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					2001 ACF Regionals
Finals Packet
Tossups by Subash Maddipoti

1. A notable incident during this novel is a knife fight between two men in the Piazza Signoria, which leads to the
central couple kissing for the first time. The Miss Alans are two spinster sisters and Miss Lavish is a showy writer.
These women along with Charlotte Bartlett, the heroine’s cousin, are some of the people we first meet in Florence,
where the novel opens. Later on, the heroine is free to be united with her true love after breaking off her
engagement with Cecil Vyse. FTP, name this novel centering on the romance of George Emerson and Lucy
Honeychurch, a work by E.M. Forster.
         Answer: A Room With a View

2. This nation fought a five-year war with King Cyaxares before reaching a truce via a royal marriage between one
of their princes and a Median princess. Alyattes, its penultimate king, was the first to reign in the absence of war,
allowing him to build two magnificent temples to Athena. Their acknowledged “first king” was Gyges, who repelled
the Cimmerians, expanded the empire to Miletus, and built up a magnificent capital at Sardis. For 10 points, name
this ancient nation of Asia Minor that saw its unprecedented wealth reach a zenith under its final king, Croesus.
          Answer: Lydia

3. Mathematically it can be stated as “P sub i equals x sub i times P sub i for a pure substance,” where the pure “P
sub i” can be calculated using the Antoine equation. Bubble curves and dew point curves may be derived from it for
an ideal mixture at fixed pressure. Qualitatively, it explains that the addition of a solute to a liquid lessens the
tendency for the liquid to become a solid or gas, primarily due to reasons of freezing point depression and vapor
pressure reduction. Quantitatively, it relates that vapor pressure of components to a solution’s composition. FTP,
name this law that states that the vapor pressure of a substance varies linearly with its mole fraction in the solution, a
law named for its French discoverer.
         Answer: Rauolt’s [ra-OO-lz] Law

4. It was one of the seven poesies that the artist painted for Philip II of Spain and preceded the Death of Actaeon in
that series. The title character is situated on the right side clutching a red robe with her left hand. On the bottom left
a small cupid rides atop one of two giant fish visible in the foamy waters at the bottom of the painting. Two more
cupids fly in the air in the top left, but one’s eyes are drawn to the right, which is dominated by a massive white bull
and the title character, who is clutching on to the bull’s back. FTP, name this painting by Titian that depicts an
amorous adventure of Zeus.
          Answer: The Rape of Europa

5. The second part of this work argues for the need of more men like Zoilus, Sir Richard Blackmore, and Reverend
Luke Milbourn; and echoes John Dryden in praising Sir John Denham and Edmund Waller. It begins with the
author’s explanations that like poets those who feign to be masters must “from Heav’n derive their light.” This
work endures with such famous lines as “Fondly we think we honour merit then, / When we but praise ourselves in
other men” and “Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.” However, best-known is the verse that contains “To err
is human, to forgive divine,” and “A little learning is a dangerous thing.” FTP, name this 1711 didactic poem by
Alexander Pope.
         Answer: Essay on Criticism

6. He followed the success of such orators as Hubert Harrison and W.A. Domingo who spoke on Lennox Avenue,
his stump for almost a decade. His epic poem, “The White Man’s Game, His Vanity Fair,” was often recited at large
gatherings at Liberty Hall, where he was hailed as “Black Moses.” Among his successes were the newspaper Negro
World and the Black Star shipping line, but he followed those with a series of disasters culminating in his conviction
for mail fraud. FTP, name this leader of the “Back to Africa” movement and founder of the United Negro
Improvement Association, an early 20th-century Jamaican Black nationalist.
         Answer: Marcus Aurelius Garvey
7. Following the expression of the RAG-1 gene, the V and J genes are randomly joined just before the formation of
one of the four major portions of these substances. Susumo Tonegawa first explained their variability in the 1970s
by using recombinant DNA cloning and pointing out differences in their kappa and gamma chains. All of them
consist of two domains known as constant and variable regions, which are present on both their heavy and light
chains. Divided into five classes of “I-sub-G’s” or immunoglobulins, FTP, name these proteins produced by B cells
in response to the presence of an antigen.
         Answer: antibody (accept early “immunoglobulin”)

