1-Nepal Poverty Report by rajkpandey2000


									Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 1 of 30

                 WHO ARE REAL POOR?
            WHY THEY ARE POOR??

  (What is the root cause of poverty and the terrorism? Why terrorists are
  ready for-do or die? How can we overcome them and make the world a
   better place for the young generations? And, many more about world
    poverty, system fault and potential energies among the marginalized
                 classes of people in the backward societies)

             An Independent Essay - Composed by:
          Raj K Pandey (MBS, MA Rural Development)
                                       GPO Box: 19862
                                     Jawalakhel, Lalitpur
                                      Kathmandu, Nepal
                            Mobile: 9841 210094 AND 98510-86884

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 2 of 30

Dear Reader:

This is my great pleasure to inform you that I searched and found our common problems.
Again, I sought and understood the concealed root-causes of our negligence, which is
directing us towards the destructions. It only reinforced the belief that I always held,
among all the worst things to be found, we are easily the first one because today’s our
problems are the outcomes of yesterday’s solutions. When the weakest groups of the
people asked us to listen, we started giving them advice. When they initiated for a
change, we stopped and warned them that they should not act on that way. We trampled
on their feelings, when they wished to work with us. We enforced our vested interests to
solve their problems and we failed them. All we were asked were: we should, at least,
respect them; value them; accept them as human and let them survive with us. But, we
ignored their feelings; killed their emotions; suppressed their voices and excluded their
survival rights, too. Nothing, however, remains the same forever and it eventually brings
ups and downs. Consequently, the suppressed talk loudly; the slept wake-up; the seated
stand-up and run and the weakest become the strongest, when they know that they can do
anything for themselves; they are not helpless; may be discouraged and faltered. Finally,
they break the chains and choose their lives in different way-do or die! And, they convert
themselves into the terrorists and the separatists. These groups of strongly determined
worriers can hardly do good for others, who even do not care for themselves. Now,
imagine, how unsecured we are to live in such a risky world. So, either we must find a
way or make it one to overcome them. Let’s, therefore, wage another effective war,
together, which may be last but the best one. To change others, we first alter ourselves
and use our creative approaches to the problems and the opportunities. For this, we
should learn from our previous mistakes and thoroughly understand-self; as well as, first,
succeed at ourselves. If your goal is superior, be target oriented and never compromise
with your missions and the visions. And, always consider excluded. Listen their voices,
before judging; guide those, who are misdirected; maintain a liberal attitude and give
them values as human. Just accept and respect them; facilitate to their positive actions.
Do not fear with failures, fear only with the possible absence of your willpower to work
with them even in future. Do your constant karma; the consequences are beyond your
direct control. Teach them; love them; laugh with them and live with them. Think from
them; learn from them and get approval from them. Exchange with each-others, what you
have and appreciate theirs, which they made. Slowly, they will also acknowledge you as
their leader. Now, you are actual conqueror, mobilize them for a desired change, at local
level because your missions are to act locally and the visions are to think globally. The
poverty, in this way, may be reduced and the anti-human forces: the global terrorisms can
be alleviated. Congratulations! All the global human beings will get not only relief but
also the release from the uncertainties. We all will, in a real sense, be the true winner but
none the looser! Finally, I am desperately looking forward to hear from you very good
news about the reincarnation of the 2nd Buddha, who will spread the light of peace, not
only in Asia but also all around the world. That sleeping Buddha, may be you or myself
or even someone else to make the world a better place for the young generations.

Yours sincerely,
Raj K Pandey

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 3 of 30

                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

 Cover Letter      Executive Summary: Letter to the Global People………….……...                    02-02
                   Acknowledgment………………………………………………….                                          04-04
 Chapter-1         WHO ARE REAL POOR?
                   Introduction………………………………………………………..                                         05-06
 Chapter-2         WHY THEY ARE POOR??
                   Background………………………………………………………..                                           06-07
                   Problem Identification………………………………………….….                                   08-08
                   Problem Analysis ...……………………………………………….                                     08-09
                   General Short term Impacts……………………………………….                                  09-11
                   Specific Impacts…………………………………………………...                                      11-11
                   General Long term Impacts……………………………………….                                   11-12
                   Possible Solutions ………………………………………………...                                    13-14
                   Pre-requisites for Reforms (what)…………………………………                              14-14
                   System Reforms (how)………………………………………….…                                      15-15
                   Political Reforms…………………………………………………..                                      15-16
                   Educational Reforms………………………………………………                                       16-17
                   Economic Reforms ………………………………………………..                                       17-17
                   Agricultural Reforms……………………………………………...                                    17-18
                   Social Reforms…………………………………………………….                                         18-18
                   Technological Reforms …………………………………………...                                   18-19
                   Cultural Reforms ………………………………………………….                                       19-19
                   Industrial Reforms…………………………………………………                                       19-20
                   Financial Reforms…………………………………………………                                        20-2o
                   Roles and Responsibilities of the Stakeholders (who)…………….                  21-21
                   SWOT Analysis
                   Expected Outcomes
                   Target Beneficiaries
 Chapter-4         CAN FOREIGN AID REDUCE THE POVERTY IN TOTALITY?                             22-24
 Chapter-5         OPENED ‘SECRECY’ ABOUT THE POLITICS IN FOREIGN AID                          25-27




 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 4 of 30


I am heartily grateful with all the poor people of the various disadvantaged minority
communities as well as towards my own poverty, which made me justice lover. I am also
very much indebted with all the known and unknown writers whose writings contributed
to make my mind logical and critical which I think is the only property in my whole life.

My academic limitation, poor English, no regular writing practices, lack of proper
supervision in writing etc. have made this document merely descriptive. If you use your
brain, certainly, you may quickly loose your interest because the mind generally prefers
logics supported by data, facts and researches that I have not included at all. You,
therefore, are humbly requested to use heart and soul, while reading this so that we may
build emotion based rapport, promoted by heart-to-heart and soul-to-soul relationship.
Most of the statements, therefore, are assumption based, which may and/or may not be
realistic in practice. This is an outcome of emotional beliefs. I, probably, may not be in a
position to face the intellectuals’ comments and criticisms. I, however, am prepared to
face another difficult challenge in life so that looking forward for your critical feedbacks!

The purpose of this essay is to obtain scholarship for my higher study and awaking-up to
the global minorities and marginalized communities. Please wake up: this is already too
late; now express your suppressed voices and request your civic rights creatively. It is
natural, until a baby cries, the mother also does not care her. Do not make yourself mute,
blind and dumb. You have everything, which you have emotionally killed. Please
negotiate for your rights constructively and come into the mainstream in joining for the
nation-building mission, which is the first priority and goal of every patriot citizen.

I also would like to kindly request with all the developed individuals, societies and the
nations to consider the problems of the marginalized classes of people, seriously. They
can easily prove themselves as the best development partner for the welfare of the global
societies on the win-win negotiation basis. Please accept and give them value that they
socially need and give it as the first priority in their lives. Moreover, the ruling elite
classes of people are, especially, requested to make themselves more liberal and bring all
the excluded communities into the main national development stream.

If the excluded poor communities join in the nation building plans, we all will also be
more powerful and by the collective efforts of ours, we can easily reduce or alleviate the
poverty. For this, the ruling classes of people should create ample opportunities for poor.
If the excluded classes of people do not find an easy way for their desired destinations,
they may create difficult one that may be more problematic for all the global humanity.

Today, we are facing many problems, which are the outcomes of yesterdays’ solutions. If
we still continue our carelessness over the identified problems, our next generations will
be the main victim. If one cannot contribute any new ideas and creative approaches to the
existing problems and the opportunities, s/he also does not deserve the rights to replace
the existing phenomenon. I, therefore, would like to humbly request to all the readers of
this document to seek timely remedies for the present problems in keeping global peace!

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 5 of 30

                        CHAPTER 1: WHO ARE REAL POOR?


I, being a citizen of the poorest country-Nepal, thought and slept, I am the richest person
in the world! Next morning, I found myself to be the poorest of the poor, when I knew
that s/he is said to be poor who earn less than 1 us dollar, daily! Until a person thinks
himself weak, s/he is the strongest one. No one can make us feel inferior, without our
consent. If we compare ourselves with others we may be the meaningless because we are
what we repeatedly think about us. The international development experts forgot these
humanitarian values and what a narrow definition they have given to us! They classify to
all human beings only in terms of money and totally ignore our emotional, spiritual,
social and cultural values, for which people in backward societies feel most pride. My
mother can never earn even a cent so that in accordance with the expectorates’ definition,
she is useless burden for earth, matter of shame and the poorest lady, but it is grate
pleasure for me that I got a perfect and practical mother like her whose unconditional
love, affection and services to us is incomparable which any dollars can never purchase.

