MENU by fjhuangjun





I.- Purpose                                                      3
II-Introduction                                                  3
III-Exchange of opinion                                          4
      1.Why did we choose coconut ?                              4
            Origins and cultivation                              4
            Pests and diseases                                   6
            The fruit                                            6
      +User                                                      8
      +Culinary Uses                                             8
      +Non- Culinary Uses                                        9
            World history                                        11
      2.How to make coconut oil ?                                12
            Coconut oil                                          12
            The producing process                                13
      3. Why coconut oil better than other oils?                 14
            The relation between coconut oils and gasoline       14
            The differences and similarities of vegetable oils
                   And animal fats                               15
      +Similarities of vegetable oils and animal fats            15
      +The differences of vegetable oils and animal fats         16
IV.-Conclusion                                                   17
V.-Sources                                                       17
      Thanks                                                     19


I. Purpose
            Coconuts are worthy to be called as “the material of the future”
     coconut oil is the replacement for petrol nowadays. Coconut is not only
     good oil but also does not pollute the environment. It is useful so that we
     hope the result of this project will be helpful for our future life. Our
     entire dream is to improve human‟s life and now we try to do it…

II.- Introduction


Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
   Kingdom: Plantae
   Division: Magnoliophyta
   Class:    Liliopsida
   Order:    Arecales
  Family: Arecaceae
  Genus:   Cocos
  Species: C. nucifera
Binomial name
Cocos                   nucifera

The Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae
(palm family). It is the only species in the genus Cocos, and is a large palm,

growing to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4-6 m long, pinnae 60-90 cm long; old
leaves break away cleanly leaving the trunk smooth. The term coconut refers to
the fruit of the coconut palm.

III.-Exchange of opinion
             Why did we choose coconut ?
      Origins and cultivation
                                 The origins of this plant are the subject of
                                 controversy with some authorities claiming
                                 it is native to south-east Asia, while others
                                 claim its origin is in north-western South
                                 America. Fossil records from New Zealand
                                 indicate that small, coconut-like plants grew
                                 there as far back 15 million years ago. Even
                                 older fossils have been uncovered in
                                 Rajasthan      and    Maharashtra,      India.
                                 Regardless of its origin, the coconut has
                                 spread across much of the tropics, probably
                                 aided in many cases by sea-faring peoples.
                                 The fruit is light and buoyant and
                                 presumably spread significant distances by
                                 marine currents: fruits collected from the
                                 sea as far north as Norway have been found
                                 to be viable (subsequently germinated under
                                 the right conditions). In the Hawaiian
                                 Islands, the coconut is regarded as a
Polynesian introduction, first brought to the Islands by early Polynesian
voyagers from their homelands in the South Pacific. They are now ubiquitous
to most of the planet between 26ºN and 26ºS.

The coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is
highly tolerant of salinity. It prefers areas with
abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (750 to
2,000 mm annually), which makes colonizing
shorelines    of     the      tropics    relatively
straightforward. Coconuts also need high
humidity (70–80%+) for optimum growth, which is why they are rarely seen

in areas with low humidity (e.g. the Mediterranean), even where
temperatures are high enough (regularly above 24°C). They are very hard to
establish and cannot grow in dry climates without frequent irrigation. They
may grow but not fruit properly in areas where there is not sufficient
warmth like Bermuda.

Coconut palms are intolerant of freezing weather. They will show leaf injury
below 34ºF (1ºC), defoliate at 30ºF (-1ºC) and die at 27º (-3ºC). There are rare
reports of coconut palms surviving (with severe damage) to 20ºF (-7ºC). One
night of freezing weather can set the growth of a coconut palm back about 6

The only two states in the U.S. where coconut palms can be grown and
reproduce outdoors without irrigation are Hawaii and Florida. Coconut
palms will grow from Bradenton south on the Florida west coast and
Melbourne south on the Florida east coast. The occasional coconut palm is
seen north of these areas in favored microclimates in the Tampa-St.
Petersburg-Clearwater metro area and around Cape Canaveral. They may
likewise be grown in favored microclimates on the barrier islands near the
Brownsville, Texas area. They may reach fruiting maturity, but are damaged
or killed by the occasional winter freezes in these areas. While coconut palms
flourish in south Florida, unusually bitter cold snaps can kill or injure
coconut palms there as well. Only the Florida Keys provide a safe haven from
the cold as far as growing coconut palms on the U.S. mainland.

