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					2001 ACF Nationals
Tossups by Carleton

1. Her works of non-fiction include A Defense of Circe and The Never-Ending Wrong, a 1977 account of
the Sacco-Vanzetti trial. Her Collected Stories won the 1965 Pulitzer Prize, and includes stories previously
collected in The Leaning Tower and The Old Order, while her other works include a novel set on a German
passenger ship sailing from Mexico in 1931. FTP, identify this author of Flowering Judas, Ship of Fools,
and Pale Horse, Pale Rider.
         Answer: Katherine Anne Porter

2. One atom of it, when combined with five atoms of silver and four atoms of iodine, has the highest room
temperature conductivity of any known ionic crystal. Discovered in 1861 as an impurity associated with
samples of the mineral lepidolite, it is used in photocells and vacuum-tube filaments, and made headlines in
January 2001 when Harvard physicists slowed light to a stop in a vapor composed of it. Discovered along
with cesium by Kirchoff and Bunsen in 1859, what is this alkali metal with atomic number 37, which, FTP,
is distinguished by its bright red spectroscopic lines?
          Answer: rubidium

3. A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, he served as commander of his country’s National Guard from
1955 to 1967 and succeeded his brother, Luis, to the presidency. His use of the guard to silence or outlaw
his opponents and his enrichment at his country's expense led to his overthrow in 1979. Assassinated in
Asuncion, Paraguay, the following year, FTP, who is this dictator, the last of a dynasty that began when the
U.S. supported his father’s 1936 seizure of the presidency in Nicaragua.
         Answer: Anastasio Somoza Debayle

4. Born Filippo, he is better known by his literary persona, “the Nolan,” and by the name he took upon
entering the Dominican Order in Naples. Soon after he caricatured Neapolitan society with his comedy The
Candlemaker. His career saw writings on a wide variety of topics – mnemonics in The Shadows of Ideas
and a Renaissance theory of love in The Heroic Frenzies. However it was his The Ash Wednesday Supper
and On the Infinite University and Worlds, both of which advocated Copernican cosmology that got him in
trouble. FTP, name the philosopher burned alive in 1600 in Rome.
         Answer: Giordano Bruno

5. Just before his death in 1633, he sent the body of work for which he is known today to Nicholas Ferrar,
the founder of Little Gidding. That work beings with the “Perirrhanterium,” or “The Church Porch,” and
consists of 160 “sacred poems and private ejaculations.” FTP, identify this poet of The Temple, best known
for “The Pulley,” “The Collar,” and “Easter Wings.”
          Answer: George Herbert

6. The last epoch of this period was the Merioneth, followed by the Tremadoc, and its ages include the
Tommotian and Menevian. Although life had not yet invaded dry land or the air, the seas teemed with
sponges, bryozoans, hydrozoans, brachiopods, gastropods, and, during the Atdabanain Age, the trilobites
appeared. Named in 1835 by the English geologist Adam Sedgwick for sedimentary rocks in Wales, what is
this period occurring roughly 540 to 500 million years ago which, FTP, forms the first division of the
Paleozoic Era?
Answer: Cambrian

7. The hair of the figure on the left is dotted with olive green leaves, while the hair of the figure on the right
contains some white and green stars. The bottom of this canvas is a mass of green highlighted by purples,
blues, reds, and golds that were supposed to represent a field of flowers. This transitions up to a series of
colored rectangles that stud a gold mass. At the time it was completed, it was the foremost example of Art
Nouveau in Vienna. FTP, name this painting by Gustav Klimt of two lovers in an embrace.
         Answer: The Kiss
8. Its supporters eventually migrated to the NMD program, a more pragmatic approach. Though defended
as an attempt to free the U.S. from policies of deterrence and a reliance on the threat of nuclear retaliation,
Les Aspin announced its abandonment and the establishment of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization,
a cheaper alternative than using ground and sea-based missile systems instead of X-ray lasers, subatomic
particle beams, and computer-guided electromagnetic rail guns. FTP, name this Reagan-sponsored defense
program popularly dubbed Star Wars.
          Answer: Strategic Defense Initiative or SDI (prompt on “Star Wars” before it’s mentioned)