I am very much grateful towards my poverty which made me laborious, dutiful, honest,
confident and the ambitious which is my inner light that I can use anywhere. Poverty only
is the best teacher in my life, which taught me in adjusting on any difficult circumstances.
No doubt, money is important for better livelihood but entire life is not only for money so
that people call it as bad master but the best servant. It is only a means but we are making
as ends. A millionaire may spend sufficient budget for a queen-sized bed but not sound
sleep; books but not sharp brain; food but not appetite; medicines but not health; luxuries
but not cultures; amusement but not happiness and other many more things that money
cannot purchase so that it is only a dry fruit! Poverty, on the other hand, is a relative term.
A richest man in one society may be the poorest one in another. The experts, therefore,
should not absolutely consider all the poor by the same spectacles that they wear; rather it
will be better to analyze its concealed root causes to identify the real needy poor.

Poor are not poor but were made poor; they have got voices but made suppressed; they
have got energy but that is being exploited so that all victimized people are poor and all
the poor are victims of the system fault. Poverty does not come by birth, it is an acquired
situation. The circumstances in the nation are the major factors where people can flourish
or deteriorate. Poor are products of difficult circumstances; the circumstances are the
products of fault systems; the fault systems are the products of wrong men in decision
making; the wrong men in leadership are the products of poor people’s votes; the poor
people made the wrong decision in selecting ‘the best among the worst leaders’ and gave
them consent for ruling over own selves which is the products of low level of awareness
about the civic rights. Low level of awareness is the product of lack of good education
because education makes people easy to lead but difficult to enslave. Mack Karley’s clerk
producing education, under previous colonized developing countries, does not emphasize
in identifying the inner potentiality rather it produces the exact photocopies after going
through tough memorization based courses. The lack of proper education, eventually, is
the result of fault in the existing systems.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 6 of 30

Nature has given people energy and the vitality and only they can succeed who use their
power productively but the failures can never recognize their own hidden capacities due
to ignorance. In my opinion, poor, therefore, are state and system made poor who have no
direct access to the national resources and the opportunities. The standard indicators in
measuring the poverty, however, should be not merely based on money earning capacity
but also various other factors such as indigenous knowledge, heritages, socio-economy,
traditional cultures, customs, languages, potential resources etc. these are the precious
assets, which determine whether the communities are realistically richer or poorer.

                        CHAPTER 2: WHY THEY ARE POOR??


Those countries are poorest, who have not included all casts, creeds, religions, sex and
political thoughts within their systems. They have not only excluded the poor from the
main developmental stream but also loosing chances of own progresses. Discriminations,
human rights violations, disturbances, tensions and misunderstanding are usually in those
societies where all people are not actively participating for a commonly shared goal. The
marginalized group of people, who have maximum potential resources, could be used as
the best nation builders, unfortunately, no one is thinking on this issue seriously.

A country cannot have fruits without its roots i.e. grassroots level communities which are
the strong foundation for development. Poor countries’ systems are incomplete because
they have not included all components into them. The systems are made so narrow so that
certain classes of people only have direct control over them. Without creative approaches
to these problems and the opportunities, we can hardly alleviate the poverty in totality.
For this, the most important requirement is system reform that consists good governance
that means orderly; result oriented mechanism, that means capable in the work and the
scientifically improvement in distribution that means justifiable returns in the action.

A system is a combined functioning of all units and sub-units. All these components are
interdependent and effective interdependence can only be built on a foundation of true
independence. If all people are included into the main stream, a country will get synergy
for its progress. Synergy means that the whole is grater than the sum of its parts. If we put
two pieces of wood together, they will hold much more than the total of weight held by
each separately. 1+1 equals not only 2 but also 11. The essence of synergy is to value
difference-to respect them, to build on strength and to compensate for weaknesses.

Those individuals or societies or countries are happier who have liberal attitudes and the
systems. Diverse societies are more successful where mixed cultures, values, sentiments,
emotions, opinions, ideas and knowledge are heartily adopted. Cultural diversity refers to
non-biological differences between group of people, communities and populations. The
liberal diverse societies can easily welcome all the minority ethnic groups, casts, creeds,
political thoughts and religions. There will be healthy competitions, creative tensions,
willingness to do better than other, open minded for improvements and more importantly,
all will learn and share with each-other.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 7 of 30

Diverse societies are more organized and developed where there are no minorities,
inequalities, social injustices and exploitations. If there is justice, there will be equality in
the societies. Equality means that everyone and everything can find a place in the society
where their specific capacities are usefully engaged. It does not mean that everyone is
supposedly regarded as exactly the same. Systems should be always liberal, people will
be serious; if systems are sociable and kind, their people will be loyal; systems should
promote good and instruct unskilled, people will be enthusiastic. Such positive feelings in
people promote the harmony; for where there is harmony, there is love; if there is love,
there is peace; if there is peace, there is happiness and high possibility for development.

On the basis of my 13 years’ work experience with various disadvantaged communities, I
am very much optimistic about them. They have high potentiality only they need is basic
catalyst. They have so many things except few visionary leaders who can vitally improve
the errors in the existing systems. The leaders are those who protect the people in the
organization. If protection is complete, the organization will be strong. If the protection is
flowed, the organization and its people will be vulnerable. Good leadership is continues
process as the journey of ten thousand miles begins at the first step. It is not only a matter
of having the energy and determination to take a step, it is also crucial to consider the
questions of how, when and where to take an appropriate step.

Moreover, the international development expectorates use certain standards in measuring
the poverty level of a nation. When the poverty-measuring tools such as GDP, GNP etc.
are used in ranking the economic status, they may give us a fallacious conclusion since
they never reflect the overall actual pictures of the marginalized communities. Generally,
these tools and techniques are based on averages, but in reality, the majority of the
resources may have concentrated in the hands of the limited elite classes of people.

These existing tools measure about the production but hardly focus on the distribution
side. The tools never interpret how the goods and services are distributed to the needy
communities at grassroots. As a result, the poverty ranking methodology of a nation is
surface based which focuses in knowing about who earns more or less but it never pays
any attentions in identifying about who consumes more or less. When we start in
analyzing a problem from the wrong and/or negative aspects, it is obvious, we are sure to
get the fallacious conclusions. As a result, the average based GDP indicator may show
high economic progress of a nation, but in reality, its people may be in retreat conditions.

The backward communities, however, are seeking an appropriate tool and platform where
they can use their possibilities and also get the real identity in the main stream. For this,
they need good guidance and advice but we are not only ignoring their potential energies,
feelings, emotions and sentiments but also enforcing our vested interests even though the
needy people dislike it. The development tool designed for a particular society will give
varying results, if implemented it everywhere, but we are using the same tool for all the
backward global communities who ultimately suffer from its negative impacts. Poor,
therefore, are real expert of their own problems than the so-called international experts
since the poor has experience of many ups and downs in life but the expert is limited only
within the certain framework of acquired expertise, who can not think beyond his field!

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 8 of 30

Problem Identification

Donors provide loan or aid to a developing country for the welfare of its real needy
people. However, due to globally adopted pyramid structured: top-down distribution
approach, the development fruits never reach to the grassroots target communities. The
bitter fact in developing countries is that most of the resources and the opportunities are
concentrated in the hands of certain classes of people. Voluminous the aid package, more
the benefits that the elite class of people can get from; more bigger the project, more the
chances in getting the advantages from it. In the name of poverty eradication, more
capable people are making themselves richer but the real needy are in statuesque forever.

Problem Analysis

The government receives loan from a donor for infrastructure development i.e. road and
irrigation facilities construction in a backward society. The poor highly expect from the
development so that they voluntarily contribute their land and laborer for the road and
canal construction. They hope that they will have direct accesses towards the productions,
distributions, markets and the opportunities and consequently, there will be possibilities
for an improvement in their livelihoods.

After completion of the canal, elite families will have more production because they hold
ample pieces of land. The middle classes of people are the next category of beneficiaries
who hold medium size of land. The real needy-targeted grassroots population, however,
hardly can benefit from the so-called developments since they rarely hold any pieces of
land, whereas they are the main factor who actually contributed for these developments.

For maximum production, the elites add labor forces and other necessary inputs. Due to
improved additional efforts, indisputably, production goes on increasing. The elites send
surplus agro products to sell. They either use money for more sophisticated livelihoods or
invest for further businesses or deposit for the future. They also spend huge amount of
money for political power, social respect and the prestige. On the other hand, the poor
still lacks reliable earning sources to cope with the changed situations because s/he has
been selling his blood, sweat and toil at very cheaper prices to the elite classes of people.

