Docstoc
EXCLUSIVE OFFER FOR DOCSTOC USERS
Try the all-new QuickBooks Online for FREE.  No credit card required.

storrie_show

Document Sample
storrie_show Powered By Docstoc
					                               500



                               400



                        Ex (nm) 300



                               200
                                      200        300        400        500
                                            Emission Wavelength (nm)

                                                                             Intensity Graph
                                                                               800                                                                                                                                                                               77.86697




           Life Detection and Sensors
                                                                               750

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 63.82927
                                                                               700


                                                                               650                                                                                                                                                                               53.21101


                                                                               600


                                                                               550


                                                                               500


                                                                               450


                                                                               400




                   Bio-Info-Nano Science                                       350


                                                                               300


                                                                               250


                                                                               200


                                                                               150


                                                                               100


                                                                                50


                                                                                 0
                                                                                     0   50    100   150   200   250   300   350   400   450   500   550   600   650   700   750   800   850   900   950   1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cursor 0   436.13 268.61 0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cursor 1   230.11 479.56 0.00




              Michael C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D.

Raman Spectroscopy & Native Fluorescence Imaging Laboratory
   Center for Life Detection & Virtual Planetary Laboratory
 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
                   (818) 354-5651 mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
                                    Core Projects
In Situ Biosignatures
 • Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities              (H. Sun, G. McDonald, JPL)
 • Deep Sub-ocean Vesicular Basalts                    (M. Fisk, OSU; S. Douglas, JPL))
 • Evaporite Crystals (Halophiles)                     (M. Mormile, UMR)
 • Yellowstone Hydrothermal Biofilms                   (A. Neal, MSU)
 • Hydrothermal Vents and Arctic Ice                   (A. Lane, JPL)
 • Paleobiology-Fossil Ferns/Cyanobacteria             (A. Czaja, L. A. Smith, UCLA)

Remote and In Situ Biosignature Detection
• Entropy Image Analysis/Neural Networks               (R. Bhartia, JPL)
• Virtual Planetary Laboratory                         (V. Meadows, JPL/SIRTF)
• Soap Lake Microbial Observatory                      (H. C. Pinkart, CWU)
• Serpentinization/Habitable Planets                   (K. Nealson, R. Rye, USC)
• Stromatolites/Complexity Analysis                    (F. Corsetti, G. Tinetti, USC)
• THEMIS                                               (K. Nealson, G. Tinetti, USC)

Instrument Development          (Industrial Collaborator: W. Hug, Photon Systems, Inc.)
 • Laboratory Deep UV Raman Spectrometer & Fluorescence Imaging System
 • Field Deep UV Raman and Fluorescence Organic Detector
 • Mars Ultraviolet Raman Fluorescence Explorer (MURFE)
 Biology, Information, and Nano- Technology and
                     Science
• NASA Ames Research Center and USRA jointly sponsored a
workshop titled "Biology-Information Science-Nanotechnology
Fusion & NASA Missions," October 7-9, 2002 at the Ames
Research Center. Co-chairs included G. Scott Hubbard (NASA),
T.R. Govindan (NASA), Lewis Peach (USRA) and Kathleen
Connell (USRA ) http://binfusion.arc.nasa.gov

• The workshop discussed the science challenges generated by
NASA missions and the possible advantages of cross-disciplinary
research in biology, information science, and nano-technology.

• The material included here was presented to outline two science
problems that might serve as drivers to encourage such an inter-
disciplinary effort.
    NASA Astrobiology Institute
           Overview
•   Since only 5 members of the NAI attended this meeting
    and since many of the participants seemed unaware of
    the distributed and inter-disciplinary model developed by
    the NAI over the last five years, a series of slides were
    presented outlining the NAI Roadmap, Lead Teams, Field
    Sites, Multidisciplinary Science, and NASA Mission
    Involvement.

