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ONE NATION ETHANOL AWARENESS CAMPAIGN I TRULY BELIEVE ONLY AUST. FARMERS CAN BE TRUSTED TO BOTH. . . . “FEED & FUEL THE NATION” EFFICIENTLY & ECONOMICALLY!! We cannot & must not let the oil companies take control of our emerging Bio-fuels Industry & thereby to control the price of our food & daily needs as they do with their fossil fuels! Driving us into economic meltdown! TIME IS RUNNING OUT! OUR FARMERS HAVE THE GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO “FUEL & FEED US!!” BUT THEY MUST MAKE THEIR MOVE NOW OR U.S. COMPANIES LIKE ETHTEC; BIO-ENERGY & B.P. MONSANTO WILL CLOSE THE DOOR ON THEM! UPDATE(23) (7.2.09) My Sources: The American coalition for Ethanol,N.E.V.C (The U.S.A National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition) Underwriters Laboratories (U.L) gasket & seal authority’s certifiers) Greenfuel Algae Bio- diesel, Algae-Link, Bio King Inc. Bio-Diesel Reactor Manufacturing & suppliers. Also Celebrated NASA Aerospace Engineer & President of Pioneer Astronautics research and development Robert Zubrin. Agriculture online.com. Successful Farming Magazine, Poet energy, Alico Energy LLC. Coskata energy. Ethanol Producer Mag. Biodiesel Mag. U.S.D.A (U.S.Dept. Agriculture, U.S.D.O.E (U.S.Dept.of Energy) Earthrace.net This Issue features. NRMA boss (Alan Evans) changes his negative attitude for use of Ethanol! Also: Good Lord! Ex BP boss takes a stick to misinformed media on Ethanol! (Reuters) - U.S. farmers poll shows overwhelmingly that ethanol has been good for American agriculture! Latest report on the town of Bensons now huge Chippewah Valley ethanol Coop. & their mission! Latest Storage Strategies for Cellulosic Feedstocks! U.S. algae expert to advise South Australian, foreign owned Company! Breaking China’s coal addiction with a renewables revolution! “ Against logic there is no armor like ignorance” Laurence J. Peter IN THIS ISSUE I WOULD LIKE TO FIRST REMIND YOU ALL OF THE AMAZING STORY I WROTE ABOUT THREE YEARS AGO, & ONE THAT INSPIRED ME TO TAKE UP THE CHALLENGE WITH MY AWARENESS UPDATES IN AN EFFORT TO PERHAPS ALSO INSPIRE SOME OF OUR FARMERS & ASSOCIATED RURAL INDUSTRIES TO LOOK & SAY? HEY!! WE CAN DO THIS!! WE ARE AMONG THE BEST IN THE WORLD & WHAT THE YANKS CAN DO WE CAN DO BETTER!! Those of you who remember it will agree that it is & was an amazing success story that saw a small dying rural town (Benson USA) where the kids had all left home to work in the cities! The hospital was about to close along with many small businesses! Strangling the life’s blood that sustained the towns inhabitants The typical all too familiar to us scenario that right know & in the past could be any one of our Nations own currently struggling Rural communities! But a local farmer called John Carruth had a dream & today that dream has seen the amazing transformation of this once dying town into a thriving community built around a cooperative venture that has seen not only all of the original businesses that closed their doors reopen again! But many new ones move in! The hospital had to be expanded to cope with the influx into the once dying town! A new pool was built by the Coop members! But amazingly as the Ethanol plant grew along with its supporting industries the towns youth who had left to find work elsewhere were first & foremost given the option of returning home to their families & to jobs in the plant as workers! To share in the revival of Benson that is still growing as I now report today!! How did it all begin? Lets revisit with this recent article from their website! Born of a simple discussion with a local electrical company & a dream! 1 CHIPPEWA VALLEY ETHANOL COMPANY HISTORY The dream of an ethanol plant in the Benson, Minnesota area originated from the initial discussions between John Carruth, a local farmer, and Ray Millett, the manager of the local electric cooperative. They saw the ethanol plant as a way to return a higher value for area corn production and stabilize electric rates. The Chippewa Valley Agrafuels Cooperative (CVAC) was formed with over 650 shareholders made up of producers, elevators and local investors. CVAC teamed up the design-builder Delta-T Corporation to form Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company, LLC. (CVEC) This brought together a local interest with a supply of corn and an engineering firm who had the experience and expertise in the ethanol business. Construction on the plant began in June 1995 and was completed in April 1996 - ahead of schedule and well within budget. The first bushel of corn was ground on April 26, 1996 and was at 100% of capacity within 30 days. The plant averaged 98% of design capacity over the first six months of operation and produced 17 million gallons during fiscal year 1997. Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company (CVEC) is a 46 MM gpy corn ethanol plant located on the western edge of town. CVEC's 975 cooperative owners live predominately within a 50 mile radius of the plant site. Since its beginning in 1996, the CVEC organization has established a reputation for efficient operation and for policy leadership at the both the state and federal level. CVEC is also known for its many unique products like Shakers Vodka. CVEC is currently working with Frontline BioEnergy, an Iowa technology company, to integrate biomass gasification technology to provide thermal energy for its corn ethanol process. When this project is completed, CVEC will have replaced over 90% of its natural gas energy inputs with biomass power from corn cobs and other agriculture residues, grasses and wood. Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company (CVEC) is a 46 MM gpy corn ethanol plant located on the western edge of town. CVEC's 975 cooperative owners live predominately within a 50 mile radius of the plant site. Since its beginning in 1996, the CVEC organization has established a reputation for efficient operation and for policy leadership at the both the state and federal level. CVEC is also known for its many unique products like Shakers Vodka. CVEC is currently working with Frontline BioEnergy, an Iowa technology company, to integrate biomass gasification technology to provide thermal energy for its corn ethanol process. When this project is completed, CVEC will have replaced over 90% of its natural gas energy inputs with biomass power from corn cobs and other agriculture residues, grasses and wood. MANY OF US HAVE A SINGLE MINDED VIEW ABOUT ETHANOL AS JUST BEING ETHANOL TO FUEL OUR CARS & SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT! BUT IT IS SO MUCH MORE THAN JUST ABOUT ETHANOL! The Ethanol Industry is a diverse value added Industry with many strings to its bow!! Thus our own farmers as cooperative members could & will have access to markets beyond the fuel Industry & into other value added avenues that will enable them to continue to produce grain & other produce for food! But then also to branch off into other highly profitable area’s available to them as bi-products of this amazing Industry! In the Celluloses & Algae process as well as all other value added products the end product is returned to the soil as a very efficient organic nutrient & non chemical fertilizer! Ethanol is truly a renewable recyclable product that has the potential of offering a diverse smorgasbord of possibilities for our battling Rural Industries! Lets just revisit a few I have written about in the past that indeed the Chippewa Valley Benson plant is involved in that is typical of most ethanol Coops! 2 Alternative Uses Industrial Ethanol Beverage Ethanol Aviation Grade Ethanol (AGE-85) Beyond its use as an automotive fuel, ethanol can be produced for use in beverages and in a variety of industrial applications. Making fuel ethanol and ethanol for industrial and beverage purposes are similar, though separate, processes. Industrial and beverage ethanol is produced by a certified Distilled Spirits Plant. Industrial Ethanol The personal care products industry is one of the largest users of industrial ethanol, or ethyl alcohol. Check the labels - hairspray, mouthwash, aftershave, cologne, and perfume all contain large amounts of alcohol by volume. Ethanol is also used in many deodorants, lotions, hand sanitizers, soaps, and shampoos. Industrial alcohols are also used extensively in pharmaceuticals. The characteristics of ethyl alcohol make it a prime carrier for a whole spectrum of medicines including cough treatments, decongestants, iodine solution, and many others. As a solvent for the pharmaceutical industry, ethanol is useful for processing antibiotics, vaccines, tablets, pills, and vitamins. Many cleaning products contain high volumes of industrial alcohol. A bottle of household disinfectant spray can contain nearly 80 percent ethanol. Ethanol is used as a solvent in the manufacture of many other substances including paints, lacquer, and explosives. Industrial ethanol is used as a raw material for the production of vinegar and yeast, and similarly in chemical processing as a chemical intermediate. Even food products like extracts, flavorings, and glazes contain large amounts of alcohol. The ethanol is also used in some liquid animal feed products as an energy source. Beverage Ethanol The production of fuel ethanol and the production of beverage ethanol are closely related. Though the process is now greatly advanced, people have been distilling ethanol for human consumption for centuries. Pure beverage ethanol is often manufactured in the form of Grain Neutral Spirits, not for a final branded product. It is commonly sold in bulk to bottlers or other distillers who blend it or package it as a final product. Familiar products like hard lemonades and iced teas and liquors like vodka generally use grain neutral spirits as the volume of the alcohol content. Glacial Grain Spirits, the industrial ethanol arm of Benson, Minnesota's Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company, is home to Shakers Original American Vodka, a noteworthy example of beverage ethanol production. The premium vodka is distilled from locally grown wheat. Learn more about Shakers Original American Vodka and about Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company. Aviation Grade Ethanol (AGE-85) Aviation Grade Ethanol (AGE-85) is a high-performance, 85 percent ethanol-blended fuel for use in any reciprocating engine aircraft. AGE-85 is beginning to replace 100 octane low lead aviation gasoline (avgas), which has been the standard leaded gasoline for aviation since World War II. 3 Though avgas is the single largest contributor of lead in the atmosphere today, the Environmental Protection Agency has allowed its use until a suitable unleaded replacement can be found. More than 300 million gallons of avgas are used each year by the piston engine fleet in the United States - including aircraft made by companies like Piper, Cirrus, and Cessna. AGE-85 offers a substantial improvement in performance for these aircraft, producing at least 12 percent more horsepower and torque at typical cruising power. Lower operating temperatures are also achieved, with engines tending to run 50 to 100 degrees cooler than similar settings on avgas. Because this fuel causes considerably less buildup of combustion byproducts in the engine, the time between engine overhauls is greater and maintenance costs are lower. Supplemental type certifications (STC), required through the Federal Aviation Administration, are beginning to be secured for AGE-85. Through comprehensive testing on a 1962 Cessna 180, this registration has been obtained for C-180s and C-182s. Work is being completed on a 1982 Mooney 201 and a Grumman Ag Cat to expand certification to the experimental aviation and aerial applicator communities. With ongoing testing and further approval, AGE-85 can become a solid