DoD Data Asset Visibility v0

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					         DoD Data Asset Visibility

                     Version 1.0

                    January 26, 2005

          Defense Information Systems Agency
Net-Centric Enterprise Services Program Management Office
v1.0                                                                      NCES Discovery Services White Paper

                                                   Table of Contents

1    Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1
2    Background ................................................................................................................. 2
  2.1      The GIG and DoD Transformational Initiatives ................................................. 2
  2.2      Net-Centric Enterprise Services .......................................................................... 3
     2.2.1      NCES Visibility .......................................................................................... 4
     2.2.2      NCES Goals ................................................................................................ 5
  2.3      Enterprise vs COI Users...................................................................................... 6
     2.3.1      CES for Discovery Users ............................................................................ 6
  2.4      Discovery CES .................................................................................................... 6
  2.5      COI Discovery Services ...................................................................................... 8
3 Initial NCES Discovery Offerings .............................................................................. 8
  3.1      Service Publishing and Discovery ...................................................................... 9
  3.2      Content Discovery ............................................................................................ 11
  3.3      Structural Metadata Registration ...................................................................... 13
  3.4      Person Discovery .............................................................................................. 15
  3.5      Integration with Security Services .................................................................... 16
4 NCES CES for Discovery Implementation............................................................... 16
  4.1      Increment 1 Schedule ........................................................................................ 16
     4.1.1      Service Discovery Capabilities ................................................................. 19
     4.1.2      Content Discovery Capabilities ................................................................ 19
     4.1.3      Metadata Discovery Capabilities .............................................................. 20
     4.1.4      Person Discovery Capabilities .................................................................. 21
5 Recommendations for COIs ...................................................................................... 21
Appendix A. Acronym List................................................................................................. 1
Appendix B. Glossary ......................................................................................................... 1
Appendix C. Core Enterprise Service (CES) Categorization ............................................. 1

                                                     List of Figures

Figure 1. Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) Operational Concept Notional OV-1 . 2
Figure 2. NCES Relationships within the GIG ................................................................... 4
Figure 3. Service Discovery Architecture ......................................................................... 10
Figure 4. Content Discovery ............................................................................................. 12
Figure 5. Metadata Registry Roles.................................................................................... 14
Figure 6. Person Discovery Overview .............................................................................. 15
Figure 7. RBAC Support Process ..................................................................................... 16
Figure 8. NCES Increment 1 Implementation Roadmap .................................................. 17
Figure 9. NCES Increment 1 Development Spirals .......................................................... 18

v1.0        NCES Discovery Services White Paper

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1 Introduction
To achieve transformation goals, the Department of Defense (DOD) Net-Centric Data
Strategy requires that all Information Technology (IT) systems operating within the
Global Information Grid (GIG) be ―advertised‖ to enable their discovery and subsequent
use by the widest possible audience. Facilitating Component plans and implementation
efforts to accomplish this, ASD NII has tasked DISA with the following:

      Task 1: A white paper summarizing functionality and operational concepts for
       DOD Enterprise Discovery capabilities, including selected implementation details
       and guidance on discovery of services, content, metadata, and persons
      Task 2: A set of specifications that describe Enterprise Discovery functions and
       their interfaces sufficient to enable federation with Community of Interest (COI)
       discovery capabilities where practicable
      Task 3: At least one reference implementation for the specifications named in
       Task 2 that exemplifies how COI discovery capabilities can federate with
       Enterprise Discovery.

The overall objective in publishing these materials is to give user communities, planners,
resource sponsors, developers, and system operators enough information to begin making
near-term resource, technical and procedural decisions and taking other steps to move
their activities toward net-centricity.