•   These are not reproduced here, since they are well known
    to all of us in the NAI community.
    NAI Efforts in In Situ and Remote Biosignature
     Detection: Needs for Both Nano-technology and
                   Information Science

In Situ (including ISS as an extreme ecological niche)
  1. ER Triage as a Model for In Situ Exploration:
                       Slide 4
      Mass, Power, and Volume Constraints for 30 devices
  2. Distributed surveys: 1000 sensors across Mars
Remote Sensing
  Astronomical detection of biosignatures from extrasolar
  planets requiring nano-scale geobiology information
The Virtual Planetary Laboratory:
Characterizing Extrasolar Planets




Using Nano-scale Inputs for Remote Detection of
                           Complex Geobiological Systems...
                 VPL RESEARCH GOALS
!To understand the plausible range of atmospheric and surface compositions
        for terrestrial planets, and
" To learn how to use spectra to discriminate between extrasolar planets with
        and without life.
# The results will drive the design and search strategies for future planet
        detection and characterization missions.

                                    H 2O                               Venus
                                           SO2
                                                             CO 2    H 2O
                                             CO2



                                       CH4                                  Earth
                                    H 2O                      CO 2
                                                 O3                   H 2O



                                                                            Mars
                                                                      H 2O

                                                      CO 2
 SIMULATING PLANETS AND THEIR SPECTRA



EXOGENIC PROCESSES          STELLAR RADIATION


                               RADIATIVE
                               TRANSFER




         CLIMATE           ATMOSPHERIC
                            CHEMISTRY
          T(z)




                                           WEATHERING
                                                             Spectral Classification of Planets
 Venus




 Mars
                                                        2.5                                                   2.6
                                                                         Mars                          2a             2b                    Venus
                                                                                                              2.4
                                                        1.5
                                                                                                                      Conifers              Mars
                                                                                            Desert            2.2
 Conifers                                                                                    Conifers
                                                            .5                                 Ocean           2             Cirrus        Desert
                                                       F2
                                                                            Cirrus                            1.8
                                                            -.5                                                                  Stratus
                                                                                            Stratus           1.6
                                                        -1.5
 Ocean                                                                                                        1.4
                                                                         Venus                                         Ocean
                                                        -2.5                                                  1.2
                                                                  -2.5   -1.5    -.5        .5   1.5    2.5         1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8    2     2.2 2.4 2.6
                                                                                       F1
 Desert




 Cirrus Clouds                                          Many spectral types are possible in
                                                        theory. So how do we constrain our
 Stratus Clouds                                         search?
.6        .65     .7   .75   .8   .85   .9   .95   1
                                                                                                                                                                                Observer


     THE VIRTUAL                                                                                                                                                                       Synthetic




                                                                                                                                                               (SMARTMOD)
                                                                                                                                                           The Climate Model
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Atmospheric

      PLANETARY                                                                                                                                                                        Spectra

                                                                                                                                                                                 Radiative
                                                                                                                                                                                                           and surface
                                                                                                                                                                                                           optical
                                                                                                                                                                                                           properties




                                                                                                                     The Coupled Climate-Chemistry Model
                                                                                                                                                                                 Transfer
                                                                                                                                                                                  Model

     LABORATORY                                                                                                                                                       Atmospheric        Radiative
                                                                                                                                                                                          Fluxes
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Stellar
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Spectra

                                                                                                                                                                         Thermal
                                                                                                                                                                      Structure and     and Heating
                                                                                                                                                                      Composition         Rates

                                                                                                                                                                                   Climate
•Constructed with six interlocked models.                                                                                                                                           Model
•Each model contributes to a range of




                                                                                          The Abiotic Planet Model




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Virtual Planetary Laboratory
                                                                                                                                                                                         UV Flux and
synthetic spectra to identify habitable planets                                                                                                                         Atmospheric
                                                                                                                                                                        Composition
                                                                                                                                                                                         Atmospheric
                                                                                                                                                                                         Temperature
or potential biosignatures, and to derive




                                                             The Inhabited Planet Model
                                                                                                                                                                                Atmospheric
astronomical instrumentation requirements.                                                                                                                                       Chemistry
                                                                                                                                                                                   Model