8. Before coming to meditate under a tree, he ruled Dwarka for 36 years, not knowing that he would die when a
hunter, mistaking him for a deer, would shoot him in his instep. His mission of peace to Hastinapura failed but he
did see his aunt Kunti and convinced her to try and bring her son, Karna, to the side of the goodguys. Duryodhana
[Doorr-YO-da-na] chose poorly when he chose this man’s army over his counsel. Accordingly, this brother of
Balarama, offered his weapon, the Chakra, and his charioteering services to the opposing side. FTP, name this
avatar of Vishnu, who preaches the Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna.
         Answer: Krishna

9. The original experiment to confirm it included scenarios dealing with the theft of beer in a store, an epileptic
seizure, and a smoke-filled room. Along with the Caporeal Dilemma it is considered the most prominent example of
social loafing. This theory was first put forth in a famous 1968 study by Darley and Latane, who were intrigued by
the seemingly apathetic reaction to the murder of Kitty Genovese. FTP, name this psychological phenomenon in
which individuals, in the presence of a group, are less likely to help a person in trouble.
          Answer: bystander effect

10. While in London, he met Sir Walter Scott and began his own translation of the folktale “Peter Klaus the
Goatherd.” His later publications included Astoria, The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, and the travel sketches A
Tour on the Prairies. Upon his return to the U.S. he completed the multi-volume Life of Washington, his first
significant writing since some sketches he penned on the Alhambra while he was U.S. minister to Spain. At this
point he had already introduced Launcelot Langstaff, the first of his pseudonymous characters, in the Salmagundi
Papers. FTP, name this man who also created Diedrich Knickerbocker and Geoffrey Crayon and wrote “Rip Van
Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.”
         Answer: Washington Irving

11. In response to it a rival group was formed by Archduke Ferdinand I and Joachim I. Weakened by the defection
of Albert Alcibiades II, it pressed on to fight its namesake war, which ended at Muhlberg with its disbandment. It
refused admission to William, Duke of Cleves, who turned to Francis I of France, a secret ally of this group.
Zwingli turned down an offer for his Swiss cantons to join it despite heavy pressure from its founders, John Elector
of Saxony, and Phillip, Landgrave of Hesse. Created in 1531, FTP, name this alliance of German princes that
resisted Charles V’s attempts to stamp out Lutheranism.
          Answer: Schmalkaldic League

12. Each one corresponds to the probability amplitude for the process within it. The set of all distinct ones with the
same incoming and outgoing paths corresponds to the perturbation expansion of a matrix element of the scattering
matrix in field theory. They were first designed to give a simpler understanding of Moller scattering and follow two
basic rules. Space-time trajectories of noninteracting electrons are represented by straight lines, and wavy lines are
used to show photons. FTP, identify these pictorial representations of elementary particles and their interactions,
named for the American physicist who devised them.
         Answer: Feynman diagrams

13. It opens in the church of St. Katherine with the chorale “Da zur dir der Heiland” bringing the services to a close.
In the second act, its villain Beckmesser, mistaking Magdalena for the heroine, serenades her only to be soundly
thrashed by Magdalena’s admirer, David. Before this opera begins we hear the orchestral prelude, which contains
five major themes from it including the “Prize Song,” which follows the “Dance of the Apprentices” in the opera
proper. All ends happily, with Eva going to the winner of the song contest, Walther von Stolzing, who now
becomes one of the title characters, like Hans Sachs. FTP, name this comedic opera by Richard Wagner set in the
mid-16th-century in Nuremberg.
          Answer: Die Mestersinger von Nurenberg or The Mastersingers of Nuremberg
14. The prologue to its “Second Part” opens with a quote from Damascene, and its concluding “Supplement,” unlike
the rest of the work, was compiled by Fra Rainaldo da Piperno. This text’s unique format contains a minimum of
two “Objections,” an “On the contrary,” an “I answer that,” and “Reply to Objection” sections for each of the
questions that it poses. Containing treatises on such topics as “Fortitude and Temperance,” “The Work of The Six
Days,” and “On the Creation,” its final portion is a commentary on the Fourth Book of the Sentences of Peter
Lombard. Written by “Doctor Angelicus,” FTP, name this magnum opus of St. Thomas Aquinas.
          Answer: Summa Theologica