During the same period, various multinational companies enter into the newly opened
town and make an interaction with the market forces. The elites deserve the capacities to
persuade the forces because they have strong academic, social, economic and political
backgrounds so that they build a mutual relationship on a win-win negotiation basis. It is
natural that the capable can best survive everywhere! They launch many businesses and
introduce various goods and the services in the doorsteps of the poor. The root concern of
any businesses is to make enough money; it is not their primary responsibility to consider
about the classes and the social justice. For maximum profits, they may adopt any hooks
and crooks as an attractive market promotion strategy and eventually, convert their
consumers into coca-colonized. The most effective weapon in influencing and colonizing
weaker communities and states is through the multinational companies because they have
acid-tested tools, techniques and strategies, which are result oriented in the purpose.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 9 of 30

On the other hand, in order to pay the foreign loan back, government increases revenue
and the tax rate on industries and resource owners. The industries, consequently, increase
the product prices, which have to be bear by all consumers even the poor. The poor lacks
money to pay tax, purchase multinational goods and services and in managing the altered
situations. S/he, however, tries to adjust his unexpected, complex and challenging life by
adopting any possible alternates such as taking loans in higher interest rate, selling
whatever properties belong to him, receiving advance money etc.

As a result, the gap between haves and have nots keeps on increasing and the poor can
never get rid from the vicious circle of poverty. It not only widens the economic gap
between them but also increases the social, political, educational and the emotional
distances. It may be counterproductive for all on that stage, while some get more dinner
than their appetites and others get more appetites than their dinner.

General Short term Impacts

The invisible expenses keep on increasing but the earnings decrease due to replacement
of his works by the newly introduced technologies. S/he cannot pay the cumulative loans,
credits and advances easily back because s/he has seasonal, irregular and cheaper earning
sources. Finally, s/he looses everything like land, properties and places for engagement.
The only worthy assets which poor have is the knowledge, skill and the vital energy even
though, s/he finds no any places to use them for any constructive activities.

Prior to road construction, the poor could work as porter for carrying goods from one
place to another and used his full hours for some manual works. The busy has no time to
think but only to act creatively for the desired change. Due to road, obviously, s/he can
save ample hours but lacks fulltime engagement jobs. S/he therefore either goes to a local
bar for alcohol or gossips with the friends or plays cards or backbites or shares negative
frustrations or positively desires for using the expensive multinational products as their
employers do. S/he forgets that to be an individual means to take responsibility of oneself
not to compare with others. These are the common problems among poor as the idle mind
is the worst ghost; which generally leads towards the hell.

Despite his great efforts to upgrade the living standard, s/he finds no any better solutions
for livelihoods. S/he inwardly fears that s/he may not be able to take responsibilities of
the family members. S/he continues his complex life with depressions, stresses, tensions
and uncertainties. Self-frustrated people are most reactive because they always compare
themselves with others and get more inferiority complexions, which make them sadder.

On the other hand, when poverty enters from the doors, the heavenly love goes out from
the windows. Moreover, immediate dependents like wife and children are weaker groups
for expressing his hostility, depression, negativity and anger. This attitude increases daily
quarrel, which eventually promotes domestic violence within the family members. This
practice not only ruins the couples, but also makes their children’ future darker because
the curious kids learn from parents-dirty words, negative attitudes and the misbehaviors
that make next generations too uncivilized and rude in their whole lives.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 10 of 30

Elites have sufficient means to execute their plans into reality so that comparatively they
are more dynamic and progressive. Poor, however, being means less people, are static,
fatalistic and looser of their plans, which make them more dependent towards the luck
and God. S/he, eventually, gives up his initiations and hopes, lowers down ambitions,
withdraws efforts and does not seek any further alternates for changing his socio-
economical status. They kill their emotions and feel more frustrations inwardly and the
purpose of lives for them is just to survive anyhow and give continuity. Not the physical
power but the emotional power can lead to the people because emotional energy directs
to physical energy. If we have killed our emotions, we can physically never accomplish
any tasks. We will not only loose the physical energy but also interests in the assigned
responsibilities. Finally, emotionally died people neither can make further efforts for their
own capacity building and progress nor they may think about the future of their children.

In fact, they forget that doing nothing does not avoid risk but it heightens it. Their
activeness turns into passiveness and they develop slave mentalities who prefer to work
only after getting command from others. Without waging any wars in life they surrender,
they might have lost the battles but not the wars even though they compromise with the
challenges. And, they accept the circumstances as the matter of God gift, which includes
beliefs and rituals that acknowledge spiritual beings that govern them. Religion often
plays vital role in one’s perception and interpretation of moral and immoral behavior.
They took life as by product of luck/God and it is ultimate truth for them: every thing is
pre-determined, which is the consequence of karma that a person did in his previous life!
The commonly accepted meaning of karma reflects only one side of the coin. It is the
side that does not give us freedom or power or the courage to take charge of our lives.
When people do not get any alternatives to cope with the challenges, the only ultimate
option they find is the God. Finally, s/he makes a conclusion that life is beyond his direct
control, s/he is only an actor and the God is the director!

Desire commands people to run and get what they want. When they do not get what they
want, they are disappointed and when they get what they do not want they are distressed.
People live in their desires rather than in achievement. If they desire something that is not
within their control, disappointment will follow; meanwhile they will be neglecting the
very things, which are within their control that are worthy of desire. In my opinion, they,
now onwards, are the actual poor in real sense because they have lost self-confidence
over themselves. They cannot win over any battlefields, who loose the war within own
self. Moreover, if we totally detached ourselves from the enthusiasms, goals and the
visions we will, surely, have inner peace but will not attempt in giving some meanings to
our lives so that we may roaming around to continue our lives only for survival.

It is bad luck for poor for ignoring what they already have and looking for something
else. Poor believe in luck but in reality they are unlucky. When they are too passive or if
they are too narrow in their preoccupation or ideas, they do miss the opportunities. There
may be possibilities of which they cannot gain themselves, simply because of limited
perspective and unwillingness to reach forward towards new perception of untapped
potential. However, they switch-off their inner light and deactivate inner hidden energies
for any improvements which strongly influence them to be none dynamic creatures!

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 11 of 30

What really frightens static people is not merely the external events but also the way in
which they think about the results and how they interpret them. Moreover, the elites and
the faulty systems are not as what poor wish them to be or what they seem to be but they
are what they are. We cannot change external circumstances but we can at least choose is
how we respond to the reversed circumstances-positively or negatively. When something
happened, the only thing in our power is our attitudes towards them. Nobody should give
consent to be hurt and won’t be hurt-this is a choice over which everybody has control. If
we want to alter our situation, we also, first of all, have to change ourselves otherwise
those who cannot rule over themselves are sure to be ruled by others. For this, we have to
change our perceptions, thoughts, attitudes and the behaviors. People, however, make
their own fortunes and eventually they curse to others for the reversed consequences.

Specific Impacts (please use your own hard disk brain box to analyze these issues)

Social Impacts
Economic Impacts
Educational Impacts
Religious Impacts
Geographical Impacts
Political Impacts
Technological Impacts
Impacts in Population
Impacts in Gender Discriminations
Impacts in Human Rights
Impacts in Environments

General Long term Impacts

Moreover, his positive desires for living similar comfortable life as of elite seem almost
impossible, which unknowingly turn into negative and roots in his subconscious mind.
When it is impossible to materialize the positive desires, they may turn into negatives and
ultimately people behave very reactively towards their own positive desires. The weakest
people cannot easily materialize their desires into reality; consequently, they are inwardly
sadder that makes them more self-aggressive. These types of people comparatively can
hardly do welfare to others who are even not capable for doing well to themselves. Their
regular frustrated thought, emotion and input provide negative information to their mind,
which may turn into reactive attitudes and behaviors in actions as an output in reality. We
have seen wounded lover who wholeheartedly loves his beloved and ready to sacrifice
even his life for her! When the girlfriend ignores his love, the same boy’s positive desire
about his girlfriend changes into negative. Finally, he may harm her so brutally or kill in
uncivilized manner. It clearly indicates that people take their unfulfilled desires as great
opponent and the strong positive (creative) desires about expectations turn into negative
(destructive). It is cumulative effects in our subconscious minds; every habit is preserved
and increased by its corresponding actions. The habit of walking makes us better walker;
regular running makes us better runner. It is the same regarding matter of soul; whenever,
we are angry, we increase our angers; we have increased a habit and added fuel to a fire.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 12 of 30

The poor has already given up the ambition who has no more any specific goals in his life
and being a meaningless, s/he is roaming around without any determined purposes. If we
do not know where and why we are heading for, we may reach to the different places.
S/he, however, has sufficient untapped energies, which neither can be created nor can be
destroyed; it can only be transferred from one form to another! And, ignorance, poverty
and vanity make many soldiers since there are no rules for necessities. Hence, when two
people have similar qualities and problems but not develop or solve to some degree, if
they work as equals, it is possible to raise the level of less-developed partners. The liking
minds become organized and choose a final alternate to change their lives as last attempt-
do or die! Same mob, which has many heads but no brains, acts as an anti-system force
with a trust that one for all and all for one. The mob thinks that it is only an organization
where they can get justice, value, respect and freedom. The mob starts in understanding
the meaning of their organized energies since the duty determines the destiny!