                                                                                                                     Atmospheric Escape,                                                 Atmospheric
                                                                                                                                                                                            Thermal
•The VPL must:                                                                                                       Meteorites, Volcanism,
                                                                                                                      Weathering products                                                Structure and
                                                                                                                                                                                         Composition
     –   improve modeling methods, inputs and
         computational efficiency.                                                                                                                                    Exogenic          Geological
                                                                                                                                                                       Model             Model
     –   cover a broad range of wavelengths
     –   consider planets other than Earth, around stars                                                                                                                               Atmospheric
                                                                                                                                                                    Biological
         other than our Sun.                                                                                                                                                           Thermal Structure
                                                                                                                                                                     Effluents
                                                                                                                                                                                       and Composition
     –   include non-oxygen producing life
     –   ultimately provide a comprehensive, flexible tool                                                                                                                     Biology Model
                                                                                                                                                                     Biology Model
         which can be used by a broader community.
         Extreme Environments and
        Nanometer to Planetary Scale
               Biosignatures
Remote Sensing: Ground Truth and Detection Sensitivity

Ecosystem Complexity: Analytic Solution and
Experimental Data for Complex Feedback Systems Between
Organisms & Environment

Long Range Stability of a Biology Driven Environment:
      A 10 Year Search in a 10 Gy Search Space
                 Overview of Work by NAI at JPL Sites
DATA SET EXAMPLES                                     COLLEAGUES

• Alkaline Lakes {Microbial Observatory}              (H. C. Pinkart, CWU)
• Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities              (H. Sun, G. McDonald, JPL)
• Deep Subocean Vesicular Basalts                     (M. Fisk, OSU; S. Douglas, JPL)
• Evaoprite Crystals (Halophiles)                     (M. Mormile, UMR)
• Paleobiology-Fossil Ferns/Cyanobacteria             (A. Czaja, L. A. Smith, UCLA)
• Ultramafic Envioronments                            (K. Nealson, R. Rye, USC)

MULTI-PROBE INSTRUMENTS
• Needs
• Volume, Mass, Energy Constraints
• Example: Fluorescence and Rayleigh Imaging
                + Raman Spectra                       (W. Hug, Photon Systems, Inc.)

• VPL INPUTS                                     (V. Meadows, JPL/SIRTF)
• Entropy Image Analysis                         (R. Bhartia, JPL)
• Stromatolites/Complexity Analysis              (F. Corsetti, G. Tinetti, USC)
• Nano-scale geology and macro-scale biosignatures
Mono Lake




      For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Mono Lake Tufa




        For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Soap Lake, Washington




             For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Soap Lake Microbial Mat Community




                   For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Soap Lake Microbe Gas Production




                 For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Soap Lake Layered Microbial Community




                    For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
The Cedars




       For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
The Earth’s Mantle




           For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
High West Site 1




          For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Little Faithful




          For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Mixed Microbial Mat on Carbonate




                 For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
“Carbonate Falls”




           For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Old Stromatolite




          For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
So what do we measure and in how many
ways?
Multi-Sensor Probabilistic Life Detection
          Fundamental Event              Neural Network    Bayesian Classification

                          Motion

              Spatial Distribution             Do size, mass, and energy
                       Elemental               constraints demand a suite of
                      Abundance                nano-devices for in situ mission
                                               science?
              Diatomic Molecules

                 Organosynthesis                                 Life (biotic)

                 Energy Transfer                                 Past Life (fossil)

                        Polymers                                 Non-Life (abiotic)

                 Ring Structures

                      Replication
                                               Current 3-in-one instrument
                     Information                        Volume: 15x10x8 cm
                    Transmission     .
                                     .                  Mass: 2 kg
                                .
                                .                       Power:5 W
                           Etc...
                UV Raman Spectroscopy & Native Fluorescence Imaging
                    UVRS I                            UVRS II




Figure 1a depicts the first Ultraviolet Raman Spectrometer (UVRS I) and native fluorescence imaging system
constructed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Center for Life Detection. Although this first system requires less
than half the mass, power, and volume of its predecessors, it still weighs 150 kg, occupies 4 m3 and requires
~500W. Figure 1b depicts the recently developed portable version of the system (UVRS II) weighing 10 kg
(plus laptop), 20cm x 25cm x 50.8cm, and drawing <100W. Both systems operate at 224nm, 248nm, or 325nm.
The system can be easily configured to operate in a variety of extreme environments. The two systems were
developed in a joint effort between Center for Life Detection and Photon Systems, Inc., Azusa, CA. The systems
provide three (3) data sets:
                         Multi-bandpass Microscopic Imaging UV to far Red
                         Fluorescence Multi-bandpass Imaging
                         Raman and Resonance Raman Spectra
              Mars Ultraviolet Raman and Fluorescence Explorer (MURFE)
                                                224nm                       Spectrograph ICCD Detector
     Objective                                 Edge Filter
      Lens
                                                                                       3600g/mm holographic
                                                                                              grating

