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					1998 Terrapin Invitational
Round 4
Tossups by Chicago A and South Carolina

1. One was a pupil of Plato and Isocrates of Athens. Only one speech of his remains, and it is known as Against
Leocrates. He is perhaps best known for controlling Athenian finances from 338BC to 326, and for instigating the
renovation of the theater of Dionysus. The other is believed to have redivided the land and remodeled the
constitution in his own city-state. FTP, give the shared name of this Athenian orator and this alleged Spartan
Answer: Lycurgus

2. Thought to be responsible for adding the bronze statues of Romulus and Remus to the Capitoline Wolf, his most
important commissions were the sepulchral monuments in St. Peter’s for Popes Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII. He
often collaborated with his brother Piero on paintings and medals, but is more admired today for his efforts to study
anatomy and apply it to his art - efforts which are evident in the eighteen-inch statuette for which he is best known
and in his drawing Battle of the Ten Nudes. FTP name this Italian sculptor who created the dynamic group Hercules
and Antaeus.
Answer: Antonio Pollaiuolo

3. This reaction occurs between a conjugated diene and a molecule containing a carbon-carbon double or triple
bond. A cycloaddition reaction, it proceeds through a pseudo-cyclic intermediate to generate a product containing a
six-membered ring. In the course of the reaction, two new carbon-carbon single bonds are formed, using the
electrons from two of the original pi bonds. FTP, what is this reaction, discovered in 1928 by the two German
chemists for whom it is named?
Answer: Diels-Alder reaction

4. His lectures at Johns Hopkins are collected in The Science of English Verse and Shakespeare and his
Forerunners. Although he gained fame for such poems as "Corn," "The Symphony," and the "Centennial
Meditation," he also wrote a novel, Tiger-Lilies. FTP, name this author, who was also a flautist in Baltimore's
Peabody Orchestra, best remembered for the collection he published in 1877, The Song of the
Answer: Sidney Lanier

5. The second ruler of this name, nicknamed "the meek," succeeded his brother Simeon the Proud, and was the son
of the first ruler of the name, who was nicknamed "moneybags." The third of them took power a century later and
married Princess Sofia, forging an alliance with the Byzantine Empire. FTP, give the common name of these grand
princes of Moscow, the fourth of whom was the first to take the title "Tsar."
Answer: Ivan

6. He is believed to have been heavily influenced by Isaiah who lived during his reign. His name means “Jehovah
strengthens” in Hebrew, and he joined a coalition against the Assyrians in 705 BC. The coalition was defeated by
Sennacherib of the Assyrians and he was forced to pay a heavy tribute. FTP, name this king of Judah from 715 BC
to 687, the son and successor of Ahaz.
Answer: Hezekiah or Ezekias

7. They range in length from 6 to 22 inches, and unlike most other marsupials, they possess both a large number of
incisor teeth and a specialized foot structure in which the second and third toe are grown together. The Ceram Island
long nosed and pig footed varieties are thought to be extinct, and both species of the rabbit variety are endangered.
This group of animals makes up the marsupial families Peramalidae and Thylacomidae. FTP, give the common
name for the group of 21 species of Australian mammals that has gained fame in recent years through the
protagonist of a series of video games.
Answer: Bandicoot
8. His early career as a dramatist and political satirist was cut short by Robert Walpole’s Licensing Act of 1737.
Subsequently he turned to the law and played a leading role in the creation of the first police force in London. In an
attempt to restore his failing health, he made a trip to Portugal from which he wrote A Journal of a Voyage to
Lisbon. His satiric talents are best seen in Jonathan Wild and in two parodies of Richardson's Pamela. FTP, name
this English novelist, author of Shamela and Joseph Andrews.
Answer: Henry Fielding

9. The world is all that is the case. We picture facts to ourselves. A picture represents a possible situation in logical
space. A logical picture of facts is a thought. The facts in logical space are the world. One elementary proposition
cannot be deduced from another, and the propositions of logic are tautologies. These are but a few of the enumerated
sentences that appear in, FTP, what work of philosophy that served as the doctoral dissertation of Ludwig
Answer: Tractacus Logico-Philosophicus (prompt on Wittgenstein on early buzz)