The farthest north a coconut palm has been known to grow outdoors is in
Newport Beach, California along the
Pacific Coast Highway. In order for
coconut palms to survive in Southern
California they need sandy soil, minimal
water in the winter to prevent root rot
and would benefit from root heating coils.

The flowers of the coconut palm are
polygamomonoecious, with both male and
female flowers in the same inflorescence.
Flowering occurs continuously, with
female flowers producing seeds. Coconut palms are believed to be largely
cross-pollinated, although some dwarf varieties are self-pollinating.

pests and diseases
Coconuts are susceptible to the
phytoplasma disease lethal yellowing.
One     recently    selected  cultivar,
'Maypan', has been bred for resistance
to this disease. The fruit may also be
damaged by eriophyid mites.

The plant is also used as a food plant by
the larvae of many Lepidoptera species
including the following Batrachedra spp:
B. arenosella, B. atriloqua (feeds
exclusively on Cocos nucifera), B.
mathesoni (feeds exclusively on Cocos
nucifera), and B. nuciferae.

The fruit
Any [Botanically], a coconut is a ' fruit known as a fibrous drupe (not a true
nut). The husk (mesocarp) is composed of fibers called coir and there is an
inner "stone" (the endocarp). This hard endocarp (the outside of the coconut as
sold in the shops of non-tropical countries) has three germination pores that are
clearly visible on the outside surface once the husk is removed. It is through one
of these that the radicle emerges when the embryo germinates. Adhering to the
inside wall of the endocarp is the testa, with a thick albuminous endosperm (the
coconut "meat"), the white and fleshy edible part of the seed. The endosperm
surrounds a hollow interior space, filled with air and often a liquid referred to
as coconut milk, not to be confused with coconut water .

  When viewed on end, the endocarp and germination pores gives to the fruit
the appearance of a coco (also Côca), a Portuguese word for a scary witch
from Portuguese folklore, that used to be represented as a carved vegetable
lantern, hence the name of the fruit. The specific name nucifera is Latin for
nut bearing.

When the coconut is still green, the endosperm inside is thin and tender, a
favorite snack. But the main reason to pick the nut at that stage is to drink its
water; a big nut contains up to one liter of refreshing drink. When the nut has
ripened and the outer husk has turned brown, a couple of months later, it will

fall from the palm of its own accord. At that time the endosperm has
thickened and hardened, while the coconut water has become somewhat

To open a coconut, remove the outer husk (if not purchased already removed)
and pierce two of the three eyes of the fruit (one for the juice to come out of,
one to enable air to go in); drain the juice from the fruit. Since coconuts have
a naturally-forming fracture point, they can be opened by taking a heavy
knife, such as a meat cleaver, and striking the coconut with the flat edge of
the knife. Or you can use a flat-bladed screwdriver and a hammer (which is
easier, and may be safer than using a cleaver). After inserting the screwdriver
slightly, twist it to crack the shell. The coconut should then be turned, and
this process repeated until there is a contiguous crack in the shell around the
entire fruit. Afterwards, the fruit can be separated at this fracture point.

                                          When the nut is still green the husk
                                          is very hard, but green nuts rarely
                                          fall, only when they have been
                                          attacked by moulds, etc. By the time
                                          the nut naturally falls, the husk has
                                          become brown, the coir has become
                                          dryer and softer, and the nut is less
                                          likely to cause damage when it
                                          drops. Still, there have been
                                          instances of coconuts falling from
                                          palms and injuring people, and
                                          claims of some fatalities. This was
the subject of a paper published in 1984 that won the Ig Nobel Prize in 2001.
Falling coconut deaths are often used as a comparison to shark attacks,
making the claim that it is more likely to be killed by a falling coconut than
by a shark. There is no evidence of people being killed in this manner.
However William Wyatt Gill, an early LMS missionary on Mangaia recorded
a story in which Kaiara, the concubine of King Tetui, was killed by a falling,
green nut. The offending palm was immediately cut down. This was around
                                       1777, the time of Captain Cook's visit.

