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					Tossups by Iowa State for the 1998 ACF Regionals
1. Shortly after serving in the Mexican War he was elected to the Kentucky legislature, thus
beginning his political career. When hostilities began between the Northern and Southern states he
helped organize the Confederate government of Kentucky and was made a brigadier general in the
Southern army in 1862. In January, 1865 Jefferson Davis made him his Secretary of War. FTP,
name this man who lost to Abraham Lincoln in the election of 1860 after serving under James
Buchanan as the 14th Vice-President of the United States.
Answer: John Cabell _Breckinridge_

2. This novel is parable about the dangers of over-interpretation and the endlessly open text. Belbo
performs a cabalistic reading of the internal combustion engine. Colonel Ardenti mistakes a
merchant's delivery list for the secret plan of the Knights Templar. FTP, identify this Umberto Eco
novel in which the key to the secret of the universe swings in the Saint-Martin-des-Champs.
Answer: _Foucault's Pendulum_

3. The world was produced of evil matter and is possessed by demons. God is depth and silence,
alien to an aborted creation of a lower demiurge. Among its texts are the _Apocryphon of John_
and the _Pistis Sophia_, and members include Basilides and Valentinus. FTP, identify this religion
whose followers, like ACF-ers, believe in the redemptive power of esoteric knowledge.
Answer: _Gnosticism_

4. In 1521 a French army under the Count de Foix crossed the Pyrenees and attacked Pamplona
with the hopes of recovering Navarre. In 1522, a small book entitled Spiritual Exercises appeared.
On August 15, 1534, in Saint Denis in Paris, a forty-three year old man and six followers took
vows of poverty and chastity. FTP, identify the man linking these three events, whose Society of
Jesus was officially established by papal bull in 1540.
Answer: St. _Ignatius_ (of) _Loyola_ or Inigo _Lopez_ de Recalde

5. The narrator's heart is "sick with desire / And fastened to a dying animal." He wishes he could
live on as a an artificial bird of hammered gold and be an immortal singer for a drowsy Emperor of
a holy city. FTP, identify this William Yeats poem, whose title land "is no country for old men."
Answer: "_Sailing to Byzantium_"

6. The eddy within the North Atlantic gyre, it lies chiefly between 25 to 35 degrees North and 40 to
70 degrees West. In spite of its name, it is actually more like an ocean desert, with the lowest
amount of life of any sea water. FTP, identify this title body of water of a Jean Rhys novel, a
spawning place for eels, which is named for the great quantities of seaweed covering it.
Answer: _Sargasso Sea_

7. It is a Newton-Cotes formula which is exact for all polynomials of degree less than or equal to 2,
but also, unexpectedly, for degree less than or equal to 3. To use it, take the value of the function at
the left endpoint plus 4 times the value of the function at the center of the interval plus the value of
the function at the right endpoint - then multiply the whole thing by one sixth times the difference
between the right endpoint and the left endpoint. This is a description of, FTP, what method of
integral approximation which uses parabolas as the interpolating curves?
Answer: _Simpson_'s rule

8. He attended the University of London where he studied engineering before beginning his work in
the motion picture industry in 1920 designing title cards for the Famous Players-Lasky Company.
In 1925 he directed his first film, _The Pleasure Garden_, and in 1926 his _The Lodger_ began his
career of cinematic thrillers. FTP, name this director and frequent cameo whose other films include
_Strangers on a Train_ and _Psycho_.
Answer: Sir Alfred _Hitchcock_

9. "And what I assume you shall assume, / For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to
you." Untitled in 1855, it consists of 52 sections of free verse, which in section 24 the poet
proclaims, "Walt Whitman, a kosmos, of Manhattan the son." FTP, identify this poem whose first
line is "I celebrate myself, and sing myself."
Answer: "_Song of Myself_"

10. He was told of his own lowly station in no uncertain terms: "Shepherb bumpkins, wretched,
shameful things, mere bellies! We know how to tell many lies similar to the truth, and also to sing
the truth when we want to." So saying, the Muses gave him talent and commanded him to write of
the gods. In one of his two surviving complete epics, he recounts the story of Pandora's box,
criticizes his brother Perses for running off with most of their inheritance, and describes jobs
appropriate to each part of the year. FTP, name this writer of _Works and Days_ and _Theogony_.
Answer: _Hesiod_