15. After writing “No” three times on a card, the protagonist of this play decides to set up a school for poor children
in his town’s great hall. At one point he thought he had the support of The People’s Herald, but Asklaksen and
Hovstad are convinced to turn against him by his brother, the town’s mayor. After claiming that “the strongest man
is he who stands alone,” the protagonist decides to stay in town despite the ill will engendered by his report on
contamination in the public baths. FTP, identify this play about Thomas Stockman by Henrik Ibsen.
          Answer: An Enemy of the People

16. The winning side lost only 50 men compared to 1,200 casualties for the losers, whose commander escaped but
had a 30,000-pound bounty placed on his head. Based on intelligence from Lord George Murray, the eventual
winners took up a position where the opposition was restricted by flanking dykes and then butchered by 20 minutes
of canon fire. It began soon after one army had reached Derby with about 5,000 men, who were intent on taking
London and placing James the Eighth on the English throne. On this site in Inverness-shire forces under the duke of
Cumberland smashed Highlanders led by Prince Charles Edward Stuart, aka Bonny Prince Charlie. FTP, name this
battle that decisively ended the Jacobite Rebellion begun the year before, in 1745.
          Answer: Battle of Culloden Moor

17. The cuneiform and corniculate portions of it are immediately dorsal to its most ventral section. The paired and
pivoting arytenoids act as a moveable posterior attachment for it and the muscles that regulate it. In humans and
most mammals the base of this structure is formed by the signet-shaped cricoid cartilage, which lies posterior to the
thyroid cartilage, its most ventral portion. Above it lies the structure that sometimes serves as its lid, the epiglottis.
FTP, name this chamber which leads from the lower pharynx to the trachea and is commonly called the voice box.
         Answer: larynx (prompt on “voice box”)

18. This country has three major volcanic peaks: Mt. Sahand, Mt. Sabalan, and the largest, Mt. Tuftan. Much of its
volcanic activity takes place in the region that stretches from the city of Kazvin to Lake Urmia. In it lie the Kavir
and Lut Deserts, which extend partially into the eastern provinces of Baluchestan and Khorasan. The Zagros
Mountains lie mostly in its west and southwest opposite its northeastern boundary with Turkmenistan. FTP, name
this country that borders the Caspian Sea to the south and is home to the holy city of Qom and the capital city of
Tehran.
         Answer: Iran

19. The cat Pitty Sing is taken along on the journey because of the fear that he might brush against one of the gas
burners and asphyxiate himself. Along the way, the family described in this story stops at Red Sammy Butts’
restaurant, The Tower, to eat some barbecue sandwiches. The trouble begins when the decision is made to go see an
old house and their car flips over and off the road. Bailey and John Wesley are the first to be shot, and his wife and
June Star are killed soon after. Meanwhile the grandmother pleads with The Misfit, whose seemingly remorseless
murder of them all simply reaffirms the title of this short story. FTP, identify this Flannery O’Connor tale that also
names her first story collection.
         Answer: “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”

20. Following his resignation, he was succeeded by a member of the National Unity Party that he had founded. He
was originally appointed prime minister by President Carmona because of the fiscal skills garnered while he was
professor of economics at the University of Coimbra. Soon after, he quickly reimposed press censorship and
crushed all opposition parties. His successor, Marcello Caetano carried on the policy that saw this man send troops
to Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, and Angola to suppress independence movements. FTP, name this man who, from
1932 to 1968, ruled Portugal as a dictator.
         Answer: Antonio de Oliveira Salazar
21. In polar coordinates it is expressed by the equation “p equals a times 1 plus the cosine of theta,” and its area can
be found by “1.5 pi a squared.” In the point-wise construction of it, let “O” be a fixed point of a circle “C” of
diameter “a,” and “Q” a variable point of “C.” Lay off distance “a” along the secant “OQ,” in both directions from
“Q,” and the locus of the two points thus obtained is this figure. Generated by a point of a circle that rolls without
slipping on a fixed circle of the same diameter, FTP, name this curve that appears heart-shaped.
         Answer: cardioid

22. After he settled in Chelsea and wrote a large History of England, he produced a popular farce entitled The
Reprisal. This writer is portrayed as a man who sees every object distorted by his spleen as the character of
Smelfungus in Laurence Sterne’s Sentimental Journey. His own successes include the story of an English Don
Quixote, Sir Launcelot Greaves, which, like much of his writing, was inspired by his time aboard the Chichester as a
surgeon’s mate. FTP, name this 18th-century English author of such adventure novels as Peregrine Pickle, Humphry
Clinker, and Roderick Random.
         Answer: Tobias Smollett