The terrorists, therefore, are the group of organized frustrated individuals, who could not
use their energies in a constructive manner so that they choose the destructive! The faulty
system creates the crimes but the terrorists commit them. When people cannot easily
tackle complicated challenges bigger than their capacities, they choose any means to face
them. Poor, who used to think life as a matter of chance or luck, unconsciously they start
in choosing the life in different way, with the expectation that they will fight another war
in life which will be the last one but the best one-do or die! Evil does not naturally dwell
in the world; it is a by-product of perception, reaction, interpretation and how people
respond to it. Backward societies are the most fertile lands for the terrorists where consist
highly destructive minds because they hardly get any places to use their creativities. The
more they develop the negativity and reactive thoughts, the more destructive they are.

Developed countries will be faultless if they avoid possible harms by a creative manner
and they will also be blameless if they realize danger and forth-coming struggle against
the global terrorism. To overcome the world terrorism, we have to declare a war against
world poverty, negativity, frustration, destructive perceptions and the thoughts among the
people. For this, we have to give them value, respect and utilization of their untapped
energies. We must also win over our own attitudes and make ourselves more liberal so
that we can respect others. Those who know others are wise; those who know themselves
are enlightened. If we know ourselves and others, we will never be engaged in battle but
if we do not know ourselves and others, we will be in danger.

The weapon has never won any wars in totality rather it increases the number of enemies
in a long run. If we abolish a terrorist by using the armed force, it will multiply the
number of foes in a geometrical ratio such as 2,4,8,16,32 etc. If, let us suppose, the
government killed me in a charge, slowly all my family members, relatives, colleagues
and the well wishers will negatively accept the bitter fact and ultimately develop the
negative feelings towards ruling system and some will also act as an anti-system force.
Moreover, what will remain the differences between the government and the terrorist, if
government also choose same destructive way in the name of peace keeping in nation?
Government will be a legal super terrorist, who has rights to use people’s resources, too!

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 13 of 30


 Possible Solutions: (why, when, who, where, but why, why not, if not, if yes, how???)

Love begets love and the haters multiply the haters so that we should use our brainpower,
liberal attitudes and love to overcome to possible global enemies. The terrorists do not
choose the final-do or die alternate without any determined motives because only strong
reasons make the strong actions. If we still ignore them, than no disaster is worse than to
underestimating our opponents. They can easily harm others, who do not love own; they
do not love own, who have no meaning in life; they have no meaning in life, who have no
any goals; they have no any goals, who have repeatedly loose games; they usually loose
the games, who are not action oriented; they are not action oriented, who are frustrated;
they have sadness within, who do not act for change; they do not have desires for change,
who have deep-rooted thoughts that life is predetermined by luck and which is the result
of previous karma; they strongly believe in karma, who hardly get a desired results; they
hardly get desired results, where systems function wrongly and they are the products of
wrong men in authority for making the decisions in others’ lives.

The rules are mainly effective for their makers so that they always insist in continuing
them, which are indirectly beneficial for them. It is, one the other hand, important to
understand the implications of how the beneficiaries of the existing systems react to the
change. When people’s sense of security is based entirely on statuesque and particular
state of affair, then they can hardly avoid the upset when changes take place. This is
exactly like a gambling where nobody wins until somebody looses. Elites does not like to
loose the game at any costs so that they also have a kind of fear within; it is not for an
authority but they affaire to loose it. They, as a result, never allow an opportunity to poor
to learn anything; just make them like a horse in a regular duty. Things, however, cannot
remain the same forever and must eventually alter so that at anytime poor may change.

Someone may have a good without having any means to achieve it; another may have
power to achieve the great things without the direction to guide it. The one who has the
goal but lacks the means may become an idle dreamer; the one who has the power but
lacks direction may become a bull. Only when a person has both capacity to accomplish
the work and a worthy aim to guide it can then be perfect in his action. It is not enough to
have great qualities and energies; we must also have management of them. If we mobilize
unused energies of the poor in constructive activities, it will be highly beneficial for the
entire world communities so that for this issue we should think globally but act locally.

Overall progress in a group or an organization or a society cannot take place through the
single efforts and actions of an elite alone, even if the elite really has super capacity. It is
essential to include less powerful and other talented people/societies, too so that all can
develop through energy of pooled abilities. This can only work if solidarity is express in
understanding and action. All should focus in understanding what is to be done over time
and how it can be accomplished through cooperative efforts of all; inequalities can be
conquered and extreme polarization can be avoided. Solidarity and mutual cooperation
are needed in promoting equality and social justice, which strengthen global partnership.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 14 of 30

Compassion and cooperation lead to future success because the cooperation is nothing we
do to a person but it is something we become with a person. It is by the sympathetic
interaction and sharing of people with different qualities and the characteristics so that
collective development can take place with the great effects.

I, therefore, strongly recommend that all elites should accept others with tolerance, be
positive and farsighted in their endeavors and they can be impartial and balance in action.
The elites, therefore, should go in search of poor, learn from them, plan with them, serve
them, begin with what they have and build with what they know. However, at last, when
the task is accomplished, their work is done, the poor all will remark-we have done it
ourselves, so that success is bastter and the failure is orphan! Let’s give birth to another
bastter by the collective efforts of the entire global people and name it as-‘system reform’

Prerequisites for Reforms (What)

a) Leadership with the nation building visions and certain royal qualities, who is:

       students of worldwide human relations and values;
       open and flexible in dealing in diversity in people;
       comfortable with those from different disciplines, fields, backgrounds and races;
       facilitator of newcomers, strangers, minorities and immigrants to the groups;
       collaborators in joint ventures, consortia or coalitions; and
       planned change agents and futurists.

The perfect leaders with royal qualities characteristically are:

       adopt readily to new and unusual circumstances and lifestyles;
       think beyond local perceptions and transforms stereotypes into positive views;
       prepare for new mind shifts, while eliminating old mindsets;
       re-creates cultural assumptions, norms and practices based on new insights;
       reprogramme their mental maps and constructs;
       welcome and facilitate transitional experiences;
       acquire multicultural competencies and skills;
       creates cultural synergy whenever and wherever feasible;
       operate effectively in multicultural environments; and
       creates optimistic and double scenarios for future.

b) All political parties’ consensus, shared visions and goals among all the stakeholders;
c) Empowered ‘public watch dog’ group and non-politicalized occupational association
d) Decentralized good governance and improvements in the government mechanisms;
e) Implementation of my-‘tow down brain-bottom up resources (tdb-bur)’ approach;
f) Commitments among the politicians and awareness in the grassroots communities;
g) Readiness for change among all the stakeholders and beneficiaries;
h) Favorable and supportive circumstances for dynamic changes and progresses;
i) Mutual cooperation and harmony among the individuals, societies and nations;
j) Promoting weaker individuals and nations by the global developed countries.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 15 of 30

System Reforms (How)

       Regulated democratic ruling system; decentralized good governance; empowered
        occupational and professional associations; transparent civil services system; and
        deadline oriented mechanism with certain standard in measuring qualities in work

       Public forums for complains and sharing the frustrations and problems. Strong,
        autonomous and transparent watch dog group who should have direct link with
        the communities and occupational groups, where intellectuals from various walks
        of lives are represented and will observe government activities and impacts. If the
        government policies and programmes are wrong, the group will go to the public
        so that in next election the opposition will get benefit

       In every fiscal year budget, at least, 1 specially prioritized development sector to
        be declared. Each region should be specialized as pocket area for health,
        education, industry, agriculture, tourism etc. in accordance with the potentiality

       An autonomous public court where advocates and judges should represent from
        the occupational groups, professional association etc. who will transparently work
        as an anti-corruption, anti-commission, protection of human rights etc.