replacement for the leaded avgas of the past. Learn more about Aviation Grade Ethanol. Making Ethanol The production of ethanol or ethyl alcohol from starch or sugar-based feedstocks is among man's earliest ventures into biotechnology dating back to the cradle of man's first civilization. While the basic process steps remain the same, the process has been considerably refined in recent years, leading to a much improved efficiency. Corn or other starchy grain is first ground into meal and then is slurried with water to form a mash. Enzymes are added to the mash to convert the starch to the simple sugar, dextrose. Ammonia is also added for pH control and as a nutrient to the yeast. The mash is processed through a high temperature, cook step to reduce bacteria levels ahead of fermentation. The mash is cooled and transferred to the fermenters where yeast is added and the conversion of sugar to ethanol and CO2 begins. After fermentation, the resulting "beer" is transferred to distillation where the ethanol is separated from the residual "stillage". The ethanol is concentrated to 190 proof using conventional distillation and then is dehydrated to approximately 200 proof in a molecular sieve system. After this anhydrous ethanol is blended with about 5% denaturant and it is ready for shipment to gasoline terminals or retailers. The stillage is separated into a coarse grain fraction and a "soluble" fraction by centrifugation. The soluble fraction is concentrated to about 30% solids by evaporation. This intermediate is called Condensed Distillers Solubles (CDS) or "syrup". The coarse grain and syrup fractions are then co-dried to produce the DDGS product. HERE WE HAVE ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF THE BIOFUELS DIVERSITY THAT SHOULD REMAIN IN THE HANDS OF OUR RURAL INDUSTRIES & NOT THE OIL COMPANIES AS WITH THIS STORY SENT IN BY RAY GORTON! Extract from Braford Australia Journal 2008/09 Feature Story - Paringa Feedlot Breeding Brafords a family affair By Col Jackson AT 77 years of age Laurie Reid misses life on the land yet enjoys a new era of his life in retirement at Emu Park near Rockhampton. 4 He lost his beloved wife of 53 years, Heather, in March this year, and proudly follows the lives of their family without being an interference. And he knows the property and his prized Braford herd is in good hands, and with a good future, thanks to the entrepreneurial nature of son Phil, who combines cattle breeding and grazing, farming and feedlotting with a fledgling bio-diesel plant on his Paringa property outside of Capella. ********************************************************************* Back on Paringa, Phil fills every spare moment of his day with tasks that will value-add his life and his businesses. And as he continues to develop the farming feedlot enterprise, he is delving into the future by developing a bio-diesel manufacturing plant that converts a by-product of his business — tallow —into reusable energy. "It goes hand-in-hand," he says, "We feed the cattle they go to market, they're killed, and the tallow then goes to making bio-diesel. "There is very little residue, and what there is, is mixed with the feed that is fed to the feed lot cattle." "The only by-product is a high energy, low protein residue that can be used as a cattle supplement," he says, "and the residue can also be turned into lick-blocks for cattle". Phil Reid works closely with other entrepreneurs who use cottonseed and canola and even fish and chips oil in a concerted attempt to develop an environmentally-friendly fuel for the future. "We're supporting each other to build a fledgling industry —in the hope the federal government will ultimately support us financially," he said. "The process is finicky and very hands-on, yet there is the potential for small bio-diesel operations to eventually become part of communities throughout the world". He says it's not their aim to make millions overnight, "We want to save money on fuel and at the same time make a few dollars on the side," he said. "But the problem confronting us at the moment is the legislation — the government doesn't know what it wants. Until the government makes a decision, we don't know whether we can invest further in the process. We know we can make good environmentally-friendly fuel, but we need to know that it can be viable," he said. "There are no sulphurs or heavy metals emitted from the process — and the carbon emitted is already in the system — so the process is not introducing anything new to the atmosphere. There are no grants and no tax credits, but environmentally it is the way of the future," he contends. Meanwhile Philip Reid continues with his plans, and is seeking local Council approval to further develop his bio-fuel enterprise. Phil Reid's attitude to life is as constant as his daily routine: "This isn't a trial run," he says, "it's the real thing". Footnote: Paringa bio-diesel and bio-diesel blends are available direct from Paringa or through Central State Fuels, Rockhampton Contact – Philip & Deborah Reid; ‗Paringa‘ Capella. Qld 4723 Ph 07 4985 6192 Mobile 0409 856 192 - Fax: 07 4985 6137 - firstname.lastname@example.org Regards. Ray Gorton. HERE ALONG WITH MANY OTHERS DOING AN ABOUT FACE ON ETHANOL! ALAN EVANS ADDS HIS NAME TO THE LIST OF THE BELIEVERS! NRMA boss sees change in attitude to use of ethanol By Ian Thomson. The President of Australia‘s peak motoring organisation has called on governments to take the lead and do something quickly about ending our dependence on fossil fuels. NRMA boss Alan Evans says that in the past four years, this country‘s dependence on foreign oil has grown by 30 percent. ―If nothing is done, by 2015 the nation will have an oil trade deficit of $25 billion – putting enormous inflationary pressure on the 5 economy and further damaging the environment,‖ he said. Evans – a former Chief of Staff to Federal Treasurer John Dawkins in the Hawke Labor Government – has been NRMA President since 2005 and continues to lobby strongly for action on the increased use of renewable transport fuels. He urged delegates at the inaugural Biofuels Association of Australia (BAA) conference in Melbourne to read the Jamison Report – a roadmap to reduce Australia‘s dependence on oil. The report was compiled by the Jamison Group, set up by the NRMA after its Alternative Fuel Summit in 2006, and comprising four eminent scholars in the fields of energy and transport – Mark Diesendorf, David Lamb, John Mathews and Graeme Pearman. Pledging the NRMA‘s commitment to biofuels, Evans told BAA conference delegates that there were definite signs of improvement in how Australians felt about using ethanol, although there were still obstacles to overcome. ―Our surveys show that in 2005, just 25 percent of Australian motorists felt comfortable using biofuel in their vehicles,‖ he said. ―Now we find that in 2008, the acceptance figure has risen to 80 percent, with the most support coming from regional areas and Queensland. Evans said although the NRMA was still receiving calls about the possible damage to cars‘ engines by using ethanol, the inquiries were decreasing through educating the callers and putting them straight. ―There has also been a change in the way state motoring organisations feel about ethanol,‖ he said. ―Two years ago the other groups were not showing much interest in the use of biofuels, but now they are behind the NRMA in its support for renewables.‖ The NRMA boss told the conference that the food v fuel debate was gaining traction and spoke of the need to inform and educate people about the issue. At the time of the release of the Jamison Report, Evans said that when it came to making the hard choices necessary to end our dependence on oil, Australian governments had been idle. ―But it‘s not too late,‖ he said. ―If anything, Australia is in an ideal position. We do not need to discover any new renewable sources or invent any new technologies – much of it has already been done for us. What is needed now is to wean Australia off its oil dependence and secure a greener, cheaper and less volatile transport energy future.‖ HERE MORE UNTRUTHS ARE BEING LAID TO REST AS WITH THIS INTERESTING POLL! Ethanol good for U.S. agriculture: poll Tue Jan 13, 2009 6:29pm GMT By Christopher Doering SAN ANTONIO (Reuters) - U.S. farmers believe overwhelmingly that ethanol has been good for American agriculture, believing the renewable fuel has boosted their bottom line, a straw poll conducted by Reuters showed on Tuesday. Makers of the alternative fuel are expected to consume 3.6 billion bushels of corn, or about 30 percent of the U.S. corn crop, to make ethanol during 2008/09, up from about 23 percent the prior year. A study by Informa Economics forecast ethanol to climb to 34 percent of U.S. corn production in 2009. Nearly 80 percent of the 820 farmers surveyed at the American Farm Bureau Federation's annual meeting in San Antonio said ethanol was beneficial for agriculture, but 17 percent of respondents said it did more harm than good. The Farm Bureau is the nation's largest farm group, representing producers of cattle and hogs as well as growers of cotton, wheat and corn. "Anything that creates an additional demand for your product you have to consider a positive," said Hal Swaney, a corn, soybean and livestock farmer in Missouri. 6 "Obviously, it's not fair if you're a cattle producer in a place where there is no ethanol plant. You can't reap many of those benefits," such as DDG, he added. DDG, or distillers dried grain, is a byproduct of the ethanol production process used as an animal feed. The Reuters poll found that, despite the U.S. recession, lower oil demand and recent financial problems in the ethanol sector, about 55 percent expected some of their corn crop to go toward production of the renewable fuel this year. Once the cornerstone of the United States' plan to wean itself from foreign energy, ethanol has been sharply criticized by the food industry and aid groups for diverting corn away from livestock and foodmakers, pushing world food prices up. Even farmers were aware of the criticism, with 35 percent of those surveyed saying ethanol's biggest impact was creating higher livestock and feed costs as well as higher food prices. Farm and biofuel groups, along with the U.S. Agriculture Department, have deflected that criticism, saying factors other than ethanol are primarily to blame, including volatile oil prices and increased global food demand. After years of rapid growth, ethanol has begun to show its age. But the government's so-called renewable fuels standard, which requires the use of 11.1 billion gallons of renewable fuels in 2009, should help growth during the next few years. USDA Chief Economist Joe Glauber told Reuters he expected the growth of ethanol use to slow considerably, but said its future course would be largely determined by fuel consumption rather than the government standard. "Production will continue to expand," said Glauber. "There is no question about that." But some analysts and the Renewable Fuels Association, which represents the industry, are forecasting consolidation among ethanol firms due to tighter operating margins and less demand because of a drop in gasoline use. USDA has cut its projection for corn used for ethanol by 400 million bushels in two months to reflect these concerns. Already the industry has claimed one large casualty as VeraSun Energy Corp, the second largest U.S. ethanol producer, filed for bankruptcy in October. One bright spot for the industry could be President-elect Barack Obama, from the Corn Belt state of Illinois, who has pushed ethanol since he was elected to the Senate in 2004. Obama has pledged higher renewable fuel standards for advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, building out distribution infrastructure and mandating "flexfuel" for vehicles. (Editing