Responding to Task 1, this White Paper, together with the associated specifications
package (Task 2) and reference implementations (Task 3), is intended to provide readers
with a clear understanding of:

      What the Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) Program is
      Where it fits into the GIG vision and the DOD Net-Centric Data Strategy
      The services it is chartered to provide that will enable Department-wide data asset
      How planners, systems builders, and operators from all the various DOD
       communities can exploit NCES capabilities to enhance the visibility and therefore
       the value of their information products and services

This document focuses on the Core Enterprise Services (CES) for Discovery,
summarizing their key characteristics, how information providers advertise, and how
user-consumers search for DOD information resources. It also depicts near term NCES
Discovery architectures and briefly discusses the initial increment of NCES Enterprise
Discovery capabilities that are detailed in the specifications package and exemplified in a
selection of reference implementations. Near term deployment environments are also
characterized along with a nominal NCES Implementation Roadmap. Finally, this paper
outlines an approach to addressing critical path issues, risk mitigation, and high-level
plans for achieving an initial Enterprise-wide Discovery capability through relatively
modest Community of Interest (COI) investments to connect with Increment 1 products
of the NCES Program.

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2 Background
2.1 The GIG and DoD Transformational Initiatives
The initial phases of Operation Iraqi Freedom clearly demonstrated the overwhelming
combat power that U.S. and Coalition Forces can bring to bear when supported by timely,
precise information and modern collaborative technology. However, current operations
are being executed within complex, uncertain, and rapidly changing urban environments
that defy straightforward warfighting solutions. In the future, these conditions are
expected to be the norm. Experience with the Global War on Terrorism to date has
highlighted the need for substantially improved situation awareness, built-in agility, and
unprecedented responsiveness to address emergent threats and pressing force sustainment
issues. LGEN Lance Smith, CENTCOM Deputy Commander, recently said, ―the strength
of an insurgency lies in its ability to change rapidly. The enemy is very smart. If
something didn't work today, they can change the way they do business tonight.‖ From
the information systems standpoint, this implies a pressing requirement to continually
discover and integrate new sources of threat data and to make large quantities and
varieties of data, the significance of which may be undetermined, immediately visible to
analysts and DOD decision makers worldwide.

To cope with this new operating environment, the DOD has launched a range of
transformational IT initiatives. These initiatives are framed by an overarching concept
called the Global Information Grid (GIG). The GIG is the collective of all of DoD's
personnel who are on-line at any given time, DOD communications and other enterprise
infrastructure, and all warrior, intelligence, and business applications.
GIG initiatives include communications improvement programs aimed at upgrading
DOD networks through order of magnitude bandwidth enhancements and ubiquitous
Internet Protocol (IP). Additionally, a key transformation program called NCES has been
started to leverage, and significantly increase, the value of information systems and the
information that rides on these networks (Figure 1).

       Figure 1. Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) Operational Concept Notional OV-1

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2.2 Net-Centric Enterprise Services
The NCES Program‘s primary goal is to provide a set of Core Enterprise Services (CES)
for the GIG. CES are the common infrastructure needed for Department-wide
information resource sharing and agility, global conferencing or collaboration
capabilities, and transformation of warrior, intelligence, and business applications to a
net-centric platform. The CES support the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that net-
centric applications require, and they perform other commonly required functions
optimally off-loaded to infrastructure. In their initial conceptual work, DOD planners
established nine categories of Core Enterprise Service; viz.: Discovery, Security,
Collaboration, Enterprise Services Management (ESM), Messaging, Mediation,
Applications, Storage, and User Assistant (see Appendix C for further descriptive text).

This paper focuses on one of the service areas required by SOA principals; namely,
Discovery. Enterprise Discovery addresses two vital net-centric functions that every GIG
information user-producer and user-consumer must be able to perform: First, Discovery
services enable users looking for information to initiate search routines that explore the
GIG and return listings of what is available. Second, Discovery services enable the
managers of information resources to ―post‖ their information products or services; i.e.,
advertise them so that they are visible to users from all DOD communities.