                                                                                              12 cm-1 resolution
                                                                                                spectrograph




                                                                                                    8cm




                              15cm
                                                                                                  224nm HeAg
                                                                                                     Laser
  UV microscope relay optics
                                                                               ICCD UV/Vis Imaging Camera
Center for Life Detection Rover-compatible in situ instrument for generating deep UV fluorescent images and Raman
spectra during a Mars surface or sub-surface mission with mass ~2kg and power consumption < 5W.
             HeAg and NeCu Lasers




•   Output >100mW at 224nm or 248nm
•   Instantaneous startup (no preheat or standby)
•   Narrow linewidth (<3GHz or 0.1cm-1)
•   Size weight and power consumption of HeNe laser

                             For more information contact W. Hug, Photon Systems, Inc. Whug@aol.com
Exploring Cryptoendolithic Communities with Deep UV Native Fluorescence
            and Raman Spectra in The Antarctic Dry Valleys

                                       a                 b




                                                         c
  Antarctica (Figure 2a) contains
  a dry desert region (2b) with
  sandstone rocks (2c) serving as
  refuge sites for complex
  microbial communities. These
  crytpoendolithic communities,
  their survival strategy in a cold,
  dry, high UV flux environment,
  and their interaction with the
  surrounding       rock     matrix
  provide an accessible Mars
  analog ecosystem. Images
  courtesy of H. Sun.
          Antarctic Dry Valleys Cryptoendolithic Community
                                   Visible            Laser Induced Native Fluorescence
                                                                            (c) 60X
                       (a)          1.5X
                                                          (b)   1.5X




                                                                                              0.5 mm




                     1.0 mm


Figure a is a low resolution (1.5X) image overview of a 10 x 10 mm internal face of a cleaved sample of Antarctic
Dry Valleys sandstone (sample courtesy of E. Friedman). Illumination in broadband visible light reveals a
characteristic biosignature for cryptoendolithic communities: the stratified layering just below the mineral crust. In
Figure b excitation using a 224 nm deep UV laser for illumination reveals a lightening-bolt of native fluorescence
heralding a complex community of microorganisms extending some 8.5 mm into the interior of the rock. In Figure c
optical magnification to 60X and illumination with both broadband visible light and 224nm UV laser source reveals
fine structure details of the microbial community. The 224 nm wavelength induces native fluorescence activity in
aromatic amino acids found in all microbial life on this planet.
                                                                For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
    Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities: 224 nm Excitation of
              Native Fluorescence in Sample AL845-504




      -5µ
    60X Magnification                         <- Red             White ->                               Rock Surface ->
224 nm laser excitation of an Antarctic rock cryptoendolythic community elicits a fluorescent response from filamentous
strands extending across a red|white mineral boundary zone. The excitation wavelength falls within the fluorescence
absorption bands for the aromatic amino acids. The filaments are most likely a previously identified fungal community.
Many filaments in the red(iron-rich) zone are covered with red granules morphologically similar to grains of hematite.
Microbial life in this extreme environment lives in close association with the mineral matrix of the surrounding sandstone.
Co-registration of visible and native fluorescence images allow a detailed examination of the 3-dimensional organic-
inorganic interaction. {Specimen courtesy of E. I. Friedman & H. Sun}
                                                                   For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
            Deep UV Resonance Raman Spectra of Antarctic Sandstone
                                                                                            C=C
                                                                        SiO4
                                                                                                                           -OH



                                                                                        C=N




Deep UV resonance Raman spectra elicited with a 1 second exposure to 10 µW of UV light from a 224.3 nm hollow
cathode ion laser in the Fe-depleted (a) and Fe-rich(b) layers. The resonance effect enhances the Raman response by ~106.
Iron acts as an efficient UV absorber, a trait exploited by microbial communities such as this one. Both the excitation and
Raman shift photons can be absorbed since the wavelength shift occurs in less than 10 nm. As a result the signal in the Fe-
rich layer exhibits more than an order of magnitude reduction in signal strength.
                                                                For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
          Iron and Biomass Profiles of a Cryptoendolithic Community