11. After being twice imprisoned by the French for nationalist activities in the 1930's and 1940's he
rose to a leadership position in the North Vietnamese Communist Party and was a member of the
country's politburo from 1955 to 1986. From 1968 to 1973 he was chief negotiator for North
Vietnam at the Paris peace talks. FTP, name this co-recipient, along with Henry Kissinger, of the
1973 Nobel Peace Prize who rejected the prize, saying that "peace really has not been established."
Answer: Le Duc _Tho_

12. Commonly applied to art and literature, this philosophical term is not a coherent doctrine but
consists of reactions against essentialism, realism, and foundationalism. There is the loss of grand
narratives which are replaced by meta-narratives. FTP, identify this term which can describe the
philosophies of Foucault and Derrida, or any other formed in reaction to modern philosophy.
Answer: _postmodernism_

13. The retelling and completion of a story left unfinished by Chrétien de Troyes, it starts with
Gahmuret's journey to the east where he fathers the infidel Feirefiz, half brother to the title
character who is clothed in rags by his mother and bumps into Anfortas, the Fisher King, whom he
doesn't recognize at first, though later he claims the Gral and heals him. FTP, identify this chivalric
character of a Wolfram von Eschenbach romance, which was later made into an opera by Richard
Answer: _Parzival_

14. It works by attempting to predict the motion from frame to frame in the temporal direction, then
using discrete cosine transforms to organize the redundancy in spatial directions. The DCTs are
performed in small blocks, and the collection of data is Huffman coded using fixed tables.
Recently, the ISO chose Apple's Quicktime software as the basis for the forthcoming fourth
revision of this standard. FTP, name this ISO standard, perhaps most popular for the ease of
bootlegging that its "layer 3" audio compression provides.
Answer: _MPEG_ or _moving picture experts group_

15. It was Terentius Varro's day to lead the troops. The other consul, Paulus Aemilius supposedly
promised Fabius Maximus that he would try to prevent any hasty engagements, but ended up dying
in the fight. As Hannibal's center retreated, the Romans charged forward and were encircled as the
wings flanked them. FTP, name this 216 BCE battle of the Second Punic War, which crushed the
Roman army.
Answer: _Cannae_

16. Only five out of the approximately fifty pieces were given names by their composer, and three
of those names were "Venetian Gondola Song." Others have picked up nicknames such as "Hunting
Song," "Spring Song," and "The Bee's Wedding." The first "book" was published as "Melodies for
the Pianoforte," while the second was formally titled "Lieder ohne Worte." The entire collection is
now named according to a phrase found in a letter by Fanny Mendelssohn. FTP, name this
collection composed by Felix Mendelssohn, so named because its songs are impressionistic in
Answer: _Songs without Words_

17. Aylmer's gift of a rapidly growing flower to his wife Georgiana dies immediately upon her
touching it. His attempt to photograph her leaves only a blurry outline of his wife. He flaunts before
her an elixir of his own devising with which he claims "freckles may be washed away as easily as
the hands are cleansed," though his attempts to do so end only with her death. FTP, identify this
Nathaniel Hawthorne story about a pygmy sized handprint on Georgiana's cheek.
Answer: "The _Birthmark_"

18. He has been identified as an ascetic martyr, killed in his crusade against the irrational tide of
religious fanaticism. Others suggest that he was a myopic psychopath who was unable to accept
human nature as it stood, and tried to suppress it. Still others seem him as sexually repressed, as
signified by his assuming the garb of a woman in order to see his mother's wild orgies. In the end,
though, the Maenads care nothing about these critical opinions - they, along with his mother, tear
him limb from limb and affix his head to a staff during a religiously induced frenzy. FTP, identify
this son of Agave and cousin to Dionysus.
Answer: _Pentheus_

19. Educated at Dartmouth College, in 1940 he was appointed coordinator of inter-American affairs
by FDR. Considered one of the era's leading experts on Latin America, he became Assistant
Secretary of State in charge of relations with Latin America in 1944 and later served under Truman
as chairman of the Advisory Board in International Development for the Four-Point Program. FTP,
name this politician who put the 25th Amendment to work on December 19, 1974 when he was
sworn in to replace Gerald Ford as Vice-President of the United States.
Answer: Nelson Aldrich _Rockefeller_
20. This Scotsman graduated in 1819 from Oxford and originally went to study law in London, but
his passion for amateur geology began to consume his time. He was the first to divide the Tertiary
period into the Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene epochs. He published _Principles of Geology_ in
1830 and followed it up in 1838 with _Elements of Geology_. FTP, name this geologist best known
for arguing that the Earth's features were the product of millions of years of activity and laying the
foundation for evolutionary biology.
Answer: Charles _Lyell_