9. The introduction of a photographic method by Frank Schlesinger in 1903 considerably improved the
accuracy of measurement for this quantity, and, in 1989, the European Sapce Agency launched a satellite
called Hipparcos specifically to achieve more precise values. The diurnal form, caused by the Earth’s
rotation, is accounted for in astronomical measurements, along with the annual type. Friedrich Bessel made
the first stellar measurement, obtaining a value of 1/3 arc second for 61 Cygni. FTP, name the apparent
displacement of an observed object due to a change in the observer’s position.
           Answer: parallax (accept stellar parallax before “diurnal form”)

10. Alyoshka is a reckless young shoemaker who, when drunk, lies down in the middle of the street and
plays tunes on his concertina, while Andrei Kleshtch is a down-and-out locksmith who gets drunk because
he is unable to bear the death of his wife, Anna. Nastya, a prostitute, was reading a story called Fatal Love
until the Baron seizes the book, reads its title aloud, and bangs her over the head with it. FTP, all of these
derelicts are uplifted by the arrival of the tramp Luka at Mikhail Kostilyoff’s flophouse in what 1902 play,
written by Maksim Gorky?
          Answer: Na dne or The Lower Depths (also translated as A Night’s Lodging or At the Bottom)

11. In 1963, a Reformed North American variety of them originated at Carleton College. According to
Pliny the Elder, their distinguishing badge was a serpent’s egg which would bring success and influence to
whomever possessed it. Their language, Ogham, died out in the fifth century C.E., long after Julius Caesar
described their studies of the stars, belief in the transmigration of souls, and veneration of the mistletoe.
FTP, name these Celtic cult members known for conducting magic rites in oak groves.
         Answer: druids

12. Some of this man’s odder scientific articles include “Arithmetic by Smell” and “Gregariousness in
Cattle and in Men.” As a medical student, he intended to work through the pharmacopoeia from A to Z, but
stopped at the letter C after taking castor oil. The inventor of the silent dog whistle, at the 1884
International Health Exhibition, he collected physical data on a large number of people, from which he
determined that every person’s fingerprints are unique. The discoverer of anticyclones and author of
Hereditary Genius, FTP, name this cousin of Charles Darwin who coined the term “eugenics.”
         Answer: Francis Galton

13. His father was killed by Eupheus Hines, his grandfather, who left him on the steps of an orphanage.
After Lucas Burch accuses him of a crime, he flees town for a week, but Reverend Hightower is unable to
protect him and Percy Grimm kills him and castrates his corpse. FTP, identify this character, who cuts the
throat of his lover Joanna Burden in Faulkner’s Light in August.
          Answer: Joe Christmas

14. Examples of this in antiquity include the one at Woodstock, built by Henry II to protect his concubine
Rosamond. The Egyptian one was built by Petesuchis or Tithoes near Lake Moeris and had 3000
apartments, half of which were underground. The one at Clusium was made by Lars Porsena for his tomb,
and the Lemnian one was fashioned by the architects Smilis, Rholus, and Theodorus with 150 columns so
easily adjusted that a child could turn them. A more famous one was solved with a ball of thread and was
constructed by Daedalus. FTP, name this structure that served as a prison for the Minotaur.
         Answer: labyrinth
15. His nicknames included Rantipole, reflecting his wild and rakish youth; Man of Silence, from his
taciturnity; Badinguet, from the name of the mason who changed clothes with him when he escaped from
Ham; Boustrapa, a compound of Boulogne, Strasbourg, and Paris, the places of his escapades; and Man of
Sedan, because it was at Sedan in 1870 that he surrendered to William I of Prussia. FTP, name Louis
Bonaparte’s third son who was also called the Man of December when he became emperor of France in
December 1852.
          Answer: Napoleon III