Estimation of the iron concentration using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) produces an
[Fe]eds profile across an Antarctic sandstone cryptoendolithic community. The estimation of [Fe]
using total red-band flux (Φr) normalized for total RGB flux during white light illumination produces
a markedly similar profile. Significant deviation occurs only in the upper 1.0 mm of crustal material.
This color/EDS difference is most likely due to the fact that the crustal Fe fraction is present as a
hydrated amorphous form, while in the lower red zone it is present as hematite. Estimates of biomass
load by normalzed blue-band flux ((Φ224) results in a profile markedly similar to that produced by
EDS measurement of calcium concentration [Ca]eds. For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Evidence of Biological Activity in Hawaiian Subsurface Basalt




                   Samples of subsurface (1.3 km) basalt obtained by the Hawaii
                   Deep Core Drilling project exhibit vesicles containing clay
                   and accumulations of phosphorous at the clay-basalt interface.
                   Petrographic image and X-ray map by M. Fisk, Oregon State
                   University
        Deep UV Fluorescence Images and Resonance Raman Spectra of
                              Vesicular Basalt
                                    120
a                                               Silicates                                                            h
                                    100                          Organic Finger
                                    80
                                                                |- Print Region -|
                                                      Olivine




                              c/m
                                    60
                                                         |
                                    40
                                                                                                             Water
                                                                                                              |
                                    20
                                                               |
                                                            Calcite
                                      0
                                          200         700         1200       1700      2200        2700       3200
                                                                             Raman Shift
                     100 µm


b              c                                                             Visible reflectance (Figures a, b, d, and f) and
                                                                             fluorescent (Figures c, e, and g) images of deep
                                                                             subsurface volcanic basalt reveal an area of
                                                                             native fluorescence at the clay-mineral boundary
                                                                             of two vesicles. The native fluorescent images
                                                                             were a result of 224 nm deep UV excitation
                     50 µm                                                   using a hollow cathode ion laser (Photon
                                                                             Systems, Inc.). Resonance Raman data (Figureh)
d              e                                                             obtained with 248 nm laser excitation reveal
                                                                             activity between 1300 and 1600 wavenumbers.
                                                                             In terrestrial samples such resonance activity
                                                                             usually indicates the presence of nucleic and
                     20 µm                                                   aromatic amino acids. Environmental scanning
                                                                             electron microscopy(S. Douglas, CLD)
    f          g                                                             subsequently revealed the presence of microbial
                                                                             colonies just below the clay-basalt interface.
                                                                             These 1354 meter subsurface samples of Muana
                                                                             Kea basalt were courtesy of M. Fisk.
                     10 µm
                                                      For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
    Deep UV Fluorescence Images of Halophilic Microorganisms in
                       Evaporite Inclusions




Visible light (Fig a) and laser-induced native fluorescence images of halophilic bacteria in a
halite crystal. Native fluorescence was induced with 224.3 nm excitation. Fluorescent images
appear blurred because the bacteria were in rapid motion due to either convection currents or
flagella activation. Samples courtesy of M. Mormile. For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Deep UV Fluorescence Images and Raman Spectra of
                  Fossil Ferns

                                   200


                                   150




                          ac014c
                                   100


                                    50


                                     0
                                         0     C=C
                                               500   1000   1500     2000     2500   3000   3500   4000
                                                                   Wavelength



                                         C=N
                                                                         -OH

48 million year old fossil ferns exhibit a markedly well-preserved deep
UV resonance Raman spectra. Excitation was at 248.6 nm. Total time of
UV exposure was 1 second with <100 microwatts delivered to sample.
Samples courtesy of A. Czaja, UCLA.
Deep UV Native Fluorescence in Counter Bioterrorism


                                              LED-bar “Bio-Hit-Rate” display




         Optical Sensor                                         LCD 2D Bioagent Distribution
                                                                         Display




Illustration of two “BioCounter” Biological Agent Surface Sensor (BASS) instruments. Two
views are shown to illustrate the top with LCD and LED-bar displays, and bottom with the
sensor lens that focuses the raster scanned deep UV laser beam and collects fluorescence
emission. The lens is pointed down to facilitate searching of horizontal surfaces while wearing
cumbersome biohazard suits.
                                                  For more information contact W. Hug, Photon Systems, Inc. Whug@aol.com
                       Excitation-Emission Matrix Diagrams
                600                                               Tryptophane in water
                         Phenanthrene, a 3-ring PAH