                                       In some parts of the world, trained
                                       pig-tailed macaques are used to
                                       harvest coconuts. Training schools for
                                       pig-tailed macaques still exist in
                                       southern Thailand and in the

Malaysian state of Kelantan. Competitions are held each year to discover the
fastest harvester.

All parts of the coconut palm are useful, and the palms have a comparatively
high yield (up to 75 fruits per year); it therefore has significant economic
value. The name for the coconut palm in Sanskrit is kalpa vriksha, which
translates as "the tree which provides all the necessities of life". In Malay, the
coconut is known as pokok seribu guna, "the tree of a thousand uses". In the
Philippines, the coconut is commonly given the title "Tree of Life".

Uses of the various parts of the palm include

    Culinary Uses
                                               The white, fleshy part of the seed is
                                               edible and used fresh or dried in
                                             The cavity is filled with "coconut
                                               water" which contains sugar,
                                               fibre, proteins, anti-oxidants,
                                               vitamins and minerals. Coconut
                                               water provides an isotonic
                                               electrolyte balance, and a highly
                                               nutritious food source. It is used
    as a refreshing drink throughout the humid tropics. Coconut water can
    also be used to make the gelatinous dessert nata de coco. Mature fruits
    have significantly less liquid than young immature coconuts; barring
    spoilage, coconut water is sterile until opened.
   Sport fruits are also harvested, primarily in the Philippines, where they
    are known as macapuno.
   Coconut milk is made by processing grated coconut with hot water or
                                   milk, which extracts the oil and aromatic
                                   compounds. It should not be confused with
                                   the coconut water discussed above, and has
                                   a fat content of approximately 17%. When
                                   refrigerated and left to set, coconut cream
                                   will rise to the top and separate out the milk.

       The leftover fibre from coconut milk production is used as livestock feed.
       The sap derived from incising the flower clusters of the coconut is
        fermented to produce palm wine, also known as "toddy" or, in the
        Philippines, tuba. The sap can also be reduced by boiling to create a sweet
        syrup or candy.
       Apical buds of adult plants are edible and are known as "palm-cabbage"
        (though harvest of this kills the palm).
       The interior of the growing tip may be harvested as heart-of-palm and is
        considered a rare delicacy. Harvesting this also kills the tree. Hearts of
        palm are often eaten in salads, sometimes called "millionaire's salad".
       Newly germinated coconuts contain an edible fluff of marshmallow-like
        consistency called coconut sprout, produced as the endosperm nourishes
        the developing embryo.

    Non-culinary uses
        Coconut water can be used as an intravenous
        The coir (the fibre from the husk of the
         coconut) is used in ropes, mats, brushes,
         caulking boats and as stuffing fibre; it is also
         used extensively in horticulture for making
         potting compost.
        Copra is the dried meat of the seed which is
         the source of coconut oil.
        The leaves provide materials for baskets and
         roofing thatch.
        Palmwood comes from the trunk and is
         increasingly being used as an ecologically-
         sound substitute for endangered hardwoods.
         It has several applications, particularly in furniture and specialized
         construction (notably in Manila's Coconut Palace).
                                                       Hawaiians hollowed the
                                                          trunk to form a drum, a
                                                          container, or even small
                                                       The husk and shells can be
                                                          used for fuel and are a
                                                          good source of charcoal.
                                                       Dried half coconut shells
                                                          with husks are used to buff
                                                          floors. In the Philippines, it
                                                          is known as bunot.

