Fedora Linux Core 4 by axu10828

VIEWS: 113 PAGES: 19

									Fedora Linux Core 4
          (46320388)
           (46320511)
              (46321105)
          (46321139)


                   3       . . 2548
1                           Linux                                                                                                                                                                         3
    1.1             Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                      3
    1.2             Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                       4
    1.3          Fedora Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                       6

2                        OS                                                                                                                                                                               8

3                     Hardware                                                                                                                                                                           10
    3.1 CPU . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   10
    3.2 Hard Drive . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   10
    3.3 Memory . . . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   11
    3.4      . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   11

4         RAID                                                                                                                                                                                           12
    4.1             RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   12
    4.2               RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   12
    4.3          Inexpensive     independent ? . . .                                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   12
    4.4           RAID             . . . . . . . . . . . .                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   13

5        File System                                                                                           14
    5.1 ext2      Second extended file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
    5.2 ext3      Third extended file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

6         Memory Management                                                                                                                                                                              16

                                                                                                                                                                                                         18




                                                                                     1
1.1                       Unix       Unix Compatible (        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix) . . . . .     4
1.2 Linus Torvalds,               Linux kernel (      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux) . . . . . . . . .    4
1.3   Richard Matthew Stallman,               GNU (         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux) . . . 5
1.4   Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Professor of Computer Science, Vrije University . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.5   Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red Hat Enterprise Linux) . . . . 6
1.6   Fedora Core 4          GNOME desktop environment (           http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME) 7

2.1 GNOME desktop environment (           http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME) . . . . . . . . . . . .          8
2.2 KDE desktop environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    8

5.1 Ext File System Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

6.1 Logical address in Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16




                                                      2
             1

                                                                   Linux

                             Fedora Linux Core 4                                           Unix        Linux


1.1                          Unix
                     Unix                            Bell Labs (    AT&T)                             Ken
Thompson          Dennis Ritchie 1969                        MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
                    AT&T Bell Labs          GE (General Electric)                 Multics        1960
                              Mainframe Computer   GE 635                                     (Interactive)
                                                                                                                               Bell
Labs                                                                   Ken Thompson                    Dennis Ritchie
   Bell Labs                                  Ken & Dennis
PDP-7                                  Unix                                              Multics                        Unix
Multics                                                                                   (Shell)
     Version 2                           PDP-11/20                 Assembly                                              C(
C                      Bell Labs                               Unix)                                                      Version
6         . . 1976
            . . 1978 Version 7                                                     Unix                              AT&T
                 Bell Labs                                                                    Unix
                             AT&T               Unix                                                System III      1982
1983       System V                                                                                              Unix
    University of California at Berkley        BSD Unix (Berkley Software Distribution)
                            (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency - DARPA)                                           Berkley
              Unix             BSD Version 4                                       DARPA
TCP/IP Version                 Berkley        BSD Version 4.4                            . . 1993
Protocol X.25                Berkley                   Unix                Berkley
                      Sun OS        Solaris         DEC            Ultrix                              OSF/1
         XENIX                        AIX                                                               BSD             System
V                   Unix                                      (Registered Trademark)                                  The Open
Group                                                                      Unix
                     Unix    2

    1.                                 Unix                                                The Open Group
           Digital Unix, SCO Unix, IBM’s Open Edition                  (          1.1)

    2.                       Unix (Unix Compatible, Unix like systems                    Unix Clone)
             Unix                                               Sun Solaris, IBM AIX, Linux                      (      1.1)


                                                          3
          1.1:                      Unix       Unix Compatible (         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix)


1.2                     Linux
                                    . . 1980      Linus Trovalds (     1.2)
(Computer Science)
     . . 1983 Richard Matthew Stallman (          1.3)                   GNU
        Linux                      GNU                                         Unix
                                               . 1990
Thomas Bushnell                        The BSD 44-Lite Kernel
                      . 1991                                                                            Trovalds
                         Minix       0.01                                             POSIX           Linux
   GNU Bash Shell