16. In his most famous work he argued that “thinking is simply talking to oneself silently . . . and thinking
could be studied by recording the movement of certain muscles in the throat.” He also stressed animal
research in his work Animal Education and broadened his work with the publication of his Psychological
Care of Infant and Child. It was during his tenure at Johns Hopkins that he began to terrorize an infant.
FTP, name this man who instilled a fear of white furry things in Little Albert; the man considered to be the
founder of behaviorism
          Answer: John B. Watson

17. Francis Archer, despite being broke, disguised as a servant, and mistaken for a highwayman by a
Litchfield innkeeper, flirts with the innkeeper’s daughter, Cherry, who aids Archer against the thievery of
the real highwayman Gibbet. Meanwhile, Archer’s equally indigent friend Thomas Aimwell feigns illness
in order to be healed by Lady Bountiful, whose daughter, Dorinda, Aimwell seeks to marry for her money.
FTP, these amorous schemes occur in what 1707 comic play, first perfomred two months before the death
of its author, George Farquhar?
          Answer: The Beaux’ (bohz) Stratagem

18. Characteristics of this phylum include bundles of longitudinal muscles under the epidermal layer, but
the absence of circular muscles. Along with a stiff cuticle, this limits the types of movement, so that they
seem to thrash about in a random manner. Having no cilia and a pseudocoelomate body cavity, parasitic
species include Onchocerca, the cause of “river blindness.” Containing members like Ancylostoma and
Filaria, FTP, name this phylum that includes pinworms, whipworms, and intestinal roundworms.
          Answer: Nematoda or nematodes or Nemata (prompt on roundworms)

19. In the last few years of his reign, the Echthesis, a formula proposed to reconcile the Monophysites, was
advanced by one of his supporters, the Patriarch Sergius. He had gained the throne after his predecessor, the
incompetent Phocas, was executed, and checked the advance of the Avars and the Persians. After the
decisive battle of Nineveh in 627 and the death of Khusru a year later, he made peace with the Persians, but,
within 13 years, had lost almost all of his gains to the Arabs under Muhammad. Ruling from 610-641, FTP,
identify this Byzantine ruler who made Greek this official language of the empire and founded a dynasty
which lasted until the death of Justinian II.
          Answer: Heraclius I

20. The main theme of this opera’s orchestral prelude is the hero’s first-act love song, “La rivedro.” It is
during an attack by Samuel and Tommaso that the central deception is revealed. This happens after a series
of revelations at the hut of the suspected witch Ulrica. Finally, Renato discovers that his wife, Amelia,
loves his best friend, Ricardo, and hatches a murderous plot. Its setting was shifted from the original locale
of Sweden during the period of Gustavus III’s assassination at the title event. FTP, name this opera set in
Boston and composed by Giuseppe Verdi.
         Answer: A Masked Ball or Un ballo in maschera

21. Bulfinch states that he was a cousin of Bellerophon, but does not explain the details of the connection.
Using his powers, he was able to gain an entire kingdom for himself and his brother, Bias. He did so by
learning the cause of the curse upon sickly Prince Iphoclus. He then removed a knife from a nymph’s tree,
created a potion with the rust, cured the child, and received his wish for the kingdom of King Phylacus.
FTP, name this Greek figure who, by saving two baby snakes from death, gained the ability to understand
the speech of all animals.
         Answer: Melampus
22. He signed the bail bond for Jefferson Davis after the Civil War. In 1838, Thurlow Weed asked him to
edit a Whig newspaper to support Seward's campaign for governor, and he went on to fight for
emancipation of the slaves, culminating in his "The Prayer of Twenty Millions" editorial. FTP, identify this
politician and editor of the New York Tribune, who unsuccessfully ran for President in 1872.
      Answer: Horace Greeley