       For policy implementation, introduction of Management by Objective (MBO)
        with bottom-up responsibilities and top-down goal, visions, plans and evaluations.
        evaluation-and again re-planning for the new programs for the desired results

       Recruitment of staff on decentralized basis-the local for the local and competitive
        reservation for some selected minority communities for certain years

Political Reforms

       There must be only 3 national level major political parties, with representation of
        different political thoughts, philosophies, visions and developmental strategies as
        well as policies. All minor local associations should be affiliated with any of these

       These political parties should provide tickets in equal basis to all the casts, creeds,
        religions, professions, occupation and so on during the elections. On the basis of
        tickets, there will be representatives from all communities in the parliament. If
        there is no equal number of elected representatives in parliament, they should be
        elected from competitive reservation to give equal participation to all. There will
        be competition in particular group but based on reservation at the national level.

       Government should be formed from not only active politicians but also from the
        different background: health practitioner, economists, social and religious leaders,
        representatives of the many associations, industry, commerce, tourism, transport,
        development, education and others.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 16 of 30

       If the most dedicated, visionary, committed social and/or political leaders are not
        elected in the poll; they should be nominated in the upper house.

       The largest party, no doubt, will form the government and will act for planning,
        budgeting, policymaking, program designing etc. For this, the second largest party
        being a waiting government will form another support government to work as
        advisor. 51% + 49%-% representatives will participate in win-win government.
        The support government will also continue the nation building plans in the future.

       The third largest party is a real opposition in practice; it will give critical support
        to both the government and actively play the opposition’s roles because it has
        comparatively direct public contacts through members of the watchdog groups.

       Not an area based but the number of population distribution based constituency
        areas, which will represent to all the casts, creeds, minorities and backgrounds.

       Restriction in the election expenses and the government should bear the election
        expenses of all 3 major political parties and none of them are allowed to receive
        donations and supports from others. They must submit their property belonging
        statements to the public associations before and after holding any positions.

Educational Reforms

       10 years compulsory free education, at community owned schools, where national
        and local ethnic languages also be used during teaching.

       After 10 years of education, the students must join national army force for at least
        2 years for higher schooling, practical learning and disciplines. After 10+2 years’
        education completion, the students must leave home for 1 year and work as paid
        volunteer in his community in accordance with the acquired knowledge, skill and
        experience during his10+2 years’ education in school and army forces.

       After 10 years general education, 2 years basic specialization army education plus
        1-year practical work, s/he should enroll for semester-based collage education.
        Only after that, on the basis of his theoretical and practical knowledge, s/he can
        either take part in the civil servant exam or continue for higher studies. The civil
        servant examination should not merely base on GK, IQ, EQ but also must focus
        on specialized knowledge and skills.

       Each community must have 1 community owned school, polytechnic institute for
        skill development, literacy center, health post and local development fund.
        Government should operate education fund aiming for needy students’ higher
        studies where they can borrow but after a job, should pay it back in installment.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 17 of 30

       Literacy classes to be run for 6-12 months. After graduation, the new literate must
        contribute daily 1 hour for 3 new illiterates. CBOs/NGOs should operate such
        classes and act for quality control, monitoring, supervision and evaluation.

       The education should focus on technology transfer, modernization, diversification
        and development. For this, from grade 7, technical subjects to be taught.

       Human Resource Development to be given first priority; strengthening health
        sector in communities; drinking water-easy access, awareness raising at grassroots
        which will also support in reducing the population growth, poverty and illiteracy.

       Provision of social security to old, women, children, weaker and minorities such
        as taking care of old people, free schooling, health and creation of employment
        opportunities to the entire economically active population.

Economic Reforms

       Implementation of the scientific, new and improved distribution system-top down
        brain: bottom-up resources. Planning, policymaking, goal setting, follow-up,
        monitoring and evaluation will be carried on with the active participation of the
        backward communities at higher level so that it is top-down brain (tdb) approach.
        Programme implementation, production, distribution, marketing, management,
        pricing will be at bottom-up level so that it is bottom-up resource (bur) approach.

       Limitation in land holdings and the existing land to be redistributed in accordance
        with the number of family members in every household.

       More the deposits, higher the tax, lesser the interest; more the investment, lesser
        the tax and more the supports. Special program for income generation and
        improvements in people’s livelihood. Poverty reduction and sustainable economic
        growth with the modernization of agriculture and industrial sectors.

       Encouraging global investments by adopting liberal investment policies. And,
        also promoting market oriented liberal economy and maintaining it sustainable.

Agricultural Reforms

       Price determination of the farm products should not be on individual basis but by
        the negotiation between the farmer and businessmen’s associations: to give better
        return, save small farmers and for fixing the justifiable prices in the market.

       Peasant Funds for establishment of community managed cold storages, collection
        centers and cooperatives in supporting needy peasants at local level.

       Priority in polytechnics and vocational education centers, which will focus in
        decentralizing agriculture researches, growth in productivity and modernization.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 18 of 30

       Farm services should reach to the doorsteps of the farmers by an active initiation
        of the NGOs/CBOs, peasant association and the decentralized government.

       Subsidy for improved seeds, pesticides and irrigation. The local government can
        use peasant fund and local development fund to construct the feeder roads. And,
        the local government is fully responsible in mobilizing the local resources.

Social Reforms

       No social discrimination in terms of casts, creeds, religions, political thoughts,
        and ism. For this, strict rules and regulations to be introduced.

       To increase gender balance, not only women empowerment but also promotion of
        income generation activities, literacy and awareness level etc.

       Strict rules and regulations: to control gambling during working hours; against
        social disturbances caused by drunkard, looting, dacoits; for those who charge
        higher interests and provision of standard government rate. And, introduction of
        minimum wage rate for each professional occupation.

       The laws and orders must be creative; it means people should not be imprisoned
        but be used in development activities such as labor, money, skill, knowledge
        contribution and the penalty money be used in local development fund.

       At least one member of every house must engage in any economic activities such
        as cottage industry, farming, jobs, business and others created by the government.

       Women’s clubs at grassroots that will work for empowerment, literacy, income
        generation, skill development, exposures, health, saving, gender; strict rules for
        not using land in production and all should encourage for 4 ideal family concept.

Technological Reforms

       Private and multinational companies to be encouraged for technology transfer and
        government should facilitate by introducing liberal policy.

       Indigenous tools, technology-promoting projects be encouraged and subsidized
        for their expansions/adaptation in the grassroots.

       Education and polytechnics should be based on up to dated changed technology.

       Development, modernization, diversification, community adoption, experiments
        and improvements of the technologies in accordance with the geographical needs.

       The experienced and retired technical experts to be invited as visiting teacher and
        advisor for necessary technical inputs and contributions at certain wages.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 19 of 30

Cultural Reforms

       Culture is sum of beliefs, practices, habits, likes, dislikes, norms, customs, rituals
        etc that we learnt from families and societies. The ethnic associations should have
        cultural protection, language promotion and heritages preservation divisions.

       The associations and the divisions are solely responsible to promote, modify, save
        and exchange their cultures, values, customs, heritages, festivals and languages
        with each other among different communities and members.

       Ethnic groups and divisions should exchange information with each other. They
        can run culture mix-up programmes, education tours, student exchange, exposure
        visits and inter-cultural scholarships for interested members of other communities
        that will strengthen mutual relationships among all the ethnicities.

       The government should identify some most endangered ethnicities, languages and
        cultures. To protect them, some active, visionary and social leaders from the same
        groups to be elected who will be responsible for their own cultural protection.

       Some libraries and the museums should be established; where the same number of
        divisions and/or departments to be created as per needs of the existing ethnic
        groups. The departments will have some sub-divisions such as department for
        music, arts, literatures, languages, cultures, heritages and the dresses. They are
        national, regional and local representative offices of the minority communities
        and directly will work to the grassroots for expansion, promotion and preservation
        of their own cultures, languages, arts, dresses etc.

       Some talented and prospective children should be sought from the nationwide
        who are potential for leadership, sports, music, literatures, arts etc. They should
        be developed as best among the bests at central level from their very childhoods.
        They will take a leading role in developing various national sectors in the future.

Industrial Reforms

       Some potential areas, where infrastructure, manpower, raw materials etc. are well
        developed and available should be declared as pocket areas for specialization.

       The chamber of commerce should negotiate with the foreign investors to attract
        the capital and technology. Each businessman should be given freedom to attract
        investors, loans and business partners from global nations through an investment
        attracting window policy of the government.