10. This mineral forms hexagonal crystals and has a specific gravity of 3.2. It was formerly used in the production of
phosphate for fertilizers, but more importantly its presence in most igneous and metamorphic rocks allows it to
replenish the phosphorous in soil. It derives its name from the Greek for “deception”, and has formula Ca5(PO4)3F.
FTP, name this mineral with hardness of 5 which you hopefully won’t be tempted to eat.
Answer: Apatite

11. After serving in the Mississippi Cavalry during the Civil War, he became a columnist for the New Orleans
Picayune, under the pseudonym "Drop Shot." After moving to Northampton, Massachusetts in 1885, he wrote
Bylow Hill, Bonaventure, and John March, Southerner, though his best work was done before he moved north.
FTP, name this author, best known for Madame Delphine, Old Creole Days, and The Grandissimes.
Answer: George Washington Cable

12. One man of this name was sent to Syracuse with his brother Epicydes, and secured Hieronymus's alliance with
Carthage before being forced from the city by Marcellus and dying of malaria. Another one laid siege to Nisaea
with the aid of Demosthenes during the Peloponnesian War, but was driven off by Brasidas and killed at the battle of
Delium. FTP, identify the common Greek name, which was shared by a man from Cos who set out a code of
ethical treatment that led to his becoming known as the "Father of Medicine."
Answer: Hippocrates

13. This South African politician and member of the National Party first held office in Parliament in 1948 and
served as Minister of Defense from 1966 to 1978, when he was elected Prime Minister. He granted a form of
autonomy to certain homelands and established a new constitution that provided separate legislative chambers for
Asians and Coloureds but made no concessions to the black majority. He resigned the Presidency in 1989 after
agreeing to Namibian independence. FTP, name this former President of South Africa, who finally appeared before
the Truth and Reconciliation Commission earlier this year.
Answer: Pieter Willem Botha

14. He dies on a bench of a heart attack just after leaving his house for the first time in eight years. The play begins
when his wife's twin sister arrives to announce that she wants to move in, beginning a struggle between the two
women for the love of the title character's son Erfurt. FTP, identify this play, the penultimate drama written by
Ibsen, whose title character is a former bank president.
Answer: John Gabriel Borkman

15. According to his doctrines there are 8 stages of man culminating in "Harmony", where humans could live for
144 years. 120 of those years would be spent in sexual pleasure, and during this time, the seas would turn to
lemonade. Unfortunately, we have not attained this stage and so, to combat the disorder of the world, we must
organize into communes of 1800 people living under one roof. FTP, these ideas all belong to what Frenchman who
developed the concept of the phalanx.
Answer: Charles Fourier

16. Zero is a natural number. Every natural number has a successor, which is also a natural number. Zero is not the
successor of any natural number. Different natural numbers have different successors. And if zero has X, and each
natural number relays X to its successor, then all natural numbers get X. These are statements of a group of
statements of number theory published in 1889 by a mathematician who attributed them to Dedekind. FTP, give the
collective name of these statements published by an Italian mathematician.
ANSWER: The 5 Peano Postulates or Peano Axioms

17. Born in Marietta, Georgia in 1897, he graduated from West Point in 1918. During World War II, he was placed
in charge of materiel, and in 1945, FDR appointed him deputy military governor of Germany under Eisenhower.
Following his retirement, he went to work on Wall Street, where he was one of the few men who could claim to
have formed a government or reformed a currency. For ten points, name this man, regarded as a hero by Berliners
for directing the Berlin Airlift who shares his surname with an Olympic boxing champion and a 19 th Century
Secretary of State.
Answer: Lucius D. Clay

18. This collection of essays contains "Hamlet and His Problems" which includes the theory of the objective
correlative. Another essay is "Tradition and the Individual Talent" wherein the author asserts the poets' relationship
to the whole of literature past and present. FTP, identify this T.S. Eliot collection which takes it title from The
Golden Bough.
Answer: The Sacred Wood

19. This composer was greatly impressed after hearing Clara Schumann perform her husband’s piano concerto,
remarking that “Each tempo is indelibly imprinted in my soul,” and was equally amazed when Liszt faultlessly
played his Piano Concerto in A minor at sight. His Lyric Suite, including the “March of the Dwarfs,” was
orchestrated from piano works, and the Holberg Suite honors the 18th century author. FTP, who is this composer
whp wrote incidental music to Bjornson’s Sigurd Jorsalfar, and to a work by another famous Norwegian dramatist,
Peer Gynt?
Answer: Edvard Hagerup Grieg