23. In a contemporary poem, he was accused of being metaphysical from want of food by his great-
grandfather, Babieca. Four days were spent thinking of his name; eventually one was chosen which
sarcastically referenced his former status as a tribute to his newfound role. Although he was comically
covered in blemishes, he was able to assist in clashes with opponents such as the Knight of the White Moon
and several windmills. FTP, identify this horse ridden by Don Quixote.
          Answer: Rocinante
2001 ACF Nationals
Bonuses by Carleton

1. Identify the person or event from Florentine history, for 10 points each.
1. Tensions between the old and new rich, the Black Death, and the collapse of the banking houses of Bardi
and Peruzzi were some the factors that led to this 1378 revolt by the wool-carders guild.
          Answer: Ciompi Revolt
2. This wealthiest Florentine of the mid-fifteenth-century controlled the city from behind the scenes,
skillfully manipulating the constitution and influencing elections as head of the Office of Public Debt.
          Answer: Cosimo d’ Medici
3. This grandson of Cosimo d’ Medici ruled Florence in totalitarian fashion during the last quarter of the
fifteenth century; his brother was assassinated by the Pazzi family, who plotted against his rule.
          Answer: Lorenzo d’ Medici or Lorenzo the Magnificent

2. Name these figures who messed with Heracles, FTP each.
1. Heracles strangled this giant wrestler to death after lifting him above the ground, from which he drew his
strength.
          Answer: Antaeus
2. This centaur was responsible for giving Heracles’ wife, Deianira, the poison that would eventually cause
the hero’s death.
          Answer: Nessus
3. This hundred-headed dragon guarded the garden of the Hesperides, but Heracles avoided him by getting
Atlas to get some golden apples.
          Answer: Ladon

3. Identify these different computer programming styles, none of which is object-oriented, FTP each.
1. The type of programming that most people learn first, programs in this style are written as lists of
instructions for the computer to obey in sequence. Languages like C and Pascal, which closely mirror the
computer’s own sequential operation, are examples.
          Answer: procedural programming
2. In this sort of programming, the program does not describe how to solve a problem, but instead describes
the structure of the problem. PROLOG is the most prominent language which is programmed in this style.
          Answer: declarative programming
3. Concepts include Data dictionaries, a base interface that all collections should have easy access to
regardless of their size or complexity, and memory-mapping reduction. Examples of this style named after
its most prominent data and program login structure include dBASE, and FoxPro.
          Answer: Table-Oriented programming or TOP

4. Sort out the literary Casaubons, for 10 points each.
1. A central character in this novel about the search for the Holy Grail is Casaubon, who wrote a thesis on
the Knights Templars when he was in graduate school.
          Answer: Foucault’s Pendulum
2. In this novel, Dorothea Brooke marries the aging scholar Edward Casaubon, who dies after only eighteen
months but leaves her his estate on the condition that she not marry his young cousin.
          Answer: Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life
3. In 1614, the Greek scholar Isaac Casaubon dated to post-Christian times the writings of this thrice-great
ancient Egyptian priest who was closely identified with the god Thoth.
          Answer: Hermes Trismegistus

5. Name these advocates of the Black Power Movement from quotes, for 10 points each.
1. This co-founder of the Black Panther party proclaimed, We make the statement, quoting from Chairman
Mao, that political power comes through the barrel of gun.
          Answer: Huey Newton
2. This leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee urged blacks to seize power in those
parts of the South where they outnumbered whites, declaring, I am not going to beg the white man for
anything I deserve. I’m going to take it.
          Answer: Stokely Carmichael (or Kwame Ture)
3. This successor to Carmichael as leader of the SNCC told an African-American crowd in Cambridge,
Maryland, to get your guns and burn this town down.
         Answer: H. Rap Brown