       The investors, who bring certain capital, should be honored as development friend
        and provide them maximum facilities and support as honor. Government should
        encourage those industries, which are based on bottom-up distribution, maximum
        use of local resources and implementation of tdb-bur.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 20 of 30

         World’s renowned leaders, investors, businessmen, actors/actresses be requested
          to take some specific responsibilities of any sectors. S/he should be honored as
          development ambassador with diplomatic respect and facility. The government
          may not influence to the prospective investors so that these popular personalities
          will work to promote the world’s attention, capital, technology, tourism etc.

         Those citizens’ properties to be seized, who deposit the money in foreign banks.
          If the foreign investors, however, wish to back their properties to their countries,
          the government should liberally farewell them. And, if the citizen of the country
          wishes to transfer capital to other country, there must be progressive tax for them
          since the government has invested huge resources in those capitals.

         If a citizen continually stays in any foreign countries for more than 20 years
          without contributing anything for her nation, his identification should be invalid
          because s/he contributed all his youth energies, tax and mind for other countries’
          progress but the nation does not need such retired burden bulls for the future!

Financial Reforms

         Interest free loan for establishment of cottage and small industries. At BEP stage,
          no interests should be charged but in following years, as the profit increases, the
          interest rate will also be increased.

         Discouraging unnecessary imports, which are directly harmful for heath, social
          and economic point of view such as liquor, cigarettes, luxuries etc.

         Foreign aid should be chanalised in proper way. Government should deduct only
          25% and remaining 75% should directly go to the purposed programs through
          occupational associations to materialize their plans into reality.

         Creating favorable business environment for foreign investors where they can get
          confidence and guarantee of security for their investments.

Roles and Responsibilities of the Stakeholders (Who)

     Government’s Roles and Responsibilities
     Support Government and Opposition’s Roles and Responsibilities
     Occupational Associations’ Roles and Responsibilities
     Political and Informal Social Leaders’ Roles and Responsibilities
     Civic Society’s Roles and Responsibilities
     Roles and Responsibilities of the Foreign Aid
     INGOs/NGOs/CBOs’ Roles and Responsibilities
     Media’s Roles and Responsibilities
     Individual’s Roles and Responsibilities

    By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
      GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 21 of 30

Roles and Responsibilities of the UN Agencies

     UN should more actively function for the good governance, system reforms and the
      technology (brain, capital and genius manpower) exchange for its member countries.
      It should have an autonomous global watchdog department, which will advice, direct,
      observe, follow-up, monitor and evaluate the political activities, government plans,
      policies and human rights in its member nations. If the government rules, laws and
      orders are not satisfactory it may send a mission team in those countries for designing
      and forming all approved government.

     For this, UN should have a roster of the experienced, successful, prospective and
      visionary global leaders, who will give inputs in accordance with needs of countries.
      It should honor genius global leaders such as presidents, prim ministers, economists,
      advocates, scientists, educationists, businessmen, activists and social and/or informal
      leaders as an Global Ambassador who will have diplomatic status in all its members.
      They will contribute their services to the needy countries for a certain period of time.

     Those general human beings, whose contributions are proved beneficial for the entire
      global humanity, should be honored, as Global Citizen and they will have a status of
      the citizen in all member countries.

     It should form a team of the Global Businessmen and facilitate for a negotiation
      between its member countries and the investors for the capital, technology, brain and
      other resources transfer from one to another needy country.

     For this, UN will inform about situations, potentialities and needs of the nation and
      will support for necessary infrastructure development for welfare of both the parties.

     It should run a Global University; there will be educated, trained and developed
      visionary, prospective, futuristic and potential global leaders, who wish to contribute
      for the welfare of the global nations and their people. (Like me!?).

     UNDP should focus in implementing tdb:bur approach, which is more scientific and
      improved in distribution and for developing poor societies.

     UN can replace autocratic and disgusted government, if the majority of the national
      citizens wish to do so.

     For this, during transitional period, UN can assign some members from the roster,
      who will establish better systems and hand over it for the all approved government. It
      should work as government of its members who will maintain global laws and orders,
      human rights, good governance etc. for maintaining the global peace.

    By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
      GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 22 of 30


Developed countries should give skill of fishing than merely a fish to the reconstructing
countries. Poor countries should work, first of all, on self and take responsibilities for
own progresses. When there is potential but no momentum, it may be that all they can do
at first is to assemble their own resources and try to develop capacities. If they rely on
others before they have consolidated their own strengths they may tend to become
dependent and weak. Foreign aid can never solve the problems in totality; it makes
people more dependent as parasites, lazy and irresponsible. People neither think for
change nor search some alternates to the problems because they are getting solutions
without working. I have not seen any developed countries that progressed by foreign aid.
Every successful person and/or country is so by self-efforts. Until they use their energies,
resources, willpowers and desires for change, external aid merely will not work perfectly.

Most aid recipients in the world are the poorest countries, the more they receive the aid,
the poorer they are. It should be used merely as catalyst and other components should be
mobilized at local level. It has to be properly used as lubricant in activating existing local
resources for a certain period of time. If its inflow is continuing forever, all mechanisms
may be handicapped and dependent and the recipient county can never get rid from them.

Aid should cover people’s desires, emotions, necessities and the values. It should mainly
focus as per the needs of the recipients not due to interests of the donors. The root cause
of poverty is not due to minimum production but it is the impacts of faulty distribution.
The foreign technical experts (we so-called local development workers, too) do not
understand these concealed local reasons but proudly mention that we are serving to the
particular societies for upgrading them. We make our more attractive resumes (as myself
have done!) and expand our own marketability as an expert for other needy communities,
whereas, we have already ruined the previous society in the name of development by
implementing our immature, inexperienced and assumption based theoretical services!

The local poor peasants are the real experts in the context of local circumstances who can
easily forecast about the weather, crop production, necessary inputs etc. by simply
observing the nature-sky! And, accordingly they can plan for required seeds, harvesting,
manpower, storage and management. However, how innocent those unlucky peasants are,
who easily believe us as the development angels and apply our development capsules in
their daily lives and replace their indigenous knowledge and skill. They ultimately suffer
as development victim which is just like teaching father for a sexual intercourse by son?!

On the recommendation of the technical experts, the peasants start using modern seeds,
pesticide, tools and technologies for higher productions. At the initial phases, until the
project is phase-out, the donors subsidize the required expenses to purchase them. The
peasants also replace indigenous farming methods and adopt donor recommended new. In
a long run, the project quits from village and the farmers hardly can afford the expensive
multinational company products: seeds-pesticide. Finally, neither they can re-collect their
indigenous knowledge; methods, skills, seeds and technologies nor they can continue the
expensive farming methods. And, eventually they become development victims forever!

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 23 of 30

Fundamental limitations & problems to implement projects in developing communities

     Lack of infrastructure development
     Donor driven
     Duplications of programmes due to lack of coordination
     Lack of sustainability of programmes
     Maximum technical assistance
     Lack of capital and tools
     Strong influence of traditional management

Project oriented problems

     Selection of wrong project
     Selection of wrong methods
     Lack of disciplines
     Incomplete projects
     Lack of maintenance of the projects
     Approval of projects without needs
     Delays in decision processes
     Lack of institution to sustain the projects
     Wrong tool for monitoring and evaluation
     Misuse and leakages of resources
     Making projects as employment platform
     Making projects as a play ground by the politicians
     Problem of authority delegation
     Feudocratic management
     Lack of professional human resources

System oriented problems

     Interest conflicts
     Cultural constraints
     Unclear policies and objectives
     Weak institutional capacities
     Lack of users participation
     Defective project design
     Consultant related problems
     Procurement delays
     Delays in contract awards
     Lack of coordination and communication
     Delays in budget release
     Lack of counter part funds
     Reimbursement problems
     Lack of transparency and corruptions
     Ignores indigenous knowledge and skills
     Ruins to the socio-cultural values

    By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
      GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 24 of 30

Possible Solutions to Solve the Problems

     Developing good political leadership
     Maximum utilization of the local resources
     Modernization of the management
     Selection of the need based appropriate projects
     Implementation of the appropriate tools and technology
     Strictly maintaining the disciplines
     Maximization of the users participation
     Autonomous in decision making processes
     Selection of the right team leader
     Improvement in monitoring and evaluation
     Simplification of the payment
     Provisions of reward and punishment
     Clear-cut roles and responsibilities of the team members
     Development of certain standards
     Formulation of proper policies and guidelines
     Ensure good project design
     Improve project management system
     Improve financial management
     Streamline procedures
     Strengthening monitoring and evaluation
     Control in corruption and politicization

Prioritized sector for foreign aid

Infrastructure development: Hydropower, solar and wind energy

Transport sector: Road, rail, air and water transport

Rural infrastructure development: Rural electrification, roads and bridges

Tourism sector: Rural, eco and new areas development

Agriculture, irrigation and forestry: Geo-utilization, agricultural marketing, improved
seeds, irrigation and river control, environment

Human resource & social development: Technical education & manpower development,
public health, pure drinking water supply, population management, poverty reduction,
backward community development and employment creation

Good governance: system reforms, corruption control, public awareness, strengthening
public watchdog forums, empowering professional associations and local clubs

Capacity building: building capacities of individuals, associations, clubs, institutions,
NGOs/CBOs and private agencies who are partners for the development activities

    By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
      GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 25 of 30


Developing countries backward people are being made gini-pig for an experiment: The
experiment results, if it is found positive, the world will benefit from it. If it is reverse,
the poor are the only people who will suffer from its negative effects.