             1.2: Linus Torvalds,              Linux kernel (        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux)


                                                         4
             1.3: Richard Matthew Stallman,                        GNU (          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux)




                     1.4: Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Professor of Computer Science, Vrije University


              Trovalds                                                            X
                                          Linux                                                     comp.os.minix
                                                  Linux
                            (Minix)                                                                .
(Andrew S. Tannenbaum) (          1.4)




                                                                             2.6.14 (01/11/05)
                                                                    1.0.x,1.2.x
                                                          1.1.x, 1.3.x


                     GNU/Linux                                                           Open Source
                  Open Source                                                                       (
                            )                                                                           Linux       Open
Source                                                                                         Linux
         (                            )                          Linux Distribution
                                  Linux
                                                  Linux                                                                 IBM,
Novell        Sun Microsystems




                                                             5
1.3                     Fedora Linux




              1.5: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red Hat Enterprise Linux)

   Linux Distribution                                                                                 Red Hat Linux (
  1.5)                           Red Hat Inc.                                               Distribution       Red Hat
                                         (                           Downtime           )
Server                                                 Desktop
                                                 Graphic Interface              Windows
                        Download                                          Support
    Package
                       2003                                                  Open Source                             Red Hat
                                Red Hat Linux
               Linux        Linux Distribution         1
                    Linux Distribution                       2
   Red Hat Enterprise Linux                            Fedora Linux                                             Community
Project                              Linux                                      Red Hat
                                     Red Hat Linux                                                             Red Hat Inc.
              Fedora Linux                   Package
              Fedora Linux                                   Red Hat Enterprise Linux
              Red Hat Enterprise Linux                                    Red Hat Advance Server
          3                           3

  1. Advance Server (AS)                           Server                                    Data center

  2. Entry Server (ES)                 Server                               Mail Server, File/Print Server

  3. Workstation (WS)                        Desktop       Workstation

  4. Desktop -

                  Red Hat Enterprise Linux
               Fedora                                       Beta tester        Red Hat Enterprise Linux


   Fedora Core (              1.6)     RPM-based (Red Hat Packages Management - Base)                      Linux distribution
                    Linux                                                                                  Red Hat




                                                                 6
 1.6: Fedora Core 4            GNOME desktop environment (                 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME)


      Fedora Linux         Core

• Fedora Core 1 (FC1,             Cambridge,                                        Yarrow)
               6               2003                      Fedora Legacy            20                 2004
                               Red Hat Linux 9             Automated Updates                                Notebook
             ACPI        cpufreq                                                         AMD64
  2004

• Fedora Core 2 (FC2,                  Tettnang)                                  18           2004
               Fedora Legacy              11             2005                 Linux Kernel 2.6, GNOME
  2.6, KDE 3.2.1,     SELinux                                         XFree86      X.Org Server
                                                                                     dual-booting
  Windows XP

• Fedora Core 3 (FC3,              Heidelberg),
      i386     AMD64                              8                 2004                       GNOME 2.8
  KDE 3.3.0, X.Org Server 6.8.1, Xen virtualizer,          Linux kernel     2.6.9

• Fedora Core 4 (FC4,                  Stentz)                                                (25              2005)
                       i386, AMD64      PowerPC                                     13          2005
  GNOME 2.10          KDE 3.4, GCC 4.0, gcj-compiled                Eclipse IDE          Linux kernel        2.6.11.