   Shirt buttons can be carved out of dried coconut shell. Coconut buttons
    are often used for Hawaiian Aloha shirts.
   The stiff leaflet midribs can be used to make cooking skewers, kindling
    arrows, or bound into bundles, brooms and brushes.
   The roots are used as a dye, a
    mouthwash, or a medicine for
    dysentery. A frayed-out piece of root
    can also be used as a toothbrush.
   Half coconut shells are used in theatre,
    banged together to create the sound
    effect of a horse's hoof beats. They were
    used in this way in the Monty Python
    film Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
   Half coconut shells may be deployed as
    an improvised bra, especially for
    comedic effect or theatrical purposes.
    They were used in this way in the 1970s
    UK sitcom It Ain't Half Hot Mum for
   In fairgrounds, a "coconut shy" is a popular target practice game, and
    coconuts are commonly given as prizes.
   A coconut can be hollowed out and used as a home for a rodent or small
   Fresh inner coconut husk can be rubbed on the lens of snorkeling
    goggles to prevent fogging during use
   Dried coconut leaves can be burned to ash, which can be harvested for
   Dried half coconut shells are used as the bodies of musical instruments,
    including the Chinese yehu and banhu, and the Vietnamese đàn gáo.
   Coconut is also commonly used as an herbal remedy in Pakistan to treat
    bites from rats.
   The "branches" (leaf petioles) are strong and flexible enough to make a
    switch. The use of coconut branches in corporal punishment was revived
    in the Gilbertese community on Choiseul in the Solomon islands in 2005
   Coconut seedlings are popular novelty houseplants.
   The leaves can be woven (by weaving opposing leaves into each other) to
    create effective roofing materials, or Reed Mats.

World history
   In World War II, coast watcher scout Biuki Gas a was the first of two
    from the Solomon Islands to reach the shipwrecked John F. Kennedy
    and the wounded and exhausted crew of his PT-109. He would suggest
    for lack of paper, delivering a message inscribed on a husked coconut
    shell by dugout canoe. This coconut was later kept on the president's
    desk, and is now in the John F. Kennedy Library.




                    How to make coconut oil ?
      Coconut oil
                                      The nutritionist (dietician), Bruce
                                      Fife who supports pure coconut oil
                                      in US, once said that “coconut oil is
                                      a kind of saturated oil so nobody
                                      thinks that it‟s good for health.
                                      Coconut oil seemed to be similar to
                                      lipid in beef or pig”. However,

      Laurie acid is a kind of lipid acid which body could absorb fast. The
      lipid transforms into energy, in stead of reserving it as grease using
      coconut oil helps. The body stable the amount of cholesterol and it‟s also
      keeps your heart healthy.

   Saturated oil is good for circulatory system
   Dissolving an amount of coconut oil with gasoline could decrease the
    amount of co2.
      Making soap
   Increasing the resistance

   Copra contains sugar, vitamin C, B1, B2…and the others chemical
    composition. The amount of energy in one coconut is as same as 300g of
    rice. The main acid contains in coconut oil are: acid Laurie, acid
    myristic, acid capric, acid oleic, acid linoleum …

   Coconut oil is used as medicine in the past. Many years ago, there was
    a man who ate only coconut to live. Everybody admired him as the god
    and „coconut‟ was the name of his religion.

The producing process
   Coconut palm -> peel -> dipper
    separation -> crush -> treat enzyme
    -> Centrifugal separate real
    coconut oil -> purify -> finish …

   Enzyme cytolyses method for
   Research institute vegetable oil –
    essential oil – spice. The ministry of
    industry studied and coconut oil
    extracted successfully coconut oil
    by Enzyme cytolyses method. Base on the result, using enzyme
                                           cytolyses method could have
                                           many Advantages

                                               Coconut oil is blended to
                                                make biodiesel but can also
                                                be used straight, without
                                                blending. However, only
                                                blends with 10% or less of

      coconut oil can be safely used in unmodified

    Coconut oil made from fleshy part of coir (cocos nucifera), the color of
     coconut oil is yellow or non-color and become when temperature less
     than 250 C. It may process soap, cosmetics, strong alcohol, ester metallic

  Copra has white color and taste like milk. Old copra has high lipid and
  In our experiment, we make coconut oil and try it in some people. It
   gives us amazing result.
  Coconut oil is more nourishing
   and helpful for healthy than Soya
   oil, palm oil… because coconut oil
   doesn‟t has fat acid.
  Neutral fat in coconut oil will
   change into another energy, so it
   is not harmful for liver, digestive
  Coconut oil can cure cancer. It
   can      improve      immunizative
   system, because it exterminates
  Coconut oil is good for skin.

            Why coconut oil better than others oil ?

The relation between coconut oils and gasoline
  At this opportunity, we will examine the general formula of various sorts
   of vegetable oil, including coconut oil.

         CH2      -    OCOR1                    OCO         -O–C-R

         CH      -    OCOR2

        CH2      -    OCOR3

   R1, R2, R3 are the roots of unsaturated hydrocarbon, as a matter our
    bodies can easily absorb, the remaining will be rejected (which is not
    reserved under a form of fat). Conversely, if those were saturated
    hydrocarbon, those would be the animal fat, containing a lot of
    cholesterol which is not good for health.