23. This artist’s fame rests on his later landscapes like Magpie on a Gallows. However, a small subset of his
canvases were successful allegories as in Battle Between Carnival and Lent and Fall of the Rebel Angels. His
grimmest works, such as The triumph of Death and Tower of Babel, date from the Spanish persecution of a large
Protestant minority in his native town. Nevertheless, he found humor, particularly in the comical Parable of the
Blind. His supreme achievement is considered to be 1565’s The Months of the Year, which includes August, or
Corn Harvest and January, or Hunters in the Snow. FTP, name this Dutchman known for his everyday depictions
like The Peasant Wedding.
         Answer: Pieter Bruegel the Elder

24. In its eighth and final section , “Fruit and Seed,” the Rector relates that “the best augury of a man’s success in
his profession is that he thinks it is the finest in the world.” That last section also tells of the title character’s
meeting with Hans Meyrick before he sees the heroine for the last time. Following his encounter with Hans, he
reveals that he traveled to Italy to learn of his heritage and he now plans on going East to restore a “political
existence” to the Jews, his people. In addition, he reaffirms his decision to marry Mirah Cohen, whose nobility,
along with her brother Mordechai’s, contrasts with the arrogant Henleigh Grandcourt, and the central female
character, Gwendolen Harleth. FTP, name this last novel by George Eliot.
          Answer: Daniel Deronda
2001 ACF Regionals
Finals Packet
Bonuses by Subash Maddipoti

1. Identify these types of chromosome variation FTP each.
A. As its name implies this type of variation refers to the condition where a portion of a chromosome is lost. It is
also sometimes called a deficiency.
          Answer: deletion
B. This type of chromosomal aberration occurs when a segment of a chromosome is turned around 180 degrees
within a chromosome.
          Answer: inversion
C. Examples of this structural variation include the reciprocal and Robertsonian varieties. In cases of familial Down
syndrome one of the parents contains this aberration between chromosome 21 and chromosome 14.
          Answer: translocation

2. Answer the following about German literature during the Reformation FTP each.
A. The tales of this peasant-trickster first appeared in the anonymous Schwank. He is more famously the subject of
a tone poem by Richard Strauss.
         Answer: Till Eulenspiegel
B. This Humanist poet is remembered for his satirical poem The Ship of Fools.
         Answer: Sebastian Brant
C. This 17th-century writer’s fame rests in his picaresque novels like Innocent Joseph and his masterpiece, The
Adventures of Simplicissimus.
         Answer: Hans Jakob Christoph von Grimmelshausen

3. Name these American treaties FTP each.
A. By the terms of this 1835 treaty the Cherokee nation agreed to surrender its lands to the U.S. for 5.6 million
dollars.
          Answer: Treaty of New Echota
B. On February 2, 1848 the U.S. and Mexico signed this treaty ending the Mexican-American War.
          Answer: Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
C. Following his defeat at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Little Turtle signed this treaty that ceded most of Ohio and
parts of Indiana and Illinois to the U.S.
          Answer: Treaty of Greenville

4. Name these 20th-century composers FTP each.
A. This man’s twelve-tone period of the late 40s and early 50s is evidenced by such works as his Sonatine for flute
and piano and his Structures for two pianos. His best-known work is probably Le Marteau sans maitre, or “The
Hammer Without a Master,” for voice and six instruments.
         Answer: Pierre Boulez
B. This man is best-known for his Symphony No. 3, or “Symphony of Sorrowful Songs.”
         Answer: Henryk Gorecki
C. This composer’s operas include Satyagraha and Einstein on the Beach.
         Answer: Philip Glass

5. Name these terms related to chemical phases FTP each.
A. The transition from the gaseous to solid phase is known by this term, the reverse of sublimation.
         Answer: deposition
B. This location on a phase diagram identifies the temperature and pressure above which no distinction between
liquid and gas is possible.
         Answer: critical point
C. In studying the crystalline structure of substances in the solid phase, cubic unit cells are commonly used. Face-
centered cubic and body-centered cubic are two of the three types of cubic unit cells. Name the third.
         Answer: simple cubic
6. Name these Asian American women writers for the stated number of points.
A. For 15 points, Her novels include Typical American and Mona in the Promised Land. She took her nickname
from a silent film star.
         Answer: Lillian “Gish” Jen
B. For 5 points, She wrote the best-seller The Joy-Luck Club.
         Answer: Amy Tan
C. For 10 points, Her well-known works include The Woman Warrior and Tripmaster Monkey.
         Answer: Maxine Hong Kingston