6. Identify these uncomfortable problems of the human body FTP each.
1. First described by a French physician in 1743, this disease is caused by a plaque, or hard lump, than
forms on the penis, and its causes are not well known. Symptoms include a pronounced arc while erect and
a loss of flexibility.
           Answer: Peyronie’s disease
2. In this condition, both testicles do not descend into the scrotum before birth, as opposed to monorchism,
in which one testicle properly descends. The usually pop out within a few weeks after birth, but sometimes
surgery is necessary.
           Answer: cryptorchism or cryptorchidism
3. This condition is marked by an extended persistent erection that lasts for more than four hours, and can
occur in men of all ages, especially in men with sickle-cell anemia.
It is extremely painful and can cause permanent damage if not treated immediately.
           Answer: priapism

7. Name these Renoir paintings, FTP each
1. Depicting a popular spot near the top of Montmartre, it includes portraits of the Cuban painter, Cardenas,
who is dancing on the left and the artist’s friends Lamy and Riviere at the foreground table on the right.
         Answer: Le Moulin de la Galette
2. Probably Renoir’s most famous painting, it depicts Gustave Caillebotte [kuy-BO], among others,
enjoying a picnic at an outdoor restaurant.
         Answer: Luncheon of the Boating Party or Le dejeuner des canotiers
3. There are eight of the title objects readily apparent, though neither the little girl with the hoop on the
bottom right or the woman with the basket on the left is carrying one.
         Answer: The Umbrellas or Les Parapluies

8. Name these connected literary works, for 10 points each.
1. The titular object of this story is discovered by the barber Ivan Yakovlevich in his bread on the morning
of March 25.
          Answer: The Nose
2. The title character of this play by Edmond Rostand declared that his enormous nose was a symbol of his
generosity and independence.
          Answer: Cyrano de Bergerac
3. The title character of this novel by Honore de Balzac is an elderly musician whose twin passions are art
and food. Sometimes referred to as “The Parasite,” he was born ugly, with a massive head and a huge nose.
          Answer: Cousin Pons

9. Name these geographic locations connected with the conflict in Vietnam, for 10 points each.
1. In October 1966, leaders of the allied nations of New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, South
Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea, and the United States pledged support for the war in Vietnam at
a conference in this city.
         Answer: Manila
2. In February 1970, North Vietnam seized a stronghold in the Plaine des Jarres of this nation; in response,
the CIA hired hundreds of Green Beret troops, though congressional measures had banned the use of
American ground forces there.
         Answer: Laos
3. This nation’s Prince Norodom Sihanouk had held secret discussions with the North Vietnamese but was
overthrown in March 1970. The premier and defense minister Lon Nol then seized power and appealed for
U.S. aid to stop the North Vietnamese from taking over.
         Answer: Cambodia

10. Answer these questions about particle accelerators FTP each.
1. The cyclotron consists of an electromagnet with these two hollow, semicircular electrode structures
supported between the poles of the electromagnet. They are named for their resemblance to a certain shape.
          Answer: dees
2. In this type of accelerator, particles travel in a circular path of constant radius, guided by electromagnets.
Like the betatron, the magnetic field was caused to decrease slightly with increasing radius, but the
introduction of alternating-gradient focusing solved this problem and allowed them to be developed with
much higher energies.
          Answer: synchrotron
3. The world’s most power accelerator currently is this machine located at Fermilab, which is 2 km in
diameter, and can collide protons and antiprotons at energies up to a thousand billion volts.
          Answer: Tevatron

11. Identify the term which you might hear a linguist use, FTP each.
1. Named for the French neurologist who discovered it, this third convolution of the frontal lobe of the brain
is responsible for speech.
         Answer: Broca’s area or Broca’s gyrus or Broca’s convolution
2. This short straight line placed above a vowel indicates that the vowel is pronounced long.
         Answer: macron
3. This psycholinguistic experimental technique relies on equipment that can cut a spoken word up into
minute slices. As a progressively larger portion of the word is let through, the subject is asked to predict
what the ending will be.
         Answer: gating