   Vegetable oil may be also burnable, so we
    can infer that they have a high octane
    ratio-high compressible ratio. The octane
    ratio is also very important in the
    formulation of gasoline. In fact, gasoline
    has a fairly simple composition; it
    comprises a root of hydrocarbon from C5
    to C10. When exploiting crude oil in bowel
    of the earth, people will refine it into
    gasoline, he less carbon root it has, the
    more purity it will attain. Actually, not
    only gasoline can be used as fuel for
    engines, but also any others substances
    which are inflammable and cause heat, can also be used to run the
    engines. But the deciding factor here is octane ratio and the remainders
    after the fuel is burned out. In case that the octane ratio is not high
    enough, the calorie will be low and the productivity of machine will be
    reduced and unable to attain the operating out will cause damages to the
    machine (water, residual oil…)

   In my opinion, coconut oil also comprises octane ratio because it has a
    formulation of oil. However, octane ratio can be improved if diluted 10%
    with gasoline. In addition, when burning, coconut oil won‟t leave dregs
    or very few. Basically, it doesn‟t cause any harm to the engines. I should
    think coconut oil may be one kind of fuels in the future…

   Nowadays, American use 500.000 liters gasoline every day for their daily
    activities (car, electric generator…). Thus, if they mix 10% coconut oil
    into gasoline, America will be able to save 50 tons of gasoline every day.
    That sum of money will be used for other important issues of the
    country. Should anyone find out the better breakthroughs, his/her
    country will develop faster, stronger than other countries.

The differences and similarities of vegetable oils and
animal fats
      +Similarities of vegetable oils and animal fats

        Actually, there are some similarities between vegetable oils and
      animal fats in applications and structure of some oils and fats. The first
      one, vegetable oils and animal fats have a wide variety of food uses as
      well as in the production of margarine, shortening and compound fat.
      They also enter into many processed products, such as mayonnaise,
      mustard, potato chips, French fries, and canned fish. In addition,
      industrial and non-food uses of vegetable oils include the production of
      soaps, detergents, fatty acids, paint, varnish, resin, plastic, lubricants,
      and feedstuffs. In the structure of some oils and fats, they are similar
      such as margarine, shortening, and hydrogenated oils and fats.
      Margarine is made principally from one or more hydrogenated
      vegetable or animal fats or oils in which is dispersed an aqueous potion
      containing milk products, salt, flavoring agents and other additives.
      Shortening is a product similar to margarine. And hydrogenated oils
      and fats: Animal fats and vegetable oils that have been hydrogenated
      to raise their melting point and increase their consistency by
      transforming unsaturated glycerin into saturated glycerin....

  +The differences of vegetable oils and animal fats
   It is important to distinguish between oils and fats, or more completely,
    vegetable oils and animal fats. The distinction between these rests on
    what kinds of fatty acids went into formation of that fat.

   We have the structural formulas for four such fatty acids -- stearic
    acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Note that all four have
    18 carbon atoms.

   stearic

 Oleic acid
 linoleic
 linolenic

 The organic acids that create the kinds of vegetable oils are essentially
  unsaturated fatty acids such as Oleic acid (C17H33COOH), Linoleic
  acid (C17H31COOH) .These fatty acids do not contain cholesterol, and
  it is easier to be absorbed than animal fats. Contrary to the vegetable
  oils, fats are created by primarily saturated fatty acids. These are
  Stearic acid (C17H35COOH) and Panmitic acid (H31COOH),
  containing a lot of cholesterol. The animal fats‟ disintegrated processes
  are more restricted than vegetable oils done.

 In physical properties: The fats tend to be solid at room temperature
  because the roots of fatty acids are often the roots of saturated
  hydrocarbon. In addition, the vegetable oils tend to be liquid state at
  room temperature because the roots of fatty acids are usually the roots
  of unsaturated hydrocarbon.