• Fedora Core 5 Test 1                                                                           (
                               )                                                                      27
  2006                             Fedora Core 5

    – 21               2005 - Fedora Core 5 Test 1
    – 23            2005 - Fedora Core 5 Test 2
    – 23            2006 - Fedora Core 5 Test 3
    – 27              2006 - Fedora Core 5 Final (                            )




                                                     7
           2

                                                OS

Fedora      Packages           5,000 packages                            GUI installation       Packages


•         File Manager             Nautilus (        Windows Explorer)        Default Window Manager
    Metacity

•          Desktop Environment       GNOME                 (     2.1)




               2.1: GNOME desktop environment (           http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME)




                    2.2: KDE desktop environment (        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KDE)


•          Themes        ClearLooks Theme       GNOME (         2.1)      Bluecurve Theme       KDE (
    2.2)

•                                               OpenOffice.org , K office , GNOME Office
                                                     OpenOffice.org                    Version 2.0


                                                     8
                         Microsoft Office System
               Microsoft Windows


•          Server        (Web Server, Mail Server, DHCP Server, DNS Server, Internet Sharing, Proxy Server,
    File sharing Server       )                                      Lan Card           1
        Lan Card                   Internet     Lan Card              Network                 Fedora Linux
                  IP Address (DHCP Server), Share Internet,        Proxy Server        DNS Cache Server
                     Internet               ,     Firewall                    ,
    Internet      Port                                              Lan Card
           Fedora Linux         IP Address (DHCP Server)        Proxy Server                 *
         Lan Card                             Firewall             Share Internet     Apache Web Server
                                                       Website
        Web page                                                                      Web page
                                              Network Place       Windows         ssh   Unix/Linux
        FTP          Samba Server                      File          Client     Windows
    Fedora Linux                                   File               (    backup)
    Admin                Folder          Share           Fedora Linux                     Web Admin Tools
               Fedora Linux                       File     Operating System (OS)                   Windows
                                     Intranet Mail Server                                      Internet Mail
    Server               Mail Server     Internet                                        Webmin Tools Mail
          Fedora Linux                                 Spam                                Fedora Linux
               Visual Host

•           Backup and Restore                                 Backup                        CD/DVD
                      Restore                                                      Upgrade

•                                                       Unix operating system/Linux


• Programming language C/C++, Java, Perl, Python, Ada, Tck/tk,

•           Embedded systems         Portable device            Linux
                       , Palm

• Graphics Rendering, Realtime, Image Processing and Simulation Linux
               ,

        Daimler Chrysler     Linux                         Image Processing



              Digital Domain                       CGI (Computer Generated Imagery)
             Titanic   Linux         Reder         Titanic                 Graphics Rendering
        Linux

              Square   Render Farm                 900+ CPU        Linux Cluster         Software
        Pixar RenderMan for Linux            render

•




                                                    9
           3

                                              Hardware

3.1     CPU
 CPU 32-bit x86 systems
 •           Pentium        Fedora Core 4        optimized                 CPU Pentium 4
           CPU          (     Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III              AMD        VIA )

 •                          CPU                 text-mode       200 MHz      Pentium

 •                          CPU                 graphical-mode         400 MHz      Pentium II

 CPU 64-bit x86 64 systems
 • CPU AMD64 processors (                   Athlon64        Opteron)

 • Intel processors     Intel Extended Memory 64 Technology                           Intel EM64T

 CPU PowerPC (PPC)
 • PowerPC G3 / POWER4

 • Fedora Core 4              New World  Apple Power Macintosh              1999
              64-bit G5 processor    POWER processors   IBM eServer pSeries                                 32-bit
      IBM RS/6000

       –                          CPU                  text-mode       233 MHz G3

       –                          CPU                  graphical-mode      400 MHz G3


3.2     Hard Drive
 CPU 32-bit x86 systems)
 • Custom Installation (      ): 620MB

 • Server: 1.1GB

 • Personal Desktop: 2.3GB

 • Workstation: 3.0GB

 • Custom Installation (                    ): 6.9GB




                                                       10
 CPU 64-bit x86 64 systems
 • Custom Installation (     ): 900MB

 • Server: 1.5GB

 • Personal Desktop: 2.7GB

 • Workstation: 3.4GB

 • Custom Installation: (                    ) 7.5GB

 CPU PowerPC (PPC)
 •           CPU 64-bit x86 64 system


3.3       Memory
 CPU 32-bit x86 systems
 •                text-mode: 64MB

 •                graphical-mode: 192MB (                for graphical-mode: 256MB)