21. Originally founded as the Brenton Club in 1789, it was made up of Brittany delegates to the
National Assembly. It split in July, 1791 over a petition calling for the removal of Louis XVI after
his attempted escape from France, and many of the moderates left to join the rival Club of
Feuillants. FTP, name this influential group during the French Revolution who took their best
known name from their meeting place at a former Dominican monastery on Rue St. Jacques.
Answer: _Jacobins_

22. The narrator, in his eighth year of a lovesick malady, reads a version of Ovid's tale of Ceyx and
Alcione, after which he falls asleep. In his dream, he goes on a hunt for a hart, whereupon he meets
a man in black who has lost his fair lady White. FTP, identify this poem by Geoffrey Chaucer, one
of his first major works, written for John of Gaunt after the death of his wife Blanche.
Answer: The _Book of the Duchess_

23. In the seventeenth century, they exhibited a long quiescent period called the Maunder
minimum. The similar Spoerer minimum occurred in the fifteenth century, and earlier quiet
intervals have been inferred. Since the beginning of the eighteenth century, variations in their
number have shown the fairly regular period, noted by Samuel Heinrich Swabe, of 11 years. FTP,
name these most-visible signs of solar activity.
Answer: _sunspots_

24. This sex chromosomal anomaly includes the Y chromosome, which is enough to express the
testis determining factor and cause masculinzation. However, these individuals are often sterile,
exhibit underdeveloped external genitalia, breast development, disproportionally long limbs, and
are frequently mentally retarded. FTP, name this form of trisomy in which an individual sexed as a
male has an extra X chromosome.
Answer: _Klinefelter_ syndrome

25. After the Challenger explosion, psychologists interviewed college freshmen, repeating the
questioning three years later. While emotionally powerful, it was found these memories weren't
completely accurate, though the person's confidence in their accuracy was extremely high. FTP,
identify this type of memory which is formed when someone learns of an extremely shocking or
emotional event, which for many people over 45 is remembering where they were when they heard
of JFK's assassination.
Answer: _flashbulb_ memories

26. A striking example is found on the island of Tristan de Cunha. Settled by fifteen people in
1814, as of the late 1960's their 240 descendants displayed four cases of retinisis pigmentosa, a rare
form of progressive blindness, and nine were known to be carriers. If a few individuals from any
population are isolated, they are unlikely to have the same frequency of alleles as the parent
population and this type of genetic drift occurs. FTP, name it.
Answer: _founder_ effect

27. Its first incarnation lasted from 1969 to 1972, with the guitarist as the only constant member.
The second incarnation, formed in 1972, managed to hold on to more members, including Yes
drummer Bill Bruford. It too disbanded, however, after releasing 1974's _Red_. The third
incarnation, including Tony Levin, Adrian Belew, and omnipresent guitarist Robert Fripp, was the
group's most commercially successful incarnation, due to albums like _Beat_ and _Discipline_.
FTP, name this progressive rock band, which took its name from the lyrics of the title track to its
debut release, _In the Court of the Crimson King_.
Answer: _King Crimson_

28. Born in Austria-Hungary in 1912, he joined the outlawed Hungarian Communist Party in 1931.
After ascending to the posts of deputy secretary-general of the Hungarian Communist Party in 1946
and minister of the interior and head of the secret police in 1949 he was arrested and tried for
treason in 1951 and spent two years in prison. Upon his release he assisted in deposing the regime
that imprisoned him. When the Soviets cracked down on the Hungarian revolt in 1956 he formed a
new government and executed Irme Nagy in 1958. FTP, name this man who held supreme power in
Hungary until his health failed in the late 1980's.
Answer: Janos _Kadar_

29. Formulated in 1923, it treats ions as point charges interacting by Coulomb's law and the solvent
as a continuous medium characterized by a dielectric constant. This is an oversimplification, as the
"lumpiness" of the solvent is not negligible when operating on the size scale of ions. However, its
importance lies not in its accuracy, which is poor under most circumstances, but in its ability to
correctly predict limiting slopes of the mean ionic activity coefficient vs. the molality of a solution.
FTP, name this law of physical chemistry used in the study of electrolyte solutions.
Answer: _Debye-Hueckel_ limiting law
Bonuses by Iowa State for the 1998 ACF Regionals
1. Given a description of a work of art, identify it FTP each.
1. Though the event in it happened in 1323, El Greco portrayed the participants in contemporary
clothing. While St. Stephen and St. Augustine lower the body into the grave, above an angel guides
the soul toward heaven.
Answer: The _Burial of Count Orgaz_
2. This shocking Goya painting contains a bloated king, frightened children, and a vulgar queen
poised in a parody of Velazquez's Princess Margarita.
Answer: The _Family of Charles IV_
3. In this Sir Joshua Reynolds painting, a lady is seated in the center gazing up and to the left.
Behind her, in shadow, are two other figures, one holding a dagger looking melancholy, the other
holding a cup and looking furious. The model for the woman was a famous actress.
Answer: _Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse_