by Walter Bagley) JOIN THE BIOFUELS BELTWAY MARCH! POSTED: JAN 22, 2009 Click HERE for more information on the Biofuels Beltway March. The American Coalition for Ethanol's strength is its grassroots membership, and we want to mobilize these ethanol supporters to bring the month of March "in like a lion" for ethanol by participating in ACE's Biofuels Beltway March in Washington, DC, March 2-3, 2009. This event in the nation's capital will include meetings with key Members of Congress, their advisors, and discussions with top Obama administration officials and other biofuel advocates. There has never been a more urgent time to make a unified ethanol voice heard on Capitol Hill. As the 111th Congress begins and Barack Obama becomes the nation's 44th president, consider the many critical policy issues facing the ethanol industry: � Congress and the Obama administration are developing an economic stimulus and recovery package to support green-collar jobs and renewable energy. � An arbitrary regulation limits ethanol use in gasoline to just 10 percent and the looming E10 blend wall threatens not only the prosperity of corn ethanol but also promises to bring investment in cellulosic biofuel to a grinding halt. � "Low carbon" is the new catchphrase in DC, EPA and Congress will work to reduce greenhouse gas 7 emissions, and some ethanol opponents' computer-generated models predict obscure "indirect land use changes" which accuse corn ethanol of being anything but low carbon. � The 45 cent per gallon blenders' credit (or VEETC - the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit) expires in 2010 and will need to be extended. � Brazil is lobbying to kill the duty on ethanol imports. � Big Food and other ethanol opponents continue to spread lies about ethanol and food prices. Your grassroots voice and presence in DC puts a real life face on these issues that matter most to our industry. Moreover, the diversity of ACE members - ethanol producers, farmers, bankers, electric cooperatives, equipment suppliers, etc - demonstrates that support for ethanol is far-reaching and that ethanol policies provide a meaningful return on investment. Because policy issues have profound influence over the success and growth of ethanol, we need you to turn out in force to stand up and fight for ethanol policies. Ethanol opponents are working the halls of Congress to distort our industry's reputation - your participation in the Biofuels Beltway March is essential to set the record straight. The strength of the "ethanol lobby" isn't a dominant company or leading organization with influential DC lobbyists. The power to change Washington exists outside the Beltway, with grassroots members such as you. A major reason why Congress continues to support ethanol is because ethanol benefits farmers, rural communities, the environment, and consumers. ACE's Biofuels Beltway March will bring your powerful and authentic grassroots voices to the nation's capital. WITH THE ADVENT OF THE CELLULOSES PROCESS MANY QUESTIONS HERE IN AUSTRALIA REMAIN FOR MOST OF US UN-ANSWERED! I HAVE TRIED TO DO MY BEST OVER THESE LAST MONTHS TO COVER AS MANY OF THESE AS POSSIBLE! BUT MY TASK IS HUGE & SADLY IN SOME CASES BY DEAF EARS! THE FOLLOWING I HOPE WILL ANSWER FOR SOME A FEW OF THOSE LINGERING QUESTIONS! Storage Strategies for Cellulosic Feedstocks EPM explores storage options for corn stover and switchgrass, both of which have the potential to serve as the next big feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production. By Anna Austin Corn stover, which consists of the leaves and stocks of corn plants usually left in the field after harvest, makes up about half of the yield of a corn crop. Corn stover, if it can be efficiently harvested, stored and transported, has multiple uses including as feed for animals, fertilizer, a biomass source for steam generation or electricity, and as a feedstock for the production of biofuels. Corn stover has been seriously considered as a potential feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol for several years, and has been the subject of much research and experimentation. Innovation is needed, however, in corn stover collection, transportation and storage methods to turn the idea into reality. Eric Woodford knows corn stover. He and his wife, Mary, run Woodford Custom Inc., a family farm business in Redwood Falls, Minn., where their primary focus is baling and selling corn stalks. Currently, the most widely accepted storage method is to turn the corn stover into large, round bales, according to Woodford. ―The infrastructure to do this type of harvest is already in place on many farms across the Midwest,‖ he says. Round bales generally require less expertise than square baling, shed water easier, and are typically less expensive (about $15 per dry ton for round bales, compared with $20 per dry ton for square). 8 The initial investment would be the purchase of a round baler at a cost of approximately $23,000, whereas a square baler would cost about $87,000. Woodford has found that corn stover storage practices vary among the different regions of the U.S., mainly due to climate and end-user needs. ―My experience is in the Midwest, where the climatic challenges are rain, snow, ice and humidity,‖ he tells EPM. The corn stover bales can be wrapped to protect them from inclement weather. Woodford has found that wrapping the bales with net/mesh is more effective than just wrapping the bales with twine. ―Net wrap provides a certain amount of protection from the elements,‖ Woodford says. ―When water hits the net, it beads up and runs off the edge of the bale.‖ Although it‘s more expensive than other methods, mesh wrap sheds water better and prevents a great deal of loss while the bales are being moved, which may offset the higher cost. According to Tom Schechinger, chairman of the board of managers at BioMass Agri Products in Harlan, Iowa, plastic from the twine or mesh wrap is also considered a serious contaminate. ―De-twining is often a laborious task,‖ he says. ―Installing equipment that will de-twine or de-wrap adds cost and is not fail proof.