Nepal received polio vaccines at free of cost from a developed country at the preliminary
phases for an experiment. Next time, when these vaccines were proved effective, Nepal
government was asked to purchase them; no chance at free of cost! At inception stages,
the company and both the governments were silent because it was win-win negotiation.
But, when the vaccines proved effective, it became win-lose dealing. And, how selfish
they were who easily made poor communities as lab and the government agreed for it.

Charity service organizations also do the give and take business: Dozens of voluntary
organizations are working for poor people in the remote parts of Nepal. Their main goal
is to provide the need based services to the backward societies, but in return, they take
religions, traditional cultures and customs of the marginalized communities. Church and
Missionary funded INGOs and projects are converting poor Hindus and Budhists into the
Christianity. The trust comes voluntarily from corner of the soul and it is an emotional
faith so that no any logics and debates against any believe work properly. But, as we
know, hunger people are easily led so that the poor are ready to sell their heartily trust
with the expectation of getting some returns. They are being converted with the full of
expectation for the better livelihood. I am not against any religions, ethnicity, casts and
creeds because I believe more in humanity. My only opinion is that no one should take
any undue advantages from any people who are in crisis.

Multinational companies are making poor coca-colonized: A sanitation campaign was
launched in a backward society. Slowly, people changed their habits and started to use
soaps. Prior to this, they used to use locally available materials for sanitation purposes. I
am not sure, what might have the impacts among communities, but it was sure, that the
sell of different brands of soaps, produced by multinational company was 10 times higher
than before because the company, as a strategy of its market expansion scheme, funded
the sanitation project for a short period and when poor were fully converted into the
coca-colonized, project was phased out. And, people were compelled to use soap by self!

Poor countries are the best markets for developed countries: A rich country supports us
mainly for infrastructure development i.e. road construction; whereas we have many
other prioritized sectors. One will be surprised to see the most expensive vehicles of that
particular country very common in our country, where as we could purchase cheaper one!

Development aid with an expectation of return in a long run: Few decades ago, we
received cooperation from a friendly country to construct a highway. For this, the local
people choose the shortest, easiest, cheapest and straight corridor. But the donor choose
the most difficult, longer, hilly and the complex areas as the corridor. The same country
is the major supplier of fuel and genuine vehicle parts to our country since long ago! It is
just like donating by one liberal hand and taking it back by another greedy hand!

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 26 of 30

Most needy countries also provide aid to other developing countries: Few decades ago, a
country who was poorer in health sector and where was more need of hospital, supported
us to construct it in our country. For this, we needed more health practitioners and the
allopathic medications. But, at that time, neither we had any institutes or companies in
producing manpower and the medicines. She is the only country, where we could afford
for medical studies. And, even today, approximately more than 90% allopathic medicines
are imported to our health service sector from the same country!

Aid returns to the same country: The highly paid consultants take the major part of aid
towards their own country. These so-called Nepal experts are assigned to our country in
the name of technical aid, who may have some paper based knowledge and information
about Nepal, obtained in some star-hotels’ seminars. But, we can hardly find any experts,
who might have slept, even for a night, in the huts of poor communities. These experts
claim themselves as Nepal’s real pundit but they cannot dare to drink, eat, breath, sleep
and mix-up with the real poor in the targeted areas.

Similarly, we receive many outdated medicines, food crops, clothes, cars and electronic
appliances and make others easy to use our places as dumping sites in the name of aid. I
am, however, not totally against the foreign aid, but it must be need-based. It should be
humanitarian cooperation and not seek any political and economic returns in a long run.

Moreover, it is imbalance to blame only to the donors. We developing countries’ people
and governments are primary responsible parties to ruin our own status. Beggar cannot be
chooser hence backward communities are making themselves slave minded & colonized.

If I am a foreigner kuire (blue eyed), I will be treated as development angel in backward
societies. The first honor, I will receive is as gora sahib, no matter, even if I am a junkie!
Educated intellectuals will respect me as sir even if I may be the worst creature in the
world! They are not ready for any debates and logical discussions with me because they
perceive all khaires (brown skinned) as the most knowledgeable and experts, even if, I
may be an illiterate! Authorities will heartedly honor me and convert themselves into yes
man even if my brain has illness of neurosis and I am totally a mental retarded foreigner!

As a result, (I may) junior level representative of the donors wish to establish direct link
with the prim minister or ministers of the developing countries. Who cares to Secretaries
of the ministries, whereas the donor representatives have direct accesses with the policy
and decision makers! The national policy makers also take this as golden opportunities
for shaking hands with bideshi pahuna (foreigner guests). And, having precious chances
for dine, friendship and establishing informal relationship with gora sahib. Consequently,
in the future, these thulo manchhe (big bosses) can easily request for out-country tours,
trainings, seminars, scholarship opportunities for children, project jobs for relatives and
many other personal favors and benefits. The donor representatives also do fulfill their
special demands and eventually rule over their brains; convert them into slaves and
command: do this; do that; do this way; do that way; otherwise….And, the government
mechanisms become yes men to entire donors, even if they may be completely wrong!
Finally, the entire people also suffer from the paralysis caused by the wrong decisions!

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 27 of 30

Nepal was the world’s 2nd largest rice producing country (First the Burma/Myanmar) up
to 1950. Our neighbor country used to import rice from us but situation is completely
reversed now! During same period, the development indicators of Korea and ours were
same, but now we can easily figure out where we are? Moreover, at that time, people’s
livelihoods were self-sustained but now it is not new to know about the famine problems
in some of the hilly districts of Nepal. Another interesting coincidence is that, doors of
Nepal were opened-up for the foreigners and the foreign aid during 1950! The ridiculous
issue is that, aid was mainly focused for agriculture development but in every following
years, farm products in Nepal are decreasing!

First five-year plan development introduced during 1957 which was mainly concentrated
for poverty alleviation by the support of foreign aid, but number of marginalized people
are dramatically increasing! We can easily reveal from following table that the volume of
aid is higher at the very inception periods, but later on, the loan is multiplying. Moreover,
during cold war, neutral countries highly benefited from the foreign cooperation. Donors
funded various projects and INGOs for developing backward communities, but behind
the curtain, it was back supporting to their political ideologies and persuading to the
needy nations for vested interests!

  Table-1: Nepal’s Development Plans and Foreign Cooperation (in current price)

 5-Years’        Gov. Dev.         Internal                  External Sources                          Foreign
   Plan          Expenses          Sources              Aid       Loan         Total                   Aid in %
First                21.44                 -            38.28*           -       38.28                     178.5
Second               59.68             12.09             43.24        4.35       47.59                       79.7
Third               163.91             71.93             90.52        1.46       91.98                       56.1
Forth               335.68            184.77            119.84       31.07      150.91                       45.0
Fifth               883.26            459.18            262.37     161.71       424.08                       48.0
Sixth              2209.27           1150.57            475.23     583.47      1058.70                       47.9
Seventh            4834.54           1950.59            819.08    2064.87      2883.95                       59.6
Eight             11191.98           4907.81           2093.74    4190.43      6284.17                       56.1
Ninth**           17945.85           7312.93           3924.89    3708.03     10632.92                       59.2
Tenth***          26400.00          12041.00           5743.00    8615.00     14359.00                       54.4
* Included development and other expenses, too. ** Projected. *** Proposed and in the current price of the 2001/2002.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, based on an article written by Dr. BPS, in a Nepali Magazine.

Poor countries, at inception phases, were provided aid; slowly they started to receive the
loans; the loans make weak countries weaker since they never can say no to the donors
because they are suffering from an illness of mental paralysis caused by gratefulness. The
donors perceive weaker’s respects as followers and start indirectly ruling over them. The
donors cannot understand the local problems emerged from local circumstances, cultures
and socio-economical gaps; however, they enforcedly recommend generalized solutions
as ready-made formula of the entire problems for all weaker nations. Basically, the donor
representatives were/are grown-up, educated and trained in developed societies, who
have some bookish knowledge and/or solutions about the backward societies and their
problems. However, they consider global problems through the same old spectacles!