2. Answer the following questions about subatomic physics.
1. Proposed by Yukawa, it is the field particle for the strong force. Its finite mass of around 130
MeV [mega electron volts] is the cause of the strong force's short range. FTP name it.
Answer: _pion_
2. Distinct from the neutral Z boson, this boson carries a charge and is exchanged in flavor
changing reactions with quarks.
Answer: _W_ boson (accept _W+_ and _W-_ boson)
3. This quantity, when plotted against the z component of the isospin, gives rise to the eightfold
way. Denoted by a capital Y, it is the sum of baryon, strange, charm, beauty, and truth numbers.
Answer: _hypercharge_

3. Answer these questions about the history of China FTP apiece.
1. The first dynasty to leave historical records, it is believed to have ruled from the 16th to 11th
centuries BC.
Answer: _Shang_
2. The first emperor of the Ch'in dynasty, he was the first to create a unified Chinese empire. After
his death, he was buried with a terra-cotta army of over 6000 life-size soldiers and horses.
Answer: _Shih_ huang-ti
3. The romance of this period following the end of the Han dynasty was the source of later Chinese
chivalric fiction. It actually was a period of intense fighting and political intrigue between Chinese
Answer: _Three Kingdoms_ or _San-kuo_

4. Given the title of a work of anthropology, name the author FTP each.
1. _The Golden Bough_
Answer: Sir James _Frazer_
2. _The Hero with a Thousand Faces_
Answer: Joseph _Campbell_
3. _The Raw and the Cooked_
Answer: Claude _Levi-Strauss_
5. In 1947 when India and Pakistan gained their independence, one of the main concerns was the
inclusion in Pakistan of the North-West Frontier Province Tribal Areas.
1. FTP, which nation voted against Pakistan's admission the UN because Pakistan refused to hold a
plebiscite in the Tribal Areas on the question of self-determination?
Answer: _Afghanistan_
2. FTP what name was proposed for the region if it were to become independent, which is also the
name commonly given to the dispute over it?
Answer: _Pashtunistan_ (accept: _Pathanistan_)
3. FTP more, which Soviet Premier visited Afghanistan in 1955 and proclaimed support for the
idea of the independent state of Pashtunistan?
Answer: Nikolai A. _Bulganin_

6. Name the period or epoch of geologic time from clues FTP each. If you need the approximate
year that it ended, you'll receive five points.
1. For 10: This period saw extensive submergence of continents leave overlapping marine rocks.
Africa and Asia separated. Angiosperms appeared.
For 5: 65 million BC.
Answer: _Cretaceous_
2. For 10. In this period the seas were at their greatest extent over North America. Rocks were
chiefly sedimentary. North America, Europe and Africa began moving together. Vertebrates
For 5: 408 million BC.
Answer: _Silurian_
3. For 10: In this epoch the African and European plates collided. Arabia and Africa split at the
Red Sea. California collided with the mid-Pacific ridge. Modern horses, pigs, elephants and
carnivores began to appear.
For 5: 24 million BC.
Answer: _Oligocene_

