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CMM(I) Vs ISO

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CMM(I)  Vs ISO Powered By Docstoc
					Quality Concepts within CMM
          and PMI
        G.C.Reddy
     www.gcreddy.net
                  Agenda
•   An overview of CMM
•   An introduction to PMBOK
•   Malcolm Baldrige and ISO 9000
•   How do they fit together?
                 What is CMM?
• Capability Maturity Model
• Developed by the software community in 1986 with leadership
  from the SEI.
• Has become a de facto standard for assessing and improving
  processes related to software development
• Has evolved into a process maturity framework
• Provides guidance for measuring software process maturity
• Helps establish process improvement programs
         What makes up the CMM?
•   The CMM is organized into five maturity levels:
     –   Initial
     –   Repeatable
     –   Defined
     –   Manageable
     –   Optimizing
•   Except for Level 1, each maturity level decomposes into several key
    process areas that indicate the areas an organization should focus on
    to improve its software process.
                                         Continuously
                                         Improving             5 - Optimizing
                                         process




                           Predictable                  4 - Managed
                           process




                                                 3- Defined
              Standard,
              Consistent
              process


Disciplined                         2 - Repeatable
process




                           1 - Initial
           Level 2 - Repeatable
• Key practice areas
  –   Requirements management
  –   Software project planning
  –   Software project tracking & oversight
  –   Software subcontract management
  –   Software quality assurance
  –   Software configuration management
             Level 3 - Defined
• Key practice areas
  –   Organization process focus
  –   Organization process definition
  –   Training program
  –   Integrated software management
  –   Software product engineering
  –   Intergroup coordination
  –   Peer reviews
       Level 4 - Manageable
• Key practice areas
• Quantitative Process Management
• Software Quality Management
        Level 5 - Optimizing
Key practice areas
  Defect prevention
  Technology change management
  Process change management
  Interesting CMM Facts
 The number of companies using CMM to assess their software
  management practices more than doubles every five years
  (since 1987).
 Software Quality Assurance is the biggest obstacle for
  organizations trying to move from level 1 to level 2.
 Organization Process Definition is one of the biggest obstacles
  for organization trying to move from level 2 to level 3.
 On average, it takes an organization:
     – 25 months to move from level 1 to 2
     – 22 months to move from level 2 to 3
     – 36.5 months to move from level 3 to 4
 More interesting facts…
 Only 1.2% of companies engaged in CMM have IT departments
  with over 2000 employees. Of these large companies, 40% are
  at CMM levels 3, 4 or 5.
 About 80% of companies engaged in CMM have IT
  departments with less than over 300 employees. Oh these
  smaller companies, 21% are at CMM levels 3, 4, or 5.
 About a third of companies engaged in CMM are located
  overseas (primarily India), and are 3 times more likely to reach
  CMM level 4 or 5 than US organizations.
 Only about 23% of organizations surveyed eventually move
  from level 2 to level 3 or higher.
                  What is PMBOK
• Project Management Book of Knowledge
• A virtual collection of processes and knowledge areas generally
  accepted as best practices within Project Management
• A internationally recognized standard (IEEE Std1490-1998)
• Provides the fundamentals of project management, irrespective of the
  type of project (software, construction, environmental, aerospace, etc.)
• Recognizes 5 basic process groups and 9 knowledge areas typical of
  almost all projects
• Basic concepts applicable to all projects and programs (and operations)
Project Management Process Groups


     Initiating                   Planning
     Processes                    Processes



                  Controlling
                   Processes            Executing
                                        Processes



                             Closing
                            Processes
         PM Process Groups
• Processes overlap and interact throughout a
  project or phase
• Processes described in terms of:
  – Inputs (docs,plans, designs, etc)
  – Tools & Techniques (mechanisms applied to
    inputs)
  – Outputs (docs, products, etc.)
          PM Knowledge Areas

   Project         Project       Project
 Integration       Scope          Time
 Management      Management    Management

   Project         Project        Project
    Cost          Quality     Human Resources
 Management      Management     Management

   Project         Project       Project
Communications      Risk       Procurement
 Management      Management    Management
         PM Knowledge Areas
• Each knowledge area contains some or all of the
  PM processes
• For example, Project Procurement Management
  includes:
   – Procurement planning processes
   – Procurement administration (controlling) processes
   – Procurement close-out processes
   Project Quality Management
• “all activities of the overall management
  function that determines the quality policy,
  objectives and responsibilities…”
• “implements them by means such as quality
  planning, quality control, quality assurance,
  and quality improvement, within the quality
  system”
               Sections of ISO 9000
•   Management responsibility      •   Inspection & Test Status
•   Quality System                 •   Control of Nonconforming Product
•   Contract Review                •   Corrective & Preventive Action
•   Design Control                 •   Handling, Storage, Packaging,
•   Doc/Data control                   Delivery
•   Purchasing                     •   Control of quality records
•   Control of customer supplied   •   Internal Quality Audits
    product                        •   Training
•   Product ID & traceability      •   Servicing
•   Process Control                •   Statistical Techniques
•   Inspection & testing
•   Control of inspections
                        ISO vs CMM
•   CMM and the ISO 9000 series of standards share common concerns
    with quality and process management.
•   CMM emphasizes continuous improvement
•   ISO deals with minimum criteria of quality systems
•   An ISO 9001-compliant organization would not necessarily satisfy all of
    the CMM level 2 key process areas (it would satisfy most of the level 2
    goals and many level 3 goals.
•   Some key practices in CMM that are not addressed in ISO 9000, it is
    possible for a level 1 organization to receive 9001 registration; similarly,
    there are areas addressed by ISO 9001 that are not addressed in the
    CMM.
•   A level 3 organization would have little difficulty in obtaining ISO 9001
    certification
            ISO and Baldrige
• ISO is viewed as a subset of Baldrige
• Most areas covered in ISO are addressed in
  “Category 6.0: Process Management”
• ISO is prescriptive about systems & docs;
  Baldrige is less specific
                Compare & Contrast
•   CMM - an effective framework for:
     –  modeling, defining, and assessing the maturity of the software processes
       used within projects, programs and operations (business unit or enterprise)
     – identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of
       these processes.
•   Baldrige - an effective framework for:
     –   implementing & assessing the maturity of all processes used within
         operations (business unit or enterprise).
•   ISO 9000 – an effective framework for:
     – Assessing the minimum requirements and processes for a quality
       management system
•   PMBOK – an effective framework for:
     –   modeling, defining and measuring the performance of processes used for
         projects, programs and operations.
                              Comparison
Feature                                    CMM             PMBOK   Baldrige   ISO 9000
Assesses process maturity                  yes             no      yes        no
emphasizes continuous improvement          yes             yes     yes        no
provides self-assessments                  yes             yes     yes        yes
applicable to projects                     software only   yes     no         no
applicable to programs                     software only   yes     yes        yes
applicable to organizations (operations)   software only   yes     yes        yes
requires a quality management system       yes             yes     yes        yes
              Summary
• CMM and PMBOK compliment each other
• CMM and Baldrige are similar in
  objectives, but Baldrige is more
  encompassing.
• CMM and ISO differ in their emphasis on
  quality improvement.
             Future Developments
• OPM3 – Organizational Project Management Maturity Model – a
  project underway by PMI
• ISO 15504
   – deals with software process assessment, may effect the future
      development of CMM
   – Generates 9 process attributes, grouped into 6 capability levels

				
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Description: this presentation describes variations between ISO Standards and CMM Levels.