  By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
    GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 28 of 30


Contemporary development in Nepal has been neither socio-politically revolutionary nor
economically progressive because today’s problems are come from yesterday’s solutions.
For this, we have to briefly overview the previous mistakes that were committed by us
and consequently, we are getting the reversed results at this particular moment in Nepal.

Political Mistakes: Our forefathers unified various autonomous and independent states
and/or lands into the greater Nepal. However, they neither ever tried to unify the hearts,
minds, emotions, sentiments and feelings of the state looser people nor they developed
such practices. Probably it is natural; the winner is all in all and acts as per his wishes. He
influences to the circles so that the defeated circles also start in appreciating (I prefer to
call it flattering because it is only lip service to execute to their vested interests) to all the
deeds of the doer.

Certainly, the state looser never flattered to the victory over their states. If someone is
winner, s/he does not require saying how s/he won it, but if s/he is a looser, s/he does not
get any chances to say how s/he loose it. Winner is blind, which makes him arrogant and
never gets an opportunity for learning from the mistakes. The circles also do scare in
pointing out to committed mistakes so that they blindly support to all the actions of the
winner. In the context of Nepal, some classes of people, particularly, Aryans made
themselves flexible and cashed the opportunities by morally supporting to all deeds of the
victory. I think, the same practices deeply rooted in Nepali politics as chakari and highly
boosted in flowing periods. The more they flattered to the winner, the more prestigious
positions the winner offered to them. They eventually got a platform in proving their
capacities and the rulers’ trusts increased over them. As the trusts increased, they were
offered the higher political or administrative positions in the strategically most significant
regions, which were newly unified into the greater Nepal.

People of looser states, who were comparatively rigid in accepting to impose rulings,
were excluded from mainstream of the system. Flexible group of Aryans were appointed
as Jamindar (landlord), governor, administrator for unified states whose responsibilities
were in maintaining law and order; collecting revenues; liaison and coordination with the
local and central administrations and governments.

The Aryans increased in entire administrations and tried to convert to the Tibeto-Burmo
minority communities into Aryan cultures. They mentally, emotionally, culturally and
psychologically colonized to minorities and Sanskritinized their languages, cultures,
customs and traditions. Those who did not accept the Aryans and Sanskritinized cultures
were indirectly treated as second-class citizen within the system and considered as
prospective oppositions. Consequently, the minorities were politically excluded from the
mainstream. As a result, frankly speaking, we Nepalese people, still have faith crisis
among our diverse societies. Moreover, minority group of people still have identity crisis
among Aryans. Some of the excluded minority leaders, no doubt, struggled for their
racial identity, time-to-time, which went in vain.

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 29 of 30

Latter on, there was power struggle particularly, among some Aryans group of people
such as Pandey, Basnet, Thapa, Kunwar and few others who were in authority. Each of
these groups flattered and tried to persuade to the rulers for their vested interests, which
not only promoted confusion but also directed nation towards instable politics. When two
dogs fight for a bone, third one wins over it. Similarly, due to power struggle within
Aryans, Jung Bahadur Rana, originally a fraction of Aryan, established autocratic family
ruling system. The few group of Aryan rule shifted towards narrower Rana family ruling
system. They introduced autocracy and feaudocracy system so that political powers were
only within Rana family members.

In fact, in the front, the rulers were Kshetri, but behind the curtain, the real rulers were
superior Aryans-Bramins. I do not see any vast differences between Bramin and Kshetri
since their language, culture and values are from the Aryan-Sanskrit background that is
supported by Hinduism. However, they have superior feeling and strong class difference
among themselves. Branmins did not act directly in political activities but worked as
advisors, consultants and strategist for Kshetri class of people who were/are in authorities
in directing daily administrations.

However, main weakness of the superior position holders was blind faith in religion.
Being Hindu, Aryan group of people, Sanskritinized their daily administration, Aryanized
cultures and Bramanized system. Moreover, Branmins are major designer, interpreter and
advocators of Hinduisam. The systems, therefore, are directly based on Hinduisam,
which was designed by Bramins and implemented by Kshetris, both are originally from
Aryans. Moreover, during Rana period, not only Tibeto-Burmo minorities but also anti-
Rana Aryans were totally excluded from the system. And, there was maximum trust
crisis even with family members and all external people used to be doubtfully welcomed.

Rana tried to make all, specially, the minorities slave. One example will illustrate the fact
in detail. Rana issued a circular to all the administrations and army forces stating that, a
minority community, originally from Tibeto-Burmo, should not be offered bigger jobs
than pipa as dishwasher within the army forces. To please neighbor country, they used
Nepalese army forces to overcome to the internal army revolution there. Moreover, Nepal
was not directly involved in the world war 1st and 2nd but she actively participated in both
wars in supporting to neighbor. She loosed thousands of innocent minority people, cash
and kinds. The state exported minority communities for greatest battlefields who were
untrained, unexposed and innocent. It is still mysterious treaty among 3 nations about the
transaction of Gorkhas, cheapest blood in the world, ready to kill or die but for nothing!
The illiterate minority youths were sold to the battlefields but it is still unknown at how
much? Who receives money? Where it goes? Another mysterious issue is that why ruling
Aryans (except some Kshetries, who claim themselves as worrier, in accordance with
Hinduism based division of labor) did not participate in both world wars? State inspired
all people in joining to neighbor’s army forces, but why Aryans and Bramins as well as
Newars who are actively participating in existing system did not allow in joining those
army forces? Was it politics to avoid other communities from national stream and
retaining Bahun, Kshetri and Newar into daily administrations and mainstream of the
system? It is matter of different study to reveal the mysterious historical fact for all!

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884
Who are real poor? Why they are poor?? How can we bring them into the main national stream??? : Page 30 of 30

The innocent and illiterate minority youths faced the dangerous battlefields without any
hesitations. They probably, even might never had knowledge about the explosion and its
impacts. However, in overnight, some of Gorkhas won the Victoria Cross medals. It is
perhaps: hero by courage or innocence or chance or mistake or foolish or crisis. If they
were aware about the possible risks of the explosions, they would, certainly, never caught
explosions by hands and threw them to the enemies as counter attacks!

The Gorkhas were proved effective, cheapest and reliable worriers so that sahib thought
for producing exact-yesmen within colonized territory, where from very beginning,
Nepalese people were already settled, since those places once were part of the kingdom
of Nepal. As a result, Gorkha armies were produced within neighbor country, where
many minority communities migrated from Nepal. Also, the minority societies adopted
lahure culture all over rural parts and it is socially respected profession in many minority
communities, yet. This culture has its own pros and cons, which is the matter of different
study. Simply, it excluded minorities from daily administration and political stream.
However, socio-economically it has brought radical impacts in backward communities.

In 1950/51, Rana rule was thrown away and democracy established. But, majority of the
powers were on the hands of same elite people who were from previous background.
Unfortunately, there were 9 governments in 10 years due to non-stable politics!

In 1960/61, democracy was replaced by an autocratic single panchayat system under the
direct leadership and/or kingship. This regulated and closed system was exactly same to
old wine in new bottle! Panchayat introduced uniformities from the diversities to all the
political thoughts, casts, creeds, religions and languages.

This system implemented some populist reforms, which were more counterproductive to
the indigenous and minority community people! In 1965, land reform taken place with
the limitation in holding land. This imposed rule was applicable only to general peasants!
The rule was not applicable at all to the industrialists, ruler cast, kaji (ministers and big
shots who were in authorities), Rana and major landlords who had direct accesses
towards national systems and policies!

In 1990, democracy restored and people highly expected from it. When expectations are
not easily fulfill, frustration increases. Frustrated, unemployed, misdirected, visionless,
and suppressed individuals became organized and converted their negative energies into
the people’s movement in 1995.

Currently, a misguided Nepali is killing to another innocent Nepali and directing nation
towards more complex poverty. What brevity!!! But why??? But for whom??? But up to
when??? And, what will be the impacts in this Buddhaland??? How many years back, we
are pushing to our nation??? Who will be the real winner and who are the looser???

We, all Nepalese, therefore, should accept our previous mistakes, learn from them and
let’s join our hands-in-hands in re-constructing this Buddhaland for the welfare of all…

 By: Raj K Pandey (MBA, MA), e-mail: rajkpandey2000@hotmail.com, rajkpandey2000@yahoo.com,
   GPO Box: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal, Mobile 9841 210094/98510-86884

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