7. Identify these symphonic poems FTP each.
1. Richard Strauss refused to offer a detailed program for this tone poem, which is concerned with
the "merry pranks" of a popular character from German folklore. He did admit, though, that the
final passage represents the character's capture, trial, and death on the gallows. FTP, that folk
Answer: _Till Eulenspiegels_
2. This poem, perhaps its conductor's most universally famous work, was commissioned in 1879
and included among a series of tableaux vivants marking the Silver Jubilee of Tsar Alexander II.
An explicit, detailed program note prepared for its premiere details the story of a caravan's passage
while guarded by Russian soldiers.
Answer: _In the Steppes of Central Asia_ or _In Central Asia_ or other equivalents
3. This poem is based on a well-known black-and-white reproduction of a painting by the
Swiss-German artist Arnold Boecklin. In the poem, its composer makes use of fragments of the
traditional plainchant Dies Irae, a hymn which had for centuries formed part of the Catholic
Requiem Mass.
Answer: Die _Totsninsel_ (The _Isle of the Dead_)
8. Identify the 19th century English essayist from clues, FTP each.
1. When he was twenty two, his sister Mary broke under the strain of caring for an invalid mother
and stabbed her. After her release, he spent the rest of his life taking care of her, and collaborated
with her on _Tales from Shakespeare_. His independent work includes the _Essays of Elia_.
Answer: Charles _Lamb_
2. The son of a wealthy merchant, he spent all his money on laudanum and took up writing to
support himself. One of his drug induced dreams may have led him to write _On Murder
Considered as One of the Fine Arts_.
Answer: Thomas _De Quincy_
3. When Yeats asked William Morris which writers had inspired the socialist movement, he replied
that Ruskin and this author had, though "someone should have been beside [him] and punched his
head every five minutes." His work _Sartor Resartus_ gives an account of the life and opinions of
Professor Diogenes Teufelsdröch, an imaginary philosopher.
Answer: Thomas _Carlyle_

9. Answer these questions about the philosophy of Francis Bacon.
1. Bacon claimed that the acquisition of truth was hindered by four of these entities, which he
designated "of the tribe", "of the cave", "of the market", and "of the theatre". For 10 points, what
was the common missing term?
Answer: _Idols_
2. Bacon outlined these idols in this book, where he set forth his method of induction. FTP, name it.
Answer: _Novum Organum_
3. Finally, for five points, identify the title utopia which would arise from applied science, first
printed in 1626.
Answer: The _New Atlantis_

10. Answer these questions about cellular respiration, for the stated number of points.
1. For 5: The end product of glycolysis, this compound is converted to ethanol in alcoholic
Answer: _Pyruvic acid_
2. For 5: In animal cells, anaerobic respiration results in a build up of this molecule, which in
humans causes muscles to cramp.
Answer: _Lactic acid_
3. For 10: As electrons pass along the respiratory chain, ATP is formed in this process which
results in the production of a water molecule.
Answer: _oxidative phosphorylation_
4. For 10: Finally, these folds within the mitochondrion contain the electron carriers of the
respiratory chain.
Answer: _cristae_

11. Identify the pop artists from descriptions of their works FTP each.
1. He is tabbed as a descendant of the American precisionists - he even painted _The Demuth
Five_, in homage to Demuth's _I Saw the Figure Five in Gold_. He is probably more famous for his
obsession with word images, such as EAT, LOVE, and DIE.
Answer: Robert _Indiana_
2. After having daydreams of being nuked while painting billboards, this man went into art,
painting the multi-paneled _F-111_ depicting lightbulbs, mushroom clouds, and automotive tail
fins against the figure of the namesake bomber. Other works include _Slipping off the Continental
Divide_ and _Area Code_.
Answer: James _Rosenquist_
3. Some of his non-works include proposals for a colossal peeled banana in Times Square, and an
enormous block of concrete to be inscribed with the names of war heroes, then placed at the
intersection of two major thoroughfares. Strangely enough, he has never been commissioned to
execute one of his monuments by the City of New York.
Answer: Claes _Oldenburg_

12. Answer these questions about Europe and the Carolingian dynasty FTP each.
1. Pepin the Short was the first king of the dynasty. Identify the last Merovingian king whom Pepin
deposed to found the dynasty.
Answer: _Childeric III_
2. After the people of Rome drove this pope out of the city, he sought the aid of Charlemagne who
restored him to the papal throne. Name this pope, who in return crowned Charlemagne as Holy
Roman Emperor.
Answer: _Leo III_
3. Marking the end of political unity in Western Europe, Charles the Bald received France, Louis
the German, Germany, and Lothar I the Low countries and the title of Holy Roman Emperor.
Names this 843 treaty that divided Charlemagne's empire among his grandsons.
Answer: Treaty of _Verdun_

13. Name these members of Jimmy Carter's cabinet from biographical information for fifteen
points apiece or for five points if you need that person's position.
1. For 15: He was a Wall Street lawyer, one-time president of the New York Bar Association and
trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation.
For 5: Secretary of State
Answer: Cyrus _Vance_
2. For 15: He was Secretary of the Air Force under LBJ and would later become president of
For 5: Secretary of Defense
Answer: Harold _Brown_