                500

                                                                 “Raman
                400                                              Window”

                300
                                                                                                         Minerals Organics      Water

 Excitation     200
Wavelength
   (nm)         600
                         Adenovirus                              Bacillus subtilis*

                                                                                                        Excitation (nm)        HOH Limit
                500                                                                                     224.3                   242.2 248.6
                            Raliegh                                                                     248.6                   270.8 276.1
                            scattering
                400                         Second Order
                                                                                Raman Water Band
                                            Raliegh scattering
                300

                                                                                                       * Bacillus anthracis analog
                200
                   200      300       400       500     600 200      300     400         500    600
                                                       Emission Wavelength (nm)
Excitation-Emission Matrix Diagrams for a few target and background materials. Excitation (Ex) was from 200 to
600 nm in 5 nm increments. Emission (Em) was recorded between 200 and 600 nm. The smaller PAHs exhibit
significant emission with excitation as low as 260-280 nm. As a result of their aromatic amino acid content both
adenovirus and B. subtilis respond to excitation around 280 nm, but show significantly more activity when excited in
the 200-230 nm range.                                        For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Complexity… or whatever we decide to
call it!
  NGC-3031 and Complexity Transformation

                       Intensity Graph
                         675                                                                                                                        97.859

                         650

                         625
                         600

                         575

                         550                                                                                                                        60.145
                         525
                         500

                         475

                         450
                         425

                         400

                         375

                         350
                         325

                         300

                         275

                         250
                         225

                         200

                         175
                         150

                         125

                         100

                          75
                          50

                          25

                           0
                               0   25   50   75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675

                                                                                                                    Cursor 0   436.50 268.23 0.00
                                                                                                                    Cursor 1   229.50 479.48 0.00




Original Image                                            Complexity Image


                       For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
           Antarctic Rock – Red Zone Complexity


                              Intensity Graph
                                900                                                                                             59.49499


                                850


                                800


                                750
                                                                                                                                38.61436
                                700


                                650


                                600


                                550


                                500


                                450


                                400


                                350


                                300


                                250


                                200


                                150


                                100


                                 50


                                  0
                                      0     100   200   300   400   500   600   700   800   900     1000       1100      1200

                                                                                              Cursor 0   -60.80 -111.350.00
                                                                                              Cursor 1   -110.40-259.390.00




224 nm induced fluorescence                                   Complexity Image


                                  For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
Antarctic Rock – Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy



                                 Intensity Graph
                                   800                                                                                                                                                                               77.86697


                                   750

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     63.82927
                                   700


                                   650                                                                                                                                                                               53.21101


                                   600


                                   550


                                   500


                                   450


                                   400


                                   350


                                   300


                                   250


                                   200


                                   150


                                   100


                                    50


                                     0
                                         0   50    100   150   200   250   300   350   400   450   500   550   600   650   700   750   800   850   900   950   1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450

                                                                                                                                                                                     Cursor 0   436.13 268.61 0.00
                                                                                                                                                                                     Cursor 1   230.11 479.56 0.00




Original ESEM Image                                                                      Complexity Image
(image courtesy of S. Douglas)




                                                  For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
                                Nucleus | Cytoplasm Differentiation in Human Squamous Cell

                                                                                         A human squamous cell exhibits native
                                                                              248 nm     fluorescent activity after illumination at
                                                                                         224.3 and 248.6 nm. The resulting images
                                                                                         were digitally subtracted. Differences in
                                                                                         both fluorescence response and absorption
                                                                                         of deep UV radiation by the nucleic acids
                                                                                         and the aromatic amino acids make possible
                   5 µm                                                                  the rapid distinction of nucleus from
                                                                                         cytoplasm. The digitally combined image
                                                                                         was then transformed according to
                                                                                         information content into an Entropy Image.
                                               224 nm




                                                                      Difference Image


For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov                        Entropy Image
Stromatolites, Complexity, and Scaling:

An example of the need for nanometer
scale data.
                  Stromatolites
        • Conspicuous in marine and
          lacustrine carbonate environs
          between ca. 3.5-0.544 Ga.
                – Easy to see at the outcrop scale
                  (Rover)
        • Traditional Viewpoint:
                – organosedimentary structures
                  built by microorganisms
                – a biosignature!
        • Non-traditional Viewpoint:
                – A product of diffusion limited
                  aggregation
                – NOT a biosignature
For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
or F. Corsetti, forsett@usc.edu
             Stromatolites as Biosignatures?


