of the group were confederates, who were told to wait until a group consensus was forming, and then argue together for a different colour. 32% of the groups adopted the confederates estimate at least once. This shows that a minority was able to influence the majority (even though there were only four of them). Stanford prison Zimbardo Conforming to role This is when people conform to the social expectations of the particular roles they are playing. Conforming to a given role means conformity in all aspects of a persons‟ behaviour. This is shown be the Stanford prison experiment. 22 male volunteers were chosen to take part in a simulated prison experiment. They agreed to play the role of either prisoner or guard for 14 days in a mock jail at the university. The volunteers were given few instructions on how to behave or what was expected of them. The volunteers were chosen on the basis that they were stable, responsible and mature people. The experiment had to stop after 6 days as the guards had become very hostile and cruel to the prisoners, making them do many unreasonable and humiliating tasks. This shows the powerful influence of the situation and role expectations on behaviour. It is also worthwhile to note that a similar experiment was conducted in the UK recently with surprisingly similar results. This experiment showed more resistance to authority from the prisoners. The ‘Guvnor’ Zimbardo Week 27 Obedience to authority Obedience & Resisting obedience „Obedience to authority means complying with the demands or orders of an authority figure. There is usually less opportunity to resist than with requests from ordinary people.‟ KEY STUDIES Milgram – Electric shock study “A study on the effects of punishment on learning” Participants were chosen to be the „teacher‟ and the confederate was the „learner.‟ The learner was taken into the next room, where the participant could not see him. The participant was shown a machine with gradings of electric shocks ranging from 0-450V. They believed the learner was wired to the machine. To deceive the participant a small shock was given to them so that they believed they were giving real shocks. They were then instructed to ask the learner a number of questions. If the learner got a question wrong, the teacher was to give them a shock, increasing the shock levels for each question that was incorrect. Results showed that 65% of the participants were prepared to go all the way to 450v, and nobody stopped before 300v, which is still enough to probably kill someone. The man himself The „Germans are different‟.hypothesis Milgram’s experiment Electric shock box The results of the 40 „normal‟ men who took part in Milgram‟s original experiment Voltage at which participant stopped and refused to continue Number of participants 300 5 315 4 330 2 345 1 360 1 375 1 450 26 How Could they do that? The main reasons given for why the participants obeyed in Milgram‟s experiment were due to the demands of the situation, the presence of the experimenter (informational influence?) who would also takes responsibility for the outcomes (diffusion of responsibility for the participant?). Milgram‟s research is important because it shows just how far so-called „normal‟ people are prepared to go when put in a situation where they are given orders. It challenges the myth that „only evil people commit evil deeds.‟ Milgram showed that obedience was due to situational factors and not individual characteristics. However, there is evidence for an authoritarian personality as measured by Adorno‟s F scale. The idea of Deindividuation which takes responsibility away from a person due to them being anonymous. Milgram‟s experiment and variations on the original have both internal validity (the participants believed what they were doing was real) and ecological validity (the findings can be applied to real-life situations rather than just artificial laboratory experiments). Meeus & Raajmakers – Interview study Further research by Meeus & Raajmakers support Milgrim‟s experiments. Their experiment was similar to Milgram‟s except that in their study, the participant was required to make stressful comments to an unemployed job applicant (a stranger). Results showed baseline obedience levels were 91% in their study. There were a total of 19 variations on the experiment with different levels of obedience for different independent variables. Week 28 Ethical issues Ethical Issues Q. To what extent can research such as that carried out by Zimbardo and Milgram be Justified? A01 –Description of ethical issues relating to the research Deception & informed consent Giving participants the right to with draw Protecting the participants from physical & Psychological harm A02 – Commentary on specific ethical issues relating to the research Deception & informed consent Giving participants the right to with draw Protecting the participants from physical & Psychological harm A02 – Any other commentary on the ethics of the research Why was the research subjected to so much criticism? Making excuses for historical atrocities? Milgram and the „obedience alibi‟ What value did Zimbardo‟s research have?