‖ Storage Logistics In a study conducted by the Department of Biological Systems Engineering at the University of Wisconsin and released in 2007, round and square stover bales, both dry and wet were stored indoors and outdoors, some wrapped in a plastic film tube, sisal twine, plastic twine and net wrap. ―Corn stover bales are usually made at a range of 7 percent to 18.5 percent moisture,‖ Woodford says. ―Bales that are wetter than this will heat, which will reduce the value of the feedstock and may cause a fire.‖ Consistent with Woodford‘s recommendation of using net wrap, the researchers found that bales in the net wrap and plastic twine had a much less dry-matter loss than the ones wrapped in sisal twine. Bales wrapped in the tubes were removed after approximately 8 months of storage, and the researchers found there were no statistical differences in fermentation between bale types, but higher moisture bales produced significantly greater levels of fermentation products than low-moisture bales. The study‘s overall findings were that storing wet corn stover by ensiling resulted in less loss and more uniform product moisture, compared with dry stover bales stored outdoors. Ensiling may also prevent or reduce the risk of fire. Woodford recommends that the bales stored outside on the ground be lined up end to end, rather than side to side. ―The area should have a good slope so rain water will run off and there should be no depressions where water can pond,‖ he says. In Midwest locations where harsh weather conditions can occur, Woodford suggests stover bales be placed where they can be accessed by roads, yet will not block roads with drifting snow. ―If bales need to be stacked high in large piles I would recommend some sort of roof or tarp to cover the top of the stack, because when you stack bales, rain and snow has to soak in as it can‘t run off as easily,‖ he says. ―Extreme care must be taken to make sure that all bales placed in the stack are dry and will not heat.‖ Woodford prefers to have multiple satellite storage locations as opposed to one central location. ―Multiple satellite locations help break up truck traffic and reduce potential loss in the event of a fire,‖ he says. Although corn stover looks to be a promising feedstock for cellulosic ethanol, Woodford thinks it should be considered as a stepping stone to more sustainable crops, such as native grasses and dedicated energy crops. Storage Strategies for Cellulosic Feedstocks Switch to Switchgrass Switchgrass is another potential cellulosic ethanol feedstock that has garnered a lot of attention. University of Tennessee researchers are well on their way to discovering the most economical and beneficial methods of storing switchgrass. Switchgrass is a warm-season perennial commonly found in prairies, pastures and 9 along roadsides. It is considered a high-yielding, versatile, adaptable plant, which is able to thrive in many different weather conditions, and requires lower fertilizer and herbicide amounts compared with typical crops. Several companies, including Missouri-based CleanTech Biofuels Inc., have expressed interest in the crop. The research team at UT co-led by agricultural economics professor Burton English, agricultural economist James Larson and soil scientist Don Tyler began experimenting with switchgrass in January 2008 through the Tennessee Biofuels Initiative. ―Logistics is a big issue in regard to biomass,‖ English says. ―We realize that one can transport more rectangular bales in a truck than round bales, but storage is another matter.‖ The group established 720 acres of switchgrass in eastern Tennessee to perform a storage study, comparing round or rectangular bales stored on three different surfaces, covered and uncovered. Five-by-4-feet round bales, and 4-by-8-feet rectangular switchgrass bales were stored on well-drained ground, gravel and pallets. Some bales on each of those surfaces were covered with a plastic tarp, wrapped in plastic or left uncovered. Every 100 days starting in January 2008, the group conducted bale destruction tests to see what was happening inside of them, Burton explains. ―We do this by cutting them open with a chain saw, selecting four different weathered surfaces to take samples from and sending the samples to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., for testing,‖ he says. The researchers have collected samples from January, May and September, and are now preparing to collect the December samples. ―We are doing this every 100 days for 500 days, even though a season is 365 days,‖ Burton says. ―We believe there will have to be some extra storage time, just in case not enough switchgrass is produced in every given year. At this time, we think the material will be stored at farms, so this study will look at the cost of each specific method.‖ Cost and Findings According to English, the least expensive switchgrass storage method is as round bales, without a tarp and on pallets. ―It costs about $4 per ton that way,‖ he says. ―If it doesn‘t have a tarp it‘s going to weather about 6 inches, but we don‘t know if that‘s bad or good for conversion processes, because we don‘t have conversion process data yet.