As expressed in the DOD Net-Centric Data Strategy, ―advertising‖ means tagging
information resources with metadata that illuminates their identity, nature, and content;
key persons and organizations responsible for them; a variety of associated dates and
product formats; and other information. It also means posting or publishing these
advertisements in globally accessible registries, directories and catalogs. Finally, it means
deploying search engines that can exploit both the advertisements published by
information producers as well as exposed attributes of products that are not explicitly

To better understand where NCES-provided services like Discovery fit in the overall
scope of the GIG, it is important to realize that they are pillars supporting the larger DOD
Enterprise information capability. The totality of DOD information support can be
depicted in a component view that is divided into layers. Each layer in the view provides
definition and separation of business processes and ―ownership.‖ Figure 2 delineates the
relationships among NCES, COI Services, and GIG Enterprise Services (GIG ES).

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                         Figure 2. NCES Relationships within the GIG

The NCES Program and GIG ES have very different scopes. GIG ES is comprised of all
services available across the entire GIG and therefore reflects the information products of
numerous DoD programs. Accordingly, GIG ES envelops the CES developed by NCES
as part of the Enterprise Information Environment (EIE) COI plus all other services
developed for and resident in the GIG, most notably those created and operated by
warrior, business and intelligence COIs. COI capabilities can exploit various CES for
Discovery to boost product or service visibility from community-wide to DOD-wide.
This in turn should increase usage and consequently product value. In the aggregate, the
CES for Discovery will be one of many discovery capabilities deployed throughout the
GIG; however, it is distinguished by being labeled ―Enterprise,‖ by being community
neutral or general purpose in its technical characteristics, by its ―built-in‖ federation
capabilities, and by its being designed to maximize ―openness.‖ This Enterprise
Discovery capability offers publishers the clear option of publishing their product or
service to ―all seats‖ within one or more security enclaves or to restrict publication to
subsets of those seats where access is confined to one or more COIs.

2.2.1      NCES Visibility
NCES will facilitate the Department‘s transformation to Enterprise-wide data asset
visibility. ―You can‘t manage what you can‘t see‖ is true, just as ―You can‘t manage
what you can‘t measure.‖ NCES will provide progressively more robust Discovery
services as the program evolves. Usage rates will rise as information visibility and access
increases. Consumer feedback to all information products is welcomed and will be
rapidly addressed. The result will be an overall product quality improvement. When this
cycle is realized, real transformation has begun.

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2.2.2      NCES Goals
NCES facilitates achievement of the following goals, all of which are dependent upon a
robust and ubiquitous Discovery capability:

       Enable producers to publish information as early as widely as possible—net-
        centricity requires the sharing of information network-wide and across COIs. For
        widespread consumption to be possible, information must be published, made
        network accessible and advertised. Information resources are to be discoverable
        everywhere via a combination of enterprise-level and community-specific
        infrastructure. They are to be made accessible and understandable via separate but
        related processes.

       Exploit information market forces to optimize the GIG—the improved visibility
        of DOD information resources in a net-centric system allows data producers and
        consumers to find each other, self-synchronize, and interact to perform their
        missions. Market forces of supply and demand can be applied to ensure that high-
        quality production is ―incentivized.‖ Net-centric instrumentation provides solid
        market metrics, allowing adjustments for investment to follow value.

       Empower users to pull whatever information they need—net-centric users should
        be able to pull relevant information to complete their mission regardless of the
        source or location of the data. Information security is transformed. Users are
        presumed to potentially ―need‖ any information in the GIG. Producers must
        determine what of their information holding can be published for general
        consumption within large shared spaces at different security levels. Producers
        and consumers of information are linked with robust, highly available
        communications, and visibility services will allow users to find specific
        information they need.

       Enable users to collaborate with whomever they want—a range of user-to-user
        information sharing capabilities will be made available for all edge-users. The
        objective is to optimize synchronous and asynchronous information sharing
        among any edge-users or groups of users to the extent that virtual collaborations
        can be established at a moment‘s notice, participants can be readily added, and
        multi-media materials are available to all. This capability is dependent on mutual
        visibility of persons, organizations and their data assets.