7. It occurred following French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, specifically beginning on March 18, 1871
following the disarmament of the National Guard. Its most violent part was known as the “Bloody Week.” Answer
some questions about this incident for the stated number of points.
A. For 5 points, What is the common name given to this French insurrection?
         Answer: Paris Commune
B. For 10 points, This man instigated the Paris Commune and crushed it as well. He was the first president of the
republic formed after the fall of Napoleon III.
         Answer: (Louis) Adolphe Thiers
C. For 15 points, The insurgents called themselves by this name, but there weren’t many of them left following the
“Bloody Week.”
         Answer: Federes

8. Answer the following about a certain word used in philosophy FTP each.
A. It is a designation for any religio-philosophical system purporting to furnish knowledge of God. Its namesake
society was founded with help of H.S. Olcott and W.Q. Judge.
           Answer: Theosophy
B. This Russian-born American and author of The Secret Doctrine was the founder of the Theosophical Society.
           Answer: Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky
C. Blavatsky’s fundamental theosophic doctrine was laid out in this 1877 magnum opus also noted for its occult
lore.
           Answer: Isis Unveiled

9. Answer the following about a group of mythological women FTP each.
A. Among them was Hypermnestra, the only one who did not slay her husband on her wedding night. The others
were condemned in Hades to try forever to fill a leaky vessel with water.
        Answer: Danaides
B. How many Danaides were there?
        Answer: 50
C. The Danaides were promised in marriage to their fifty cousins, the sons of this king.
        Answer: Aegyptus

10. Name these bright stars from descriptions FTP each.
A. This spectroscopic binary alpha star of Virgo is the fifteenth brightest star in the night sky.
          Answer: Spica
B. At a distance of 1,830 light years, this is by far the farthest away of the 20 brightest stars in the night sky. By the
way it’s the alpha star of Cygnus.
          Answer: Deneb
C. This star in the constellation Carina is behind only Sirius in brightness.
          Answer: Canopus
11. Name these novels by Honore de Balzac FTP each.
A. Balzac summarized this work as “A worthy man—middle-class boarding-house—600 francs income—stripped
himself to the bone for his two daughters, who each have 50,000 a year—dies like a dog.”
          Answer: Le Pere Goriot
B. In this novel young Raphael is about to jump into the Seine, but he decides to go to an antique shop where he is
offered the magical title object. It will grant his wishes but take away part of his life for each wish granted.
          Answer: The Wild Ass’s Skin or La Peau de chagrin
C. Often paired with La Cousine Bette under the title of Poor Relations, this work tells of the musician Sylvain, who
is swindled out of his valuable art and antique collection by his relatives.
          Answer: Le Cousin Pons

12. Name these related Brits FTP each.
A. This Prince of Wales distinguished himself as a military commander at Crecy and Poitiers during the Hundred
Years War. He probably received his name from his distinctive armor.
          Answer: Edward the Black Prince
B. He was the youngest of the Black Prince’s three brothers.
          Answer: John of Gaunt
C. When John of Gaunt died, this son of his, the Duke of Hereford, was exiled from England but returned to take the
throne fifteen years later.
          Answer: Henry IV

13. Name these 19th-century French artists FTP each.
A. Among this Realist’s best-known works are Burial at Ornans and The Stonebreakers.
         Answer: Gustave Courbet
B. This man was best-known for his imaginative drawings and lithographs in editions of Balzac’s Droll Stories and
Cervantes’ Don Quixote.
         Answer: Paul Gustave Dore
C. His painting The Floor Strippers is far less well known than Rue de Paris in the Rain.
         Answer: Gustave Caillebotte

14. Name these weapons of Norse myth for the stated number of points.
A. For 5 points, This mighty hammer is wielded by Thor.
         Answer: Mjollnir
B. For 10 points, Odin possesses this casting spear with which he can doom someone to die before throwing it.
         Answer: Gungnir
C. For 15 points, At Ragnarok Heimdall wields this mystical sword to kill Loki.
         Answer: Hofund