‖ The samples the group has sent to the NREL will be chemically analyzed to answer that question. Among several things that were measured, English says the bale‘s ethanol content will be significant. A round bale covered with a tarp and stored on a gravel pad will cost about $12 a ton, English says, noting that a round bale typically weighs 1,300 pounds; a square bale weighs about 1,700 pounds. ―If you don‘t cover that square bale and leave it open to rain, it can increase in weight by up to 3,100 pounds,‖ English says, adding that the square bales soak up water rather quickly, which may damage their quality. All bales that were left uncovered were waterlogged when the first samples were taken in May. Taking cost and overall effectiveness into consideration, the UT researchers found that tarp-covered bales stored on pallets resulted in less degradation compared with those stored on a gravel pad. ―A gravel pad is more expensive, and it doesn‘t add quality,‖ he says. In the experiment, round, tarp-covered bales showed little signs of weathering, and decreased in weight by about 37 pounds per bale. Weathering on covered rectangular bales varied and significant decomposition was observable along the bottom edge and exposed sides of most bales. The average decrease in weight was about 1,313 pounds per bale. A 25-by-100-feet tarp costs $500 and will cover about 144 rectangular bales, or 120 round bales, according to English. Pallets cost about $6.50 each, and only one bale can be placed on a pallet. Gravel pads cost approximately 60 cents per square foot. English says UT should begin receiving experiment results from the NREL at any time and that the study should be completed by next summer. 10 Feedstock Future Determining the cost and effectiveness of feedstock storage is important to the commercial development of cellulosic ethanol production, which is why so many companies and universities are working to put the pieces of this puzzle together. For example, in August 2008, Illinois-based Archer Daniels Midland Co., Deere & Co., and Missouri-based Monsanto Co. announced a collaboration to identify environmentally and economically sustainable methods to harvest, transport and store corn stover. Other universities, such as Iowa State University and the University of Kentucky have developed programs to study biomass-to-ethanol crops, with an emphasis on switchgrass. It is clear researchers are beginning to develop a solid storage infrastructure for the use of these crops as a source of clean, renewable fuel. Anna Austin is an Ethanol Producer Magazine staff writer. Reach her at email@example.com or (701) 738-4968. FOR ME THE WARNING BELLS ARE RINGING LOUD & CLEAR WITH THIS NEXT ARTICLE! ONE I BELIEVE THAT IS HERALDING THE FOREIGN OIL INVOLVEMENT IN THIS EMERGING AUST.ALL IMPORTANT ALGAE TO BIOFUELS INDUSTRY! IT REAKS OF AN ASIAN & ARAB CONSORTIUM& I HAVE SEEN NO INVOLVEMENT FROM OUR FARMERS IN IT ANYWHERE! TIME IS RUNNING OUT FOR OUR THEM TO TAKE CONTROL OF THIS VERY LUCRATIVE INDUSTRTY HAT SHOULD BE THEIRS BY BIRTHRIGHT! U.S. algae expert to advise Australian project By Susanne Retka Schill From the January 2009 Issue Web exclusive posted Jan. 22, 2009, at 4:18 p.m. CST A South Australia consortium is gearing up to become a global contender in the development of algae for biodiesel production, appointing John Benemann, manager of the International Network on Biofixation of Carbon Dioxide and Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Microalgae, as a special advisor. Benemann gave a one-day seminar Jan. 21 at the South Australian Research and Development Institute, describing the current state of algae development. Scientists in South Australia are planning a proof-of-concept facility to explore the viable production of algae for biodiesel and high-value coproducts for nutraceuticals, feed, industrial and consumer applications. The project will include a facility on Torrens Island using four-50 square meter raceway ponds using nutrient rich salt water from an estuary, carbon dioxide from adjacent power plants and solar energy. The scientists will be developing an elite algal strain for biodiesel production, tapping into SARDI‘s collection of native strains showing high oil production potential, while working on cost effective systems for growing algae and harvesting the oil. The project received a $1.2 million Premier‘s Science and Research Fund grant in late December. The funds have been matched by resource recovery company Sancon Resources Recover Inc., the South Australian Research and Development Institute, and Flinders University. The project, which has been driven by SARDI professor Rob Thomas, will be led by Sasi Nayer from SARDI and Wei Zhang from Flinders. Benemann is serving as an advisor to the consortium. Good Lord! Ex-BP boss takes a stick to misinformed anti-ethanol media A British Lord who up until May 2007 was Chief Executive of oil titan BP, has taken the media to task for damaging the potential of biofuels. Lord Browne of Madingley has told The Times that biofuels can play a key role in global efforts to tackle climate change, but what he called ―media alarmism and misinformation‖ are damaging their potential. 11 The Peer, who is also referred to as Baron Browne of Madingley of Cambridge, is Chairman of the Accenture Global Energy Board and President of the Royal Academy of Engineering. He told The Times that there was a risk of premature policy changes because of fears that biofuels would indirectly boost greenhouse gas emissions through knock-on effects on land use – a concern that he said was important but was based on science that was new and, therefore, poorly understood. ―The right way to distinguish between good and bad biofuels is by using clear, stable and predictable carbon dioxide and sustainability standards.‖ He said. ―Europe should stick to its stated target of including a 10 percent mix of biofuels in all vehicle fuel by 2020. Failure to do so would risk destabilising the investing environment in European renewables for a generation.