20. He was a military engineer in the Caribbean before he returned home to Blois in 1780 to become an inspector of
teachers. Fascinated by the work of Joseph Priestley, he began investigations into electric charges, becoming mildly
famous for work on the friction in windmills. In 1784 he began a series of experiments concerned with the
magnitude of the forces involved in Priestley¹s fields and found that they decreased proportionally with the inverse
square of the distance between charges. FTP, name this man, for whom a unit of electric charge was named.
Answer: Charles-Augustin de Coulomb

21. The original two-story brick structure, completed in 1742, contained a town meeting hall, rooms for public
officials, and a market. Almost completely destroyed by fire on January 13, 1761, after it was rebuilt two years
later, it was frequently used as a meeting place for American patriots. For ten points, identify this structure doubled
in size by Charles Bulfinch in 1805, which also served as a theater for the British in occupied Boston in 1775,
known as the “Cradle of American Liberty.”
Answer: Fanueil Hall

22 A solution of 4.43% water and 95.57% ethyl alcohol is one of these. They can not be distilled by typical
methods; therefore, a third liquid such as benzene must be added to separate the components. They arise from
deviations in Raoult’s law for mixtures of liquids. FTP, name these mixtures that can be defined as a mixture of two
liquids that boils at constant composition.
Answer: Azeotrope
1998 Terrapin Invitational
Round 4
Bonuses by Chicago A and South Carolina

1. For ten points each, answer these questions about an Italian literary movement.
1. This school was inspired by naturalism but rejected the French movements use of scientific language,
preferring to employ the dialects of the people it depicted. The term was also later applied to opera.
Answer: Verismo
2. This master of verismo planned a five-volume epic called I Vinti but only finished the first two novels, I
Malavoglia and Mastro-Don Gesualdo. His short stories include “Cavalleria Rusticana”.
Answer: Giovanni Verga
3. This colleaugue of Verga wrote Profumo, Giacinta, and Il Marchese di Roccaverdina.
Answer: Luigi Capuana

2. Ever since the movie “Airplane 2,” the space shuttle has been a fixture in our familiarity with manned space
5. While the space shuttle is touted as a reusable craft, one major component must be replaced after every flight.
For five points, name the piece that breaks up in the upper atmosphere.
Answer: External fuel tank (accept that big red tank)
5. Which shuttle crew member, often from another country, is responsible for a mission’s cargo?
Answer: Payload specialist
10. For ten points, give the name of the Soviet space shuttle which flew missions from 1988 to 1993.
Answer: Buran space shuttle
10. For a final ten points, the Canadian government developed and funded what part of the shuttle orbiter, mounted
on the port side of the cargo bay behind the crew quarters?
Answer: Remote Manipulator System or RMS or robot arm

3. Name the following Irish agitators FTPE.
1. He formed the Catholic Association in 1823, and he became an MP in 1829. He became Lord Mayor of Dublin
1841, but he died six years later in Genoa, Italy.
Answer: Daniel O’Connell
2. He was the leader of a rebellion in 1798 with the United Irishmen.
Answer: Theobald Wolf Tone
3. In 1902 this journalist founded the Sinn Fein which became a political party in 1905.
Answer: Arthur Griffith

4. Answer these questions about Italian opera for the stated number of points.
15. 19th-century imitators of Rossini often ended scenes with a group of three related pieces, the first slow and
melodic, the second narrative and monotonous, and the third marked by its rapid tempo and uniform rhythms. For
five points each, what are the names of these three subdivisions?
Answer: aria, recitative, and cabaletta
15. In the middle of the 19th century, recitatives began to be accompanied by the orchestra. For fifteen points, what
is the name for the earlier dry style of recitative, accompanied by harpsichord only?
Answer: secco recitative

5. FTP each name these Charles Dickens characters with really dumb names.
1. This hypocrite, the father of Charity and Mercy, tries to force Mary Graham to marry him in Martin
Answer: Seth Pecksniff
2. After coming up with one failed scheme after another, this man emigrates to Australia and becomes a
magistrate in David Copperfield.
Answer: Wilkins Micawber
3. This able orator is retained by the lawyers for the defense in the case of Bardell versus Pickwick.
Answer: Serjeant Buzfuz