12. Name these writers associated with the Harlem Renaissance, for 10 points each.
1. This Salt Lake City native wrote three novels: The Blacker the Berry, The Interne, and Infants of the
Spring, the only Renaissance novel that evaluates the Renaissance itself. His Harlem residence was
affectionately known as “Niggerati Manor.”
         Answer: Wallace Thurman
2. Thurman’s residence takes its name from a fusion of the words “Nigger” and “literati” made by this
woman, the author of Mules and Men who also dubbed herself “Queen of the Niggerati.”
         Answer: Zora Neale Hurston
3. This music critic became acquainted with most of the major figures of the Harlem Renaissance, though
he was white and came from Iowa. His novels include Peter Whiffle and the ironically titled Nigger
Heaven, about Harlem.
         Answer: Carl Van Vechten

13. Answer these questions about the end of the Roman Empire, FTP each.
1. After defeating Avitus in 456, this general appointed his buddy Majorian to the throne. He retained
power until 472 by securing the eastern empire’s consent to such puppet emperors as Anthemius and the
ever-popular Olybrius.
           Answer: Flavius Ricimer
2. Orestes, master of the troops, removed Julius Nepos in favor of his son. Name this man whose defeat in
476 is traditionally considered to be the end of the empire.
           Answer: Romulus Augustus or Romulus Augustulus
3. Romulus Augustus was deposed by this Herulian leader at Ravenna. Zeno, the eastern emperor, gave him
the title of “patrician.”
Answer: Odoacer or Odovacar

14. Answer the following about complex numbers and variables FTP each.
[MODERATOR: Please notice that there are several pronunciation guides below]
1. Complex numbers can be represented by Cartesian coordinates on this type of diagram, named for the
Swiss mathematician who devised it in 1806.
          Answer: Argand diagram
2. If the derivative of a complex function f = u(x,y) + i*v(x,y) [F equals U of X, Y plus I times V of X,Y]
exists at some point z0 [Z sub zero], then the first-order partial derivatives of u and v must exist at the point
(x0, , y0) [X sub 0, Y sub 0], and must satisfy these equations, named for the man who first discovered
them, and for the man who used them in his development of the theory of functions of a complex variable.
          Answer: Cauchy-Riemann equations
3. Discovered by the man who first proved the existence of transcendental numbers, and also showed that
there were an infinite class of them, this man’s theorem in complex analysis states that if a function f is
entire and bounded in the complex plane, then f(z) [F of z] is constant throughout the plane. It can be used
to easily prove the fundamental theorem of algebra.
          Answer: Liouville’s theorem

15. Name these related composers, FTP each.
1. His numerous works, composed mostly for piano and pedal piano, include 12 pieces, The Months; the
sonata The Four Ages; and the Piano Concerto in C Sharp Minor.
         Answer: Charles-Henri-Valentin Alkan or Morhange
2. He transcribed several of Alkan’s works for organ. This composer’s famous works include his Symphony
in D Minor, his Six pieces pour grand orgue, and the oratorio Les Beatitudes.
         Answer: Cesar Auguste Franck
3. Among Franck’s students was this composer of the dramatic legend The Song of the Bell and the
Symphony on a French Mountain Air.
         Answer: Vincent D’Indy

16. Name these authors who dabbled in the occult, for 10 points each.
1. In 1917 this Irish poet married Georgie Hyde Lees, a spiritualist medium, and with the help of her
automatic writing composed A Vision, a prose work that presents history as cyclical and recurrent,
proceeding in a gyre, or corkscrew pattern.
          Answer: William Butler Yeats
2. The break-up of this Swedish playwright’s second marriage in 1896 precipitated a nervous breakdown as
well as the development of psychic powers such as astral projection, which he described in the
autobiographical Inferno and Legends.
          Answer: August Strindberg
3. This Italian adventurer possessed a natural occult faculty and earned his income by gambling. In his
Memoires, the account of his attempt to make Madame D’Urf_’s soul pass into the body of a baby so she
could live all over again affords insight into the charlatanism of eighteenth-century magicians.
          Answer: Giovanni Jacopo Casanova