14. Answer these questions about thermal radiation FTP each.
1. In radiation, the rate of heat loss is equal to e times rho times area times temperature to the fourth
power. First, FTP, identify this law.
Answer: _Stefan-Boltzmann_ equation
2. In the Stefan-Boltzmann equation, e is a value between zero and one which is characteristic of
the material, and is low for reflective surfaces and high for black surfaces. FTP, give the name of
this factor.
Answer: _emissivity_
3. This man solved the ultraviolet catastrophe of cavity radiation by treating the energy of the
radiation as discrete amounts rather than a continuous spectrum.
Answer: Max _Planck_
15. Answer these questions about works by Voltaire for the stated number of points.
1. For 5: In _Candide_, this is Candide's mentor who dies a couple times, gets venereal disease,
and always preaches that this world is the best of all possible worlds, even after he ceases to believe
Answer: _Pangloss_
2. For 10: A kinder, gentler _Candide_, the title character in this work is a Zoroastrian turned out
by his love owing to an eye injury and has a book written about the fact he should have died from
Answer: _Zadig_
3. For 15: Subtitled "A Philosophical Tale," the title character, whose name is Greek for "little
big," is a giant from a planet near Sirius. He travels to Saturn where he picks up a fellow traveler,
then moves on to Earth where he discovers talking atoms called men.
Answer: _Micromegas_

16. Answer these questions about geometry FTP each.
1. A motion is defined as a distance-preserving function of the plane; i.e., a motion of the plane
preserves distances and shapes. Every motion is a composite of three special types of motions;
name two of them for five points each.
Answer: _rotations_
Answer: _reflections_
Answer: _translations_
2. The symmetry group of a plane figure is defined as the set of all motions of that figure such that
the figure is invariant under the motions - i.e., you put a circle in, you get a circle of the same size
and shape, at the same place in the plane, back. How many elements are there in the symmetry
group for a square centered at the origin? You have 15 seconds.
Answer: _8_ (the identity, three rotations, and four reflections)
3. More generally, the symmetry group of a regular polygon with n vertices, and center at the
origin, is called the dihedral group. What is the order of the dihedral group for a regular polygon
with n sides?
Answer: _2n_ (2 times n)

17. Identify these shades encountered by Dante in the _Inferno_, FTP each.
1. Dante encounters this shade in the second circle of Hell. She relates the story of how she fell in
love with Paolo while reading about Lancelot.
Answer: _Francesca di Rimini_
2. In the last bolgia visited in the eighth circle of Hell, Dante witnesses an argument between
Master Adam, a counterfeiter, and this man, known as the "false Greek" for his role in the Trojan
Answer: _Sinon_
3. For 5 points each, name these two sinners crunched in Satan's mouth: the first, who suffers the
most, has his head inside a mouth with his legs out kicking. The second is referred to as "still
looking sturdy," which some scholars have attributed to Dante's confusing the Roman with another
of similar name.
Answer: _Judas_ Iscariot and Caius _Cassius_ Longinus

18. Answer these questions on the movement for German unification FTP each.
1. In May of 1848, this body was formed in an attempt to draft a constitution for a united Germany.
It soon broke up, however, with no results for its efforts.
Answer: _Frankfurt Assembly_
2. During his consolidation of the German states, Bismarck initiated a war against Denmark over
these two territories when the King of Denmark attempted to annex them. Bismarck then used the
Seven Weeks' War to deprive ally Austria of her claims on them. For five points apiece, name
Answer: _Schleswig_ and _Holstein_
3. Believing a war with France would help kindle German nationalism, Bismarck used this dispatch
from King William I to make it look as if the king had insulted the French ambassador. The result
was a declaration of war on France's part, leading to the Franco-Prussian War. Identify this
Answer: _Ems telegram_ or _Ems dispatch_

19. Identify these works in which James Joyce appears as a character for the stated number of
1. For 10: Joyce, who is trying to put on _The Importance of Being Earnest_ in Geneva, is
on-stage with Tristan Tzara and Vladimir Lenin in this Tom Stoppard play.
Answer: _Travesties_
2. For 15: In this Flann O'Brien novel, his last, James Joyce is still alive. A bartender in a small
Irish town, he regrets his Paris life and disavows all his novels except _Dubliners_. The novel gave
its name to a small publishing company.
Answer: The _Dalkey Archive_
3. For 5: There has been speculation that Joyce is the man in the grey mackintosh who appears
frequently during the day in this novel. However, Joyce definitely shows up during Molly's
soliloquy when she begs "O Jamesy let me up out of this."
Answer: _Ulysses_