15. Answer the following related to electrical cells FTP each.
A. There are two types of electrochemical cells, electrolytic ones and this type, also known as voltaic cells.
         Answer: galvanic cell
B. The most common galvanic cell is this one, in which a zinc bar in an aqueous zinc sulfate solution acts as the
anode, and a copper bar in an aqueous copper sulfate solution acts as the cathode.
         Answer: Daniel cell
C. In completing a circuit in a galvanic cell, one must also make sure this structure is present. It dissipates the
charge gradient and permits the exchange of cations and anions.
         Answer: salt bridge
16. Identify these members of the so-called Cockney school of literature FTP each.
A. This man’s eclectically-flavored essay collections include Table Talk and The Plain Speaker, but it is The Spirit
of the Age that is his critical masterpiece.
         Answer: William Hazlitt
B. This editor of the Examiner from 1808 to 1821 is best-known for such poems as The Story of Rimini, “Jenny
kissed me,” and “Abou Ben Adhem.”
         Answer: Leigh Hunt
C. This best-known member of the Cockney school wrote the poems “The Eve of St. Agnes” and “Ode on a Grecian
Urn.”
         Answer: John Keats

17. Name these famous Spartans FTP each.
A. One story goes that this general spared a mouse that bit his finger, for its show of fight. He was killed at
Amphipolis in 422 BC.
         Answer: Brasidas
B. This Spartan lawmaker lived in the ninth century BC and is considered the founder of the Spartan constitution.
         Answer: Lycurgus
C. This Spartan king led a small force that heroically held the pass of Thermopylae in 480 BC. Alas, he was killed
along with all of his troops.
         Answer: Leonidas I

18. Answer the following about a certain name FTP each.
A. This is the name of the Trojan priest of Apollo who was killed along with his two sons by two sea serpents for
having warned his people of the Trojan horse.
          Answer: Laocoon
B. This artist used the story to paint his 1610 canvas “Laocoon.” Other works like “Lady in a Fur Wrap” were
painted before he left the workshop of Titian.
          Answer: El Greco or Domenikos Theotokopoulos
C. El Greco’s version of Laocoon differed from the standard telling found in Virgil’s Aeneid, for El Greco used this
writer from Miletus as his source. This Greek’s version implies that Laocoon was killed due to breaking his vow of
celibacy rather than intervention by the Gods for the Greeks.
          Answer: Arctinus of Miletus

19. Name these things related to stomach function FTP each.
A. The pyloric glands secrete this hormone which stimulates the production of more hydrochloric acid and also
encourages muscular contractions of the stomach.
          Answer: gastrin
B. The churning of the stomach produces an acidic, semi-fluid mixture of partially digested food known as this.
          Answer: chyme
C. Along with parietal and mucous cells, these cells make up the gastric glands. Their secretions contribute to
gastric juice and they are the sole producers of pepsinogen.
          Answer: chief cells

20. Name these 17th century tragedies FTP each.
A. The oft-quoted line “Cover her face. Mine eyes dazzle. She died young,” occurs in Act IV, Scene II of this
tragedy. The title character is tortured and killed by Fernando and Bosola for secretly marrying Antonio, her
steward.
          Answer: The Duchess of Malfi (by John Webster)
B. Anabella is the title character embroiled in an incestuous relationship in this John Ford tragedy and quiz bowl
favorite.
          Answer: ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore
C. In this loose adaptation of Moliere’s Le Misanthrope, the title character, Manly, is saved by Fidelia from losing
his money to Olivia. Its character of Blackacre is mentioned as the ancestor of Tony Lumpkin in Goldsmith’s She
Stoops to Conquer.
          Answer: The Plain Dealer (by William Wycherley)
21. Identify these pre-20th century historians for the stated number of points.
A. For 5 points, This man’s magnum opus was his six-volume work Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
          Answer: Edward Gibbon
B. For 10 points, This man’s best-known work is Principles of a New Science Concerning the Common Nature of
Nations. In it he propounded a cyclical theory of history, according to which human societies progress through a
series of stages from barbarism to civilization and back to barbarism.
          Answer: Giovanni Battista Vico
C. For 15 points, This 19th century American was best known for the two texts Conquest of Mexico and History of
the Conquest of Peru.
          Answer: William Hickling Prescott