17. Give the general term for a leadership position in non-western history, for 10 points each.
1. Derived from a Greek word for a Persian “country-protector,” it denoted the governor of a province
under the ancient Persian monarchy.
          Answer: satrap
2. It denoted the deputy-governor of a province under the Mogul Empire, though a corrupted form of the
name was sarcastically applied in the late eighteenth century to the servants of the East India Company who
retired to England, having made their fortunes.
          Answer: nawad or nabob
3. Meaning “great king” in Sanskrit, it denoted the ruling prince of one of the major states in India.
          Answer: maharajah

18. Give the common surname of these scientists on a 15-5 basis.
1. 15. William was an American ophthalmologist who devised a method to help correct vision problems,
like cross-eye and lazy eye, without wearing glasses.
    5. After traveling to the Amazon region with Alfred Wallace, Henry Walter presented an 1861 paper
called “Contributions to the Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley,” in which he gave a theory as to why
several species of butterflies have nearly identical patterns of colors on their wings.
          Answer: Bates
2. 15. In 1819, John discovered sodium thiosulfate, also called hypo, which is used as a fixative for silver
halides in photography, and coined the photographic terms “positive” and “negative.” His aunt Caroline
discovered the companion of the Andromeda nebula, and published Index to Flamsteed’s Observations of
the Fixed Stars.
     5. Caroline’s brother William, father of John, discovered two moons of Saturn, and two of Uranus,
along with another famous object in 1781, which he named Georgium Sidus.
          Answer: Herschel
19. Name the figure in the history of biblical interpretation, FTP each.
1. Eighteenth-century biblical commentaries often dated events from the creation of the world in 4004 BC,
following the calculations of this archbishop.
         Answer: James Ussher
2. He asserted that the idea of God was an abstraction composed of the highest and noblest sentiments of
humanity gathered together in a single mythical being in his book The Essence of Christianity.
         Answer: Ludwig Feuerbach
3. He argued for a new approach to interpretation that would recognize the Bible’s poetic core of truth in
such books as St. Paul and Protestantism.
         Answer: Matthew Arnold

20. Name the female character from Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso, for 10 points each.
1. Known as the Virgin Knight, she wears white armor and a white plume, and wields a spear that
magically unhorses any knight it touches. Her marriage to Ruggiero is said to be the forerunner of the
future house of the Este family.
          Answer: Bradamante (BRAH-duh-MAHN-tay)
2. This sister of Morgan le Fay turns her lovers into trees, stones, and wild beasts after tiring of them;
among her victims are Ruggiero and Astolpho.
          Answer: Alcina (ahl-CHEE-nah)
3. It is Orlando’s unrequited love for this woman which drives him “furioso.”
          Answer: Angelica

21. Identify the Italian-language word from its definition, for the stated number of points.
5. Any period or instance of rebirth or renewed activity; when used as a proper noun, it refers to the
movement for the liberation and unification of Italy in the 18th and 19th centuries.
          Answer: risorgimento [ri-sor-juh-MEN-toh]
10. A code of silence or a secrecy sworn to by oath, often associated with the Mafia.
          Answer: omerta [oh-MER-tuh]
15. Any mercenary or soldier of fortune; in the 14th and 15th centuries, it was the title given to the leader
of a private band of mercenary soldiers in Italy.
          Answer: condottiere [kohn-doh-TYAR-ee]

22. Name the stringed instrument, FTP each.
1. Also known as the bass viol, this 17th-century member of the viol family is held on or between the
knees; its Italian name means “viol for the leg.”
          Answer: viola da gamba
2. This Russian lute has a flat, triangular body with two to four strings on its guitar-like neck.
          Answer: balalaika
3. This 21-stringed West African manding harp is the instrument of choice for artists such as Mory Kante
and Ravi.
          Answer: kora