20. Identify these different methods of sorting from computer science FTP each.
1. The list is scanned from left to right. Whenever a pair of adjacent keys is found to be out of
order, those items are swapped. After the first pass, the largest key in the list will have moved to the
end, but earlier keys may still be out of order.
Answer: _bubble_ sort
2. Sometimes also called diminishing increment sort, this sort is named after its creator. It works by
sorting sub-lists of items separated by a set number of items, then repeating with a smaller
intermediate distance. For an increment of 1, a normal insertion sort is performed.
Answer: _shell_ sort
3. The list is first partitioned into lower and upper sublists for which all keys are, respectively, less
than some pivot key or greater than the pivot key. The lists are then sorted separately, and the
results merged. This method was invented by C.A.R. Hoare.
Answer: _quicksort_

21. Answer these questions about events during the presidency of Andrew Jackson for the stated
number of points.
1. For 5: Objecting to the "Tariff of Abominations," this man secretly penned the 1829 essay _The
South Carolina Exposition and Protest_ which put forth the idea of nullification which eventually
lead to South Carolina declaring the 1832 tariff void. For five points, name him.
Answer: John Caldwell _Calhoun_
2. For 10: Jackson's Secretary of War married a woman he had been having an affair with when
her husband died at sea. When the wives of Washington society refused to associate with her,
Jackson commanded his Cabinet members to receive her. The scandal lead to his resignation as
well as Secretary of State Martin Van Buren. FTP, name either the woman or her husband.
Answer: Peggy _O'Neill_ _Eaton_ (accept either) or John _Eaton_
3. For 10: This faction of Jacksonian Democrats advocated the suppression of paper money and
the curtailment of banking privileges. FTP, name this group, formed in New York.
Answer: _Locofoco_ party
4. For 5: Finally, owing to rampant land speculation, Jackson issued this decree which stated that
government lands be paid for in gold and silver coin. For five points, identify this decree which
resulted in depression following its July 1836 issuing.
Answer: _Specie Circular_

22. Identify these blandly named geographical features for 10 points each:
1. Lying on the French-Italian border, it is the second largest mountain in Europe at 15, 771 ft.
Answer: _Mont Blanc_
2. About 30 miles in length, it flows into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. Sutter's Mill lies
upon it.
Answer: _American_ River
3. A chain of over 100 islands off the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, they include
St. Simons, Port Royal, and Paris Island.
Answer: _Sea_ Islands

23. Identify the writer from clues, FTP each.
1. Secretary for Auguste Rodin, among this Austrian's poetry collections are _The Duino Elegies_
and _Sonnets to Orpheus_.
Answer: Rainer Maria _Rilke_
2. His relationship with Paul Verlaine broke up after the latter shot him. Soon after he published the
prose poem _A Season in Hell_ and began a new career as a gunrunner in Africa.
Answer: Arthur _Rimbaud_
3. Leaving Russia for France after the 1917 revolution, he was the first Russian to win the Nobel
Prize in Literature. Works include the novel _The Village_ and the short story "The Man from San
Answer: Ivan _Bunin_

24. Answer these questions about the Allied occupation of Japan for the stated number of points.
1. For 10: First, name the emperor who, in taking the unprecedented step of declaring his
opinion vital to a national issue, was instrumental in convincing the Japanese government to accept
the terms of surrender.
Answer: Show _Hirohito_
2. For 5: Next, name the Japanese Prime Minister who, along with six others, was executed for
war crimes during the Purge at the beginning of the Occupation.
Answer: _Tojo_ Hideki
3. For 10: Second, name the Liberal Party prime minister of Japan whose term saw the end of the
Answer: _Yoshida_ Shigeru
4. For 5: Lastly, in what year did the Occupation end?
Answer: April, _1952_

25. Identify the experimental American author from clues.
1. This author's novels consist mostly of sparsely punctuated dialogue. He won the 1975 National
Book Award for _JR_, a story about a grade schooler who turns his allowance into a worldwide
business franchise and the National Book Award for 1994 with _A Frolic of His Own_.
Answer: William _Gaddis_
2. His most famous literary technique is the cut-up method, which he writes about in his collection
of essays _The Adding Machine_. Other works include _Exterminator!_ and _The Soft Machine_.
Answer: William S. _Burroughs_
3. Deeply philosophical in both his fiction and nonfiction, his essay collections include _The World
Within the Word_ and _Habitations of the Word_. His novels include _Omensetter's Luck_, _The
Tunnel_, and _Willie Master's Lonesome Wife_, in which the act of reading is likened to the act of
Answer: William _Gass_