 CPU 64-bit x86 64 systems
 •                text-mode: 128MB

 •                graphical-mode: 256MB (                for graphical-mode: 512MB)

 CPU PowerPC (PPC)
 •           CPU 64-bit x86 64 systems


3.4
 • Keyboard*, Mouse*

 • Floppy Drive*, Optical Drive*, Monitor*

      *
      Optical Drive                                     Optical Drive             Optical Drive




                                                   11
                4

                    RAID

   RAID               Redundant Array of Independent Disks     Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
                         Hard Drive
     RAID           Hard Drive                      Hard Drive           1     (                  single
logical unit)


4.1                          RAID
   •         1978 Norman Ken Ouchi                IBM                  U.S. Patent 4,092,732             "System
       for recovering data stored in failed memory unit"


   •      1988 RAID level 1 - 5            David A. Patterson, Garth A. Gibson                 Randy H. Katz
                 "A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)"
       SIGMOD Conference 1988      109 - 116


4.2                            RAID
   •                                 (Data Transfer Rates)

   •                                                                         single logical unit
                                                                                        (C,D,E       )




   •                                         Data redundancy/ Fault tolerance


                                                                           Down




4.3                    Inexpensive              independent ?
                         I    RAID                           independent        inexpensive                RAID
                                                                             SCSI    IDE/ATA               Flash
memory                            RAID                                 Independent                         Inex-
pensive                                                                                RAID




                                                       12
4.4                        RAID

                         RAID                  Level                                                          Level
3               Standard RAID levels, Nested RAID Levels, Proprietary RAID levels
                   Standard RAID levels
    Standard RAID levels              Level
    • RAID Level 0                          Striped Disk Array without Fault Tolerance                              performance-
      oriented data mapping                                                          Data Block                      Data Block
                                                              RAID
                     ,                                        parity                                    ,
                                        RAID 0                             RAID
                            (data redundancy)  Hard Drive
              Hard Drive             2 Drive

    • RAID Level 1                          Disk Mirroring                        provides redundancy by writing identical
                                                                                                          RAID
                                                                                  RAID Level 0
            parity                                                ,
      RAID Level 0                                    Drive                                                            Drive
                             Hard Drive                2 Drive

    • RAID Level 4                             Independent Data Disks with Shared Parity Disk
      striping    parity bit                                    Hard Drive        3 Drive     2 Drive
            RAID Level 0                 Drive         parity bit
                                        strip                               strip      parity      bit
                                               parity                                                       strip
      2                         2                                                                RAID Level 0
                                                              parity bit
                                               Drive              parity

    • RAID Level 5                           Independent Data Disk with Distributed Parity Blocks
      striping    parity bit                RAID Level 4                                         2 Drive
            RAID Level 0                Drive         parity bit               Drive               strip     parity
      bit                           Drive               RAID Level 5             Drive 3                 stripping
                  Drive                 1      2              3       parity bit
      stripping                 Drive             2           3               1        parity bit


    • Linear RAID                                       Drive                            linear RAID                  allocated
      sequentially drive (disk) space                         drive
      drive                                                                   drive                                    drive
                                               drive                                                linear RAID
           Drive




                                                                      13
              5

                    File System

          File System (FS)            Fedora Linux Core 4                               Extended file system            ext
file system                                                         Linux
          Minix File system                xiafs        2             ext2       ext3            File System
Fedora Linux                             NILFS, ReiserFS            Reiser4


5.1       ext2                 Second extended file system
   ext2          File System                Linux kernel                            Remy Card               1993
                                                                    Journaling File System *                  Journaling File
System              ext3
   ext2          file system            Red Hat Linux, Fedora Linux Core                Debian Linux

      * Journaling File System (FS)                                              metadata
                                      Journaling FS                                                NTFS   Win-
      dows, XFS      IRIX, EXT3, Reiser4, ReiserFS                     Linux,       HFS+        Mac OS X
                Journaling FS                                                       system failure       crash
                    force reset (                   power ..           shutdown process)
                 100%                                                           Non-Journaling                      (
                         ..           benchmark tool                                                   ),