   III. Conclusion
        For the conclusion, almost everything has its benefits as well as
 harmful effect on our life and environment. As we known, coconuts are
 useful in treatments, pharmaceutical products, experiments... Besides,
 coconuts also bring about bad effects to environment if large amounts of
 them do not be timely expendable. Since our research was conducted for
 a limited period, so we just took related information contents from
 teachers, library, reference books, friends, and internet.
        If we had more time, we would have found out how to create a
 machine that uses coconut oil in its operation to replace other raw
 materials. It can be helpfulness for life and environment.

   IV. Sources


       -LOVER‟S COOKBOOK of Bruce Fife, N.D
                …Many people as: is coconut high in carbohydrate? If you’re on a
low-carbohydrate diet, you are in luck. Coconut contain very little effective (i.e.,
digestible) carbohydrate. Although coconut meat mildly sweet, it is composed
primarily of indigestible fiber and, therefore, is a low-carbohydrate, high-fiber food.
Coconut milk, like wise, has very little carbohydrate and coconut oil has none…

       -BOOK, COCONUT OF MIRACLE of Bruce File, N.D
                 Can saturated fat be good for you? Yes! Natural coconut oil--as
opposed to the hydrogenated version often found in processed foods--is a
saturated fat, but not the kind your doctor has warned you about. Studies have
shown that this uniquely curative oil actually has innumerable health benefits,
ranging from disease prevention to anti-aging. Now, in the revised edition of
the first book to describe the therapeutic properties of coconut oil, Bruce Fife
offers a nutrition plan with dozens of tasty recipes that will allow anyone to
experience the healing miracles of what he deems "the perfect food."

       -COCONUT CURES of Bruce File
               Coconut Cures by Bruce Fife. Discover the amazing health
benefits of coconut oil, meat, milk, and water. In this book you will learn
why coconut oil is considered the healthiest oil on earth and how it can
protect you against heart disease, diabetes, and infectious illnesses such as
influenza, herpes, Candida, and even HIV.

       -VIRGIN COCONUT OIL of Brian and Marianita Shilhavy

               How it has changed people's lives, and how it can change
yours! is the most practical book written on the health benefits of coconut oil.
Based on years of research and the experience of Brian and Marianita Shilhavy,
this book documents how tropical cultures eating a diet high in the saturated fat

of coconut oil enjoy long healthy lives. It also shows how a premium Virgin Coconut Oil
has changed thousands of lives outside the tropics.

        -Coconut Cuisine Featuring Stevia of Jan London
                Coconut Cuisine Featuring Stevia is the new cookbook from
natural foods chef and writer, Jan London. 130 innovative, yet simple vegan
delights offer fresh ideas for gourmet palates of both traditional and raw
cuisines. Jan’s careful assembly of yin yang balance within each dish
reveals her focus on food as a form of healing. A nutritional facts chart is
included with each recipe for the diet conscious. Recipes such as Curried
Vegetables, Coconut Wild Rice, Chilled Cucumber Mint Soup, Syrian
White Bean Salad, Sumptuous Carob Cream and Peach Pie in Coconut
Crème Sauce, will convince you that eating healthy is not only effortless,
healthy eating never tasted so good.
         Science book.

     -                            BIOLOGY of Neil A. Campbell and Jane B.
              Some plants, such as this coconut palm, produce a moderate
number of very large seeds. The large endosperm provides nutrients for the
embryo, an adaptation that helps ensure the success of a relatively large
fraction of offspring.

        -BOTANY of Ahmet Kalali, Unal Akcay, Osman Arpaci and Musa
              …This family includes about 200 genera and 3000 species.
They are widespread and pantropical, with a new found in the warm
temperate regions.
              The family is unique as a monocot in that it has an arbrescent
habit, or is able to reach great heights without the production of true
secondary grown or ‘wood’, as well as having large distinctively ‘palmate’
leaves. Habit is as shrubs, lianas or trees with an unbranched trunk or stem.
Individuals may be up to 60 meters in height, or remain shorter.

              The Arecaceae or, more commonly, the palm, are invaluable to
many native communities of the tropics as a source of food and fiber as well
as leaves used in construction. Coconut, dates, oil and sago, from which a
nutritious flour is made, are all produced by various taxa.


My family was make me more confident, help me anything for this project.
My teachers (biology teachers) gave me change, condition, information…
My friends always launch propaganda, gave me good opinion.
            Thank you…


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