26. Answer these questions about the foreign policy amongst nations in imperial India for the stated
number of points.
1. This is an extensive Indian work on politics. Unfortunately for historians, it is theoretical and in
no sense a manual of the current practices of any time. It covers topics ranging from the payment of
officers, means of subordination available to ambitious kings, and the role of envoys. It is identified
as "Kautiliya", and was attributed long after its writing to the legendary Canakya, minister to
Candragupta. Name it FTP.
Answer: the _Arthasastra_
2. It is the name given to the traditional form of foreign policy found in the _Arthasastra_. The
name, from the Sanskrit for "circle," reflects the nature of the policy. Neighboring states are
assumed to generally be hostile toward one another. The constant struggle between survival and
expansion is then acted out in concentric circles of potential friends and enemies. Name this theory
Answer: _mandala_
3. The circle of friends and a further circle of friends' friends from the mandala were counted
together as one of the seven factors of the Indian state. Name any of the other two for five points
Answer: _ruler_, _officials_, _province_, _forts_, _treasury_, _army_

27. Identify these effects caused by various temporal relations between the conditional stimulus and
unconditional stimulus in Pavlovian conditioning.
1. This phenomenon results in a lack of conditioning. The conditional stimulus and unconditional
stimulus are presented simultaneously, but because one stimulus is more salient than the other, the
organism only pays attention to the more salient one.
Answer: _overshadowing_
2. In this type of conditioning, the interval between conditional stimulus and unconditional stimulus
is quite long. Early in training, the conditional responses tend to start during the beginning of the
conditional stimulus and continue right through to the beginning of the unconditional stimulus. Late
in training, conditional responses begin to occur about midway through the conditional stimulus.
Answer: _delay_ conditioning
3. This type of learning is unusual because it often requires only one conditional stimulus
presentation, and the unconditional stimulus can follow hours later. It is sometimes called the
"Garcia effect" after the researcher who first studied it.
Answer: _taste aversion_ learning

28. This monastic Indian religion traces its roots back before the 8th century and its teachers
include Vardhamma Mahavira.
1. For five points, name this religious faith.
Answer: _Jainism_
2. For five points apiece, fifteen for both, name the two branches, or traditions, of Jainism, one
meaning "white-robed" whose adherents follow a canon of scripture containing the sermons and
dialogues of Mahavira, and the other of which means "sky-clad" whose observers believe the
original teachings have been lost but that the original message has been preserved and whose
monks and nuns vow nudity.
Answer: The _Svetambara_ and the _Digambara_
3. For five points apiece, name any two of the three sacred texts of Jainism.
Answer: _Agama_, _Cheda-sutras_, _Culika-sutras_

29. Given a description of a strange short story, name it FTP.
1. The title character of this Borges short story embarks upon a strange literary mission. His goal:
to reproduce, with word for word accuracy, the text of _Don Quixote_, of which he managed the
ninth and thirty-eighth chapters and a bit of the twenty-second.
Answer: "_Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote_"
2. A man who starves himself professionally, after the good times are gone, hires himself onto a
circus which places him in a cage next to the menagerie. When he dies, they replace the empty cage
with a panther, who draws more of a crowd than he ever did.
Answer: "A _Hunger Artist_"
3. Pelayo, upon returning from throwing dead crabs into the sea, finds an angel face down in the
mud of his courtyard. He proceeds to lock him up in a hen coop. At first the villagers crowd around
his cage, but eventually they find a young girl who was turned into a spider more interesting and
leave the angel alone.
Answer: "A _Very Old Man with Enormous Wings_"

30. Answer these questions about small-time Roman gods FTP each.
1. The "gods of the ancestors," which had no names or mythology, were honored yearly at this
festival, which took place from February 13 to 21, during the last month of the Roman calendar.
During this period, no one got married, temples were closed, and offerings were made to the spirits
by the heads of families.
Answer: _Parentalia_
2. These household spirits were closely associated with Vesta. Originally the spirits on whom the
life and food of individual families depended, they became an essential part of the life of the state.
Their name derives from the Latin for "store cupboard," the store of food for a family.
Answer: _Penates_
3. These divinities were often linked with the Penates. They are basically kindly spirits who protect
the household, but their origins are vague. Cities also "had" these spirits, and in the case of cities
they were said to protect crossroads and travelers by land and sea.
Answer: _Lares_