5.2       ext3                 Third extended file system
                                             ext2         ext3                                         3

  1. Journaling File System

  2. H-tree (hashed tree) directory indexes

  3. Online filesystem resizing

          ext3          file system            Red Hat Linux, Fedora Linux Core, Ubuntu Linux                  Debian Linux




                                                               14
                                          ext2        ext3

•           : Stephen Tweedie (                   ext3                    ), Remy Card (           ext2,              ext3
                     ), Theodore Ts’o (                                             ), Andreas Gruenbacher (xattrs
    ACLs), Andreas Dilger (                       online resizing),

•          : Second extended file system (ext2)                   Third extended file system (ext3)

•                :                    1992 (Linux kernel 0.96c)              ext2                          2001 (    Linux
    kernel 2.4.15)         ext3

•             Directory : inode table (ext2)             H-tree (ext3)

• File allocation : bitmap (free space)              table (metadata)

• Bad blocks : Table

•                                       : 2TB

•                                 :

•                                                         : 32TB

•                             : 255

•                         : Unix permissions, ACLs                 arbitrary security attributes (Linux kernel 2.6       )




                                                 5.1: Ext File System Layout




                                                             15
          6

              Memory Management

          kernel                                                                memory management




                                            6.1: Logical address in Linux


•           Paging

•                                                           (Physical memory)                       (Log-
    ical memory)        page table

•                    (frame management)

•                                 (Process address space)

      – Memory descriptors
      – Memory regions
      – Page faults

•                     Intel x86      segmentation *

• Linux                           segmentation

• Linux      paging


                                                      16
  –       page        4KB             x86 CPU       8KB          Alpha CPU
  –    page table 3                   64-bit addresses space
  –          x86 processors
      ∗     page table 2                  32 bit addresses space
      ∗     Segment + Offset  4 GB Linear address (                 32 bits)            user space        3 GB
             kernel space 1GB
      ∗ paging                        hardware
      ∗            TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffer) **

* Segmentation (                                         )
                                                                                            2
                                              (Offset)
      (Dynamic partitioning)                                 (Internal fragmentation)

** TLB : Translation lookaside buffer (                      )
                           2
                               2                 cach memory
                                   (TLB : Translation Lookaside Buffer)           TLB           TLB hit
             TLB miss                                                          TLB




                                                   17
•                        (NECTEC)
    http://www.nectec.or.th/courseware/program/Unix/0001.html

• Unix (                       )
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix

•                                               (Kaiwal Development Team)
    http://xn--12cu4b7b4dza6l.th/pub/linux.sis/3.1/docs/LTP/02 2intro.html

•           (                       )
    http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/

• Unix      Linux            ?(            )
  http://veer.exteen.com/20050804/Unix-linux

• Fedora Core (                        )
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fedora Core

• Fedora Project, sponsored by Red Hat (Red Hat, Inc.)
  http://fedora.redhat.com/

• Red Hat Enterprise Linux (                        )
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red Hat Enterprise Linux

• Journaling filesystem (                        )
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journaling filesystem

• General overview of the Linux file system (Machtelt Garrels)
  http://www.faqs.org/docs/linux intro/sect 03 01.html

• The Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide RAID (Red Hat, Inc.)
  http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-6.2-Manual/ref-guide/ch-raid.html

• Comparison of file systems (                        )
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison of file systems

• Linux Memory Management (Craig M. Grube)
  http://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/li/cs690Z/Outline/vmm.pdf

• Lecture Overview Linux Memory Management (Dr. Richard Hall, Torsten Fink)
  http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de/lehre/SS01/OS/Lectures/Lecture14.pdf

•                        Journaling filesystem,                       (ithilien rp (   ))
    http://www.cs.su.ac.th/



                                                   18

								
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