‖ Lord Browne said he strongly supported the call by Lord Turner of Ecchinswell for Britain to slash its carbon emissions by 80 percent by 2050. ―To get there will require an all-encompassing approach,‖ he said. ―It will mean taking energy out of our lifestyles, through a revolution in energy efficiency, and taking carbon out of energy, through fundamentally changing the energy mix we use in favour of low-carbon technologies. To achieve both will require a basket of fiscal and regulatory policies and public education. Lord Browne also said that Britain was leading the world in its understanding of the science and economics of climate change. He said the work of Sir David King, Lord Stern and others had led to the formation of a clear blueprint for the steps that the world needs to take to tackle climate change. ―The challenge from here is translating policy prescriptions into action,‖ he said. ―The watchword is delivery, and that will require political leadership that transcends electoral politics and short-term economic cycles. It will also require a great deal of hard, technical and politically unglamorous work.‖ He said the global battle to keep carbon dioxide levels from rising to dangerous levels would require the formation of a new institution, which he called ―an international carbon fund‖, to oversee the formation of a new market in carbon credits. This would ―provide liquidity in emerging international carbon markets and supervise national and regional efforts which have proliferated in the past decade.‖ He said that such a system must be adapted urgently to include deforestation, which is responsible for a fifth of global emissions. Lord Browne expressed confidence that the turmoil in the financial markets would not distract policymakers from reaching a new international climate change deal to follow Kyoto at a coming United Nations meeting in Copenhagen. A buzz continues in the biofuels industry after the discovery of a fungus said to provide green fuel that could be pumped directly into vehicle petrol tanks. The fungus, found in a tree in Chile‘s Patagonian Rainforest, produces a range of hydrocarbon molecules that are virtually identical to the fuel-grade compounds in existing fossil fuels. The discoverer, American scientist Gary Strobel, is overseeing a team conducting tests on the fungus – including genetic profiling and genetic sequencing. He says it‘s anyone‘s guess as to how long it will take to make it practical to use. LET THERE BE NO MISTAKE ABOUT IT? THE WORD WILL SOONER THAN WE THINK COME DOWN WITH THE SAD NEWS THAY NO LONGER NEED OUR COAL!!! THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN CULPABLE IN PUTTING ALL OUR EGGS IN THE ONE BASKET WHILE SYSTEMATICALLY SELLING OFF ALL OUR MANUFACT. INDUSTRIES TO FOREIGN CONTROL ALONG WITH OUR ASSETS MUST PAY FOR THIS CRIME BEFORE THE PEOPLE! FOR ONCE OUR COAL EXPORTS STOP. . . . . . . .?? IT WILL BE THE END FOR US!! Breaking China’s coal addiction with a renewables revolution By Ailun Yang, Climate and Energy Campaign Manager. The southern Chinese province of Guangdong manufactures products for the whole world – from toothbrushes to DVD players, from shoes to cars. It is among the richest regions of China, yet lack of power 12 generation has been a huge barrier to its economic growth, and until recently blackouts were common. Four years ago, Greenpeace China launched a pilot project called Wind Guangdong to promote wind power in the region and show that Chinese development could be powered by clean, renewable energy. The wind industry did take off in Guangdong, as it has across the country. Over the past three years, China‘s wind generation capacity has grown by more than 100 percent per year and it is now the world‘s third biggest user of wind power. China is soon expected to become the world‘s biggest manufacturer of wind energy equipment, and Greenpeace predicts that the country‘s wind power capacity could reach 122 gigawatts – equivalent to the capacity of five Three Gorges Dams – by 2020. Yet the success story of Chinese renewable energy is little known outside China. In addition to the growth of wind power, the performance of solar energy has also been spectacular. The country has already installed more solar heating systems than the rest of the world put together, and China is among the top three countries manufacturing solar photovoltaics. The government aims to have 15 percent of its total energy needs met by renewable within the next 12 years. The Chinese are known for making things happen quickly. Unfortunately, this is also the case for its massive expansion of coal-fired power plants. From 2004 to 2007, China built a total of 254GW of new coal-fired plants – about three times the total electricity capacity of Britain. The much-quoted soundbite that ―one new coal power station is being built each week in China‖ is sadly true, and the new plants have a far greater generation capacity than those they have been replacing. In 2007 the total capacity of the new builds was seven times that of plants which were closed down. Right now, coal accounts for more than 70 percent of China‘s energy mix. The economy is still growing at a double-digit rate, but the reality of its enormous environmental impact makes it clear that China‘s current carbon-intensive development model is unsustainable. The only solution is a combination of massive renewable energy uptake and huge energy efficient improvements. The majority of coal-fired power plants in China are very efficient, and an aggressive phasing-out plan is needed. In the past year alone, China closed down more than 550 coal-fired power generator units. The government has promised to shut down a total of 50GW of smaller coal-fired plants by 2010. Although China is still far from achieving a low-carbon development path, it is important to realise that it is both part of the problem and part of the solution. These unprecedented challenges offer unprecedented opportunities. If China fails to seize them, environmental disaster will follow. But if it succeeds, it will achieve not only a revolution in energy, but also a revolution in the history of human development. Kevin Mitchell. Coordinator One Nation NSW Farmer Ethanol Awareness Campaign. Email firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. 0249846358 13
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