6. Answer these questions about probability for the stated number of points.
5. This is the term for a probability distribution in which every elementary event has the same probability of
Answer: uniform
5. Two events A and B have this property if the probability of both A and B happening is equal to the product of the
probabilities of A and B happening individually.
Answer: independent
10. Named for an English mathematician, this theorem gives a relationship between the probability of A given B and
the probability of B given A.
Answer: Bayes’ theorem
10. Also named for a English mathematician, this inequality states that the probability of the union of a countable
sequence of events is less than or equal to the sum of the probability of the individual events.
Answer: Boole’s inequality

7. Answer the following questions about the Supreme Court's rulings on the separation of church and state, for ten
points each.
1. The court struck down a requirement that students recite a 22-word prayer written by the New York Board of
Regents in this 1962 case.
Answer: Engel v. Vitale
2. In this 1971 case, the court held that in order to be constitutional laws must have a secular legislative purpose,
must neither enhance nor inhibit religion, and must not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion.
Answer: Lemon v. Kurtzman
3. The court struck down a Louisiana law that required that both creationism and evolution must be taught if either
was taught as part of a school's curriculum in this 1987 case.
Answer: Edwards v. Aguillard

8. Name the philosopher from works 30-20-10.
30. Dynamics of Faith and The Religious Situation
20. The Eternal Now and The Courage to Be
10. Systematic Theology
Answer: Paul Johannes Tillich

9. Name the particle given the discoverer and the year for 10, or for 5 from more information.
1. 10. Martin Perl, 1974
        5. It is similar to an electron but is 3500 times heavier and was named for the Greek letter that begins the word
"third" since it was the third charged lepton to be discovered.
Answer: Tau or tauon
2. 10. James Chadwick, 1932
        5. It is a constituent of every atom except ordinary hydrogen.
Answer: Neutron
10. Carl David Anderson, 1936
  5. Similar to the electron but 207 times heavier, it never interacts by the strong force, and is named after a Greek
Answer: Muon or mu-meson

10. Identify these kiddie-lit authors on a 10-5 basis, 5 being their most famous work.
1. 10: He was originally going to the seminary until he became an Italian nationalist and journalist. After unification,
he gave up journalism and began writing kiddie-lit.
       5: Pinocchio
Answer: Carlo Collodi or Carlo Lorenzini
2. 10: Professor of philosophy at the Bern Academy, he wrote the Swiss national anthem, "Rufst du mein
       5: The Swiss Family Robinson
Answer: Johann Rudolf Wyss
3. 10: She began writing during the Franco-Prussian War to raise money for the Red Cross.
       5: Heidi
Answer: Johanna Spyri
11. Name the following rebellions from American history FTP each.
1. This Virginia rebellion against Governor Berkeley was immediately caused by the failure of the governor to
authorize protection against Indian attacks.
Answer: Bacon’s Rebellion
2. This 1841-1842 rebellion occurred when a man was elected governor in an irregular election. He stormed the
statehouse, but his forces were dispersed and he was imprisoned until 1845.
Answer: Dorr’s rebellion
3. This 1798 rebellion sometimes called the “Window Tax War” because it resulted from a government tax on slaves
and real estate the latter being assessed according to the number and size of their windows.
Answer: Fries’ rebellion

12. Identify these explorers who spent some time around Australia FTP each.
1. In 1768, he set out to observe the transit of Venus from Tahiti, but accidentally discovered the east coast of
Australia before returning to England.
Answer: James Cook
2. He was a captain serving under Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in 1606 when he sailed between Australia and New
Guinea through a strait now named for him.
Answer: Luis Vaez de Torres
3. He discovered Bass Strait along with George Bass, but is better known for his circumnavigation of Australia in
Answer: Matthew Flinders

13. Name these linguistic sound mechanisms, TPE.
1. In English, this is not a phoneme, though Cockney speakers might argue over its use in the word "bottle," among
others. FTP, name this phonetic action, caused by closing the space between the vocal cords and thus stopping their
Answer: Glottal stop
2. This is the sort of consonant sound produced by continuous air flow through the mouth, accompanied by
continuous audible noise such as ffff, ssssss, or vvvvv.
Answer: Fricative
3. This is when the tongue is drawn far up into the back of the mouth, almost touching the soft palate, in order to
pronounce a consonant. Though not regularly phonemic in English, Tom Brokaw is certainly familiar with this
Answer: velarization

