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					Sub-Saharan Africa Under
European Control
Early African History, Briefly
   African, Semitic, Greco-Roman
   Religions: Native African, Islam,
   Christian (Triple Heritage)
   Most scientists believe African
   civilization is the world’s oldest
Africa and the World System
   From 1500-late 1800’s, Africa was
   somewhat isolated from European
   domination (exception: the slave trade)
   Main reasons: topography, white
   susceptibility to malaria and other
Coming European Domination
  Medical technology: quinine and other
  disease preventors
  Military technology: allows a small force
  to dominate a large population (peasant
Overview: Diversity and
   Geographical zones: coastal (Algeria,
   Morocco), Sahara Desert (most of
   northern Africa), tropical (central Africa)
   Natural resources: rubber, cacao, palm
   oil, ivory, gold, diamonds (all desired by
Four African Ways of Life
   Agriculture: farming
   Pastoralism: dry climates, herding
   Fishing: allows larger communities than
   Hunting and Gathering: oldest way of
Language Groups
 1.   Afro-Asiatic
 2.   Nilo-Saharan
 3.   Austronesian
 4.   Congo-Kordofanian, including Bantu
 5.   European: colonial languages, English,
      French, Portuguese, Afrikaans (Dutch)
African Religion and State-
   Islamic: Sokoto caliphate, Futa Toro
   and Futa Jallon
   Christian: Ethiopian Empire
   Traditional: Zulu tribes of S. Africa
Two Common Traits
   Ethnic and Kinship divisions
   Insulation from European domination
   until late 1800’s
  The effects of colonialism on Africa were
   worse because they came so late
Africa in 1914
   Independent: Ethiopia, Liberia
   British: Nigeria, Kenya, S. Africa (with
   the Dutch), Egypt
   French: Algeria, Morocco, much of
   North and West Africa
   Belgian: The Congo
   Italian: Libya, (attempts on Ethiopia)
Stages of Domination
 1. Slave trade: both to Americas and
 2. Resource exploitation: gold,
    diamonds, agricultural products
 3. Colonization: Unification of Italy and
    Germany, ca. 1870, military
    technology=“scramble for Africa”
Africa After World War I
   Germany loses colonies, other European
   powers take them as mandates
   1935—Italy invades and briefly holds
   Liberia is virtually owned by Firestone
   (tire makers)
Types of Colonies
   Peasant Colonies: a few administrators,
   small military force achieves compliance
   Settler Colonies: Large numbers of
   settlers, as in South Africa
African Responses to
   Islamic Jihad
   Tribal Resistance, such as Zulu
   Christian: Ethiopia’s defeat of Italy in
   African involvement in World War I—
   African troops serve their colonial
   leaders (Europeans aren’t bulletproof)
A Tale of Two Colonies
   Nigeria: A Peasant Colony
   South Africa: A Settler Colony with two
Nigeria under the British
   10th largest nation in the world (over
   100 million)
   Large oil supplies, other natural
   With S. Africa, a potential “core state”
Nigerian Diversity
   Hundreds of languages
   Muslims in the North
   Yoruba and Ibo in the West and East
Nigerian Unification
   In 1861, British annex Lagos, capital of
   Trade companies rule Nigeria under British
   Frederick Lugard unifies companies into
   Defeats Sokoto Caliphate, practices indirect
   Colonizaton complete by 1914
  Railroads help unify the country,
  enhance economic exploitation
  Elite Nigerians receive western
  education, assume positions in
  bureaucracy (some become leading
Nigerian Nationalism
   National Congress of British West
   Africa: demands participation, not
   Western-educated student groups call
   for greater rights, independence
   movements grow after World War II
South Africa: Two Struggles
   Dutch (Boers) vs. British
   Black majority vs. white minority
The Boers (Dutch Farmers)
   1st settled in S. Africa in 1657, part of
   Dutch East India Co.
   Settlement grew over hundreds of
   years, leading to competition and
   Slave-owning, agricultural
   Apartheid—belief in white superiority
The Zulu Tribe
   Led by Shaka, they conquer many rival
   tribes in early 19th century
   Independent state exists until late 19th
   century, anti-British uprisings in early
   20th century
   Zulu rivals, Swazi, Lesotho, establish
   smaller kingdoms
Statue of Shaka Zulu
The British
   Acquired Cape Colony in early 19th
   Abolished slavery, clashed with Dutch
   belief in apartheid
   Involved in business, mineral
Dutch vs. British
   Dutch flee Cape Colony, conquer Natal
   from Zulu
   British retake Natal
   Dutch flee again, establish Transvaal,
   Orange Free State
   Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland
   kingdoms become British protectorates,
   maintain self-rule
Gold, Diamonds, War!
   Gold, diamonds are discovered in latter
   19th century
   Cecil Rhodes (remember Rhodes
   Scholar, Rhodesia) and others become
   Boer War lasts 1899-1902, a brutal
Union of South Africa
   The British and Dutch parts of South
   Africa are unified in 1910
   A dominion of Great Britain (former
   British governor, legislature has both
   British and Dutch
   Blacks not allowed to vote in Transvaal
   and Orange Free State territories
S. Africa Politics in the 20th
   Dutch, 60% of the white population,
   dominates politics
   Restrictive laws are passed, including
   pass system, color bar
   Africans, 78% of the population, get
   7% of the land
S. Africa’s Economy
   Gold and diamond mining relies on low-
   wage black miners
   Industrialization is built by exploiting
   black workers for little money
   Because the British were the
   entrepeneurs, Dutch gained economic
   advantage through nationalization of
What do we mean by “black”?
   People of mixed ancestry, coloreds
   Asians, mostly Indians (remember
   People of various native African tribes
Black Responses to White
   Colored:African Political Organization
   Indian: Natal Indian Congress
   Native African: African National
   Congress (ANC)
Barriers to Progress
   Exclusive nationalism
   Nonviolent protest is met with violence
   (are Gandhi’s ideals always valid?)
Modern Africa
   Postcolonialism—countries are
   independent, but suffer from problems
   caused by colonial era
   Corrupt leaders, little democracy (US
   and the West often favor unscrupulous,
   pro-West leaders)
   AIDS, overpopulation, ethnic rivalry and
   revenge (Rwanda)
Rwanda, an Example
  Formerly ruled by Belgium
  Hutu minority were favored by
  Belgium’s indirect rule system
  After colonialism ended, Tutsi majority
  took revenge at an opportune moment
  in 1994, killing 500,000 with knives, in
  a period of a few months

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