                                                                              Multi-probe search for
                                                                              quantitative estimates of
                                                                              - Diagenesis
                                                                              - Spatio-temporal shifts
                                                                              -Biotic-Abiotic
                                                                                 Classification by
                                                                                 Complexity Analysis

                                                                              Problem: understanding
                                                                              the etiology of the
                                                                              patterns we are seeing
                                                                              regardless of scale down
                                                                              to the micrometer level.
For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
or F. Corsetti, forsett@usc.edu
           Stromatolites as Biosignatures?




                                                                              ___
                                                                              50 µm




For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
or F. Corsetti, forsett@usc.edu
           Stromatolites as Biosignatures?
                                                                                                      Environmental
                                                                                                      Fluctuations


                                                                              Substrate
                                                                              Exchange
                                                                             | 100s nm | Microbe:
                                                                                          state 1
                                                                         Microbe:                              50-100 nm
                                                                          state 2
                                                                                    Mineral Matrix: state 2
                                                                         Mineral Matrix: state 1

                                                                                                     Shifts in
                                                                                                     - Redox state
                                                                                                     - Mineral Structure


For more information contact M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D. mcsl@jpl.nasa.gov
or F. Corsetti, forsett@usc.edu
                                                                                                                     Observer      The Nano-scale Planet-finder Bottleneck
                                                                                                   (SMARTMOD)              Synthetic
                                                                                               The Climate Model
                                                                                                                                               Atmospheric
                                                                                                                           Spectra             and surface
                                                         The Coupled Climate-Chemistry Model



                                                                                                                     Radiative                 optical
                                                                                                                                               properties
                                                                                                                     Transfer
                                                                                                                      Model
                                                                                                                                                Stellar
                                                                                                                            Radiative           Spectra
                                                                                                        Atmospheric
                                                                                                           Thermal           Fluxes
                                                                                                        Structure and      and Heating
                                                                                                        Composition           Rates
                                                                                                                       Climate
                                                                                                                        Model
                             The Abiotic Planet Model




                                                                                                                                                       Virtual Planetary Laboratory
                                                                                                                             UV Flux and
The Inhabited Planet Model




                                                                                                         Atmospheric
                                                                                                                             Atmospheric
                                                                                                         Composition
                                                                                                                             Temperature
                                                                                                                    Atmospheric
                                                                                                                     Chemistry
                                                                                                                       Model
                                                        Atmospheric Escape,                                                  Atmospheric
                                                        Meteorites, Volcanism,                                                  Thermal
                                                         Weathering products                                                 Structure and
                                                                                                                             Composition


                                                                                                        Exogenic            Geological
                                                                                                         Model               Model

                                                                                                                           Atmospheric
                                                                                                     Biological
                                                                                                                           Thermal Structure
                                                                                                      Effluents
                                                                                                                           and Composition

                                                                                                                   Biology Model
Solution? Nano-scale measurements of extant and residual signatures of
interactions between microbial communities and their geological matrix.
            Summary Recommendations

1. Pursue multidisciplinary work between biology,
   nanotechnology and information science using the NAI
   distributed network as a model.
2. Focus on one day providing missions with a SUITE of
   20-30 instruments available for autonomous selection
   by a remote probe with selection dependent on real time
   analysis of incoming data.
3. Investigate the nano-science and complexity theory
   constraints on building distributed survey networks of
   100’s to 1000’s of nodes.
4. Focus initially on science and technology relevant to
   exploration of extreme environments on this planet, and
   monitoring the health of both this planet and the ISS.
“The search for life in the universe is too important
to be left to adults.”
                M. C. Storrie-Lombardi, M.D., 9.1.99

                        from an idea by A. E. Storrie-Lombardi, 10.1.96

                        “Dad, you’ve got 10 years, then my friends and
                                I will find out if there is life on Mars.”

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:9
posted:3/12/2010
language:English
pages:55