14. Answer these questions about inorganic chemistry FTPE.
1. In the complex of a transition metal with small molecules or ions, what is the term for the groups bonded to the
central metal atom?
Answer: ligands
2. The number of bonds between the central atom and its ligands is given by this number.
Answer: coordination number (do not accept “coordination complex”)
3. What is the three-dimensional arrangement of a complex with coordination number 6?
Answer: octahedral

15. Identify these characters from Anna Karenina from brief descriptions FTPE.
1. Anna abandons her child and husband in order to be with this handsome young officer.
Answer: Aleksei Vronski
2. This character's search for meaning in his life and his desire for a simple, natural existence on his estate are
thought to be reflections of Tolstoy's own mood when he wrote the book.
Answer: Konstantin Levin
3. The wife of Konstantin Levin, her happy marriage is opposed to Anna's tragic love for Vronski.
Answer: Kitty Levin

16. Answer the following questions about the creator of the 1613 painting Judith Beheading Holofernes FTPE.
1. Give the full name of the artist.
Answer: Artemesia Gentileschi
2. Artemesia’s father Orazio was a colleague of this painter who also did a rendition of the Judith story. FTP, name
Answer: Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
3. Name Artemesia’s teacher who raped her in May 1611.
Answer: Agostino Tassi

17. Name the following Indian cities from a description of an historical event that occurred there FTPE.
1. This city was the site of a 1919 massacre of 400 demonstrators and the site of the Golden Temple that was taken
over by government troops in an attempt to curb terrorism in 1984.
Answer: Amritsar
2. In 1984, methyl isocyanate leaked from a plant in this city killing at least 3300.
Answer: Bhopal
3. On June 23, 1757 Robert Clive won a stunning victory at this site.
Answer: Plassey

18. Identify these contemporary American novelists from works on a 10-5 basis.
1. 10. Big Sur and Desolation Angels
       5. On the Road
Answer: Jack Kerouac
2. 10. The Ghost Writer and The Anatomy Lesson
       5. Portnoy's Complaint
Answer: Philip Roth
3. 10. The Free-Lance Pallbearers and Flight to Canada
       5. Mumbo Jumbo
Answer: Ishmael Reed

19. Identify these ruling dynasties of Persia from a brief description FTPE.
1. This dynasty was founded circa 546 B.C. by Cryus the Great and lasted until the death of Darius II in the wars
against Alexander the Great.
Answer: Achaemenid
2. It was under this dynasty, which lasted from circa 250 B.C. to A.D. 226, that the Parthian Empire posed a serious
threat to the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire.
Answer: Arsacid
3. Following the overthrow of the Arsacids, this dynasty ruled Persia during a golden age of prosperity that lasted
until its conquest by the Arabs circa A.D. 640.
Answer: Sassanid

20. Answer the following questions about a disease, 5-10-15
5. This disease is caused when an individual does not ingest enough ascorbic acid.
Answer: scurvy
10. Scurvy occurs because without Vitamin C, humans cannot synthesize what substance, which is an element of
almost all normal bodily tissues?
Answer: collagen
15. In 1753, a Scottish naval surgeon proved that scurvy could be cured by the ingestion of citrus fruits, proving the
link between this disease and diet. Name, for fifteen, this man, who thus became the first to establish a link between
a dietary deficiency and a disease.
Answer: James Lind

From 1835-43, there was a migration of Boers from the Cape of Good Hope to northern South Africa. Answer these
questions about it FTSNOP.
5. Name this event which Afrikaners now regard as one of the most significant events in their history.
Answer: Great Trek
10. Lending his name to the administrative capital of South Africa, he was one of the leaders of the Great Trek,
defeating the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River in 1838.
Answer: Andries Pretorius
15. This man, also a Boer leader, sought a land concession from Zulu leader Dingane. However, as they began
immigration, Digane invited him and his party to a celebration where they were massacred.
Answer: Pieter Retief

Answer the following questions about the history of Southeast Asia FTP each.
1. This city was built by orders of Mindon Min and completed in 1857, after which it served as capital of Burma.
Answer: Mandalay
2. The first king of this dynasty, which followed the destruction of Ayuthia and the expulsion of the Burmese, was
Rama I.
Answer: the Chakri
3. These rulers of what would become French Indochina included Gia Long, who united the imperial domain.
After the death of Tu Duc in 1883, the local rulers were no longer independent of French control.
Answer: the Emperors of Annam

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