       Improve organizational agility - agility, the capability to immediately detect a
        need for change, and reconfigure resources accordingly, is itself an effect of net-
        centricity. The improvements in organizational agility allow warriors to adapt
        inside the enemy‘s decision loop, and business users to adapt within emergency
        response times. The key technical factor enabling agility is the loose coupling
        associated with SOA and the robust situation awareness (visibility) required to
        detect the need for change.

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       Decentralize or distribute information management—information management in
        a net-centric system is centered on naturally forming or command-designated
        COIs. Users exploit the net-centric capabilities to generate, discover, and
        exchange data. A net-centric infrastructure provided by NCES does not replace,
        but instead enhances the COI capabilities required to address mission needs,
        including information management requirements.

2.3 Enterprise vs COI Users
Users may be humans or machine processes. Most GIG users are both information
providers and information consumers, but there are significant differences in their
business activity focus: (1) some users are in the business of publishing actual content to
or operating service capabilities on the network, (2) some users have the job of operating
and maintaining (evolving) the service-oriented infrastructure itself, and (3) all users
produce and consume information products or services incident to performing the full
range of DoD tasks, including the aforementioned (1) and (2). In the net-centric vision,
every GIG user has, at a minimum, access to CES capabilities or a combination of CES
and COI capabilities sufficient to locate all information resources advertised to the
Enterprise. Many users are additionally equipped with COI-unique capabilities required
to answer a specific community‘s mission requirements and circumstances.

2.3.1      CES for Discovery Users
Users can be further separated into two groups: (1) A group that engages CES for
Discovery Services directly in fulfilling their mission requirements to post and/or find
data assets (Enterprise Discovery Service consumers); and (2) a group that leverages
NCES-provided Discovery Services in the development and operation of COI Discovery
Services or COI-specific applications with discovery capabilities (Discovery Service
developers and operators). Enterprise Discovery Service consumers can reside in any
DOD COI (or authorized users outside of DOD) from the warrior, business, or
intelligence domains. These users will leverage one or more CES for Discovery to
participate in publishing, finding and subscribing to information across the GIG.
Discovery Service developers and operators are GIG users that create value-added
capabilities through chaining. These new, second order services may take advantage of
existing NCES and/or COI Discovery Services to reduce the complexity and
interoperability concerns associated with deploying capabilities on the GIG.

2.4 Discovery CES
In accordance with the DOD Net-Centric Data Strategy, all information in the GIG is to
be made discoverable, available, and understandable. To the extent practicable, the means
of achieving this should be abstracted from the wide variety of platforms and
environments where DOD information now resides. Producers of information (such as
text, files, executable code, still and motion images, video, recorded audio and recorded
video) are required to publish their holdings to consumers as early and as widely as
possible. Consumers, many of whom cannot be anticipated, should then be able to
discover the existence of, have access to, and understand the majority of GIG data assets.

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As provided through NCES engineering, the CES for Discovery is a set of specifications
plus a toolset packaged as services and selected reusable components. These CES will be
deployed on Defense intranets to allow all communities to advertise their information
products or services such that any GIG user has the potential to find them. Pursuing a
federated approach, the CES for Discovery employs several different techniques to
advertise and search for GIG information resources, and it is assumed that most DOD
communities will also implement a variety of ―post‖ and ―find‖ approaches. These are
expected to include exposing information through web pages to facilitate crawling and
indexing, as exemplified by Google and other commercial web search engines, as well as
information resource ―advertising‖ wherein DOD content publishers generate and post or
expose bibliographic metadata in catalogs, registries, and directories.

The federation of registries, directories, and catalogs required to receive, integrate, and
vend discovery metadata must be implemented and maintained at both enterprise and
COI levels. NCES has the task of implementing key portions of the Enterprise level
bibliographic capability. A DOD Discovery Metadata Specification (DDMS)1, managed
by NCES and now available in its first version, is evolving to address the question of
what information should be included in the advertising of information product content.
NCES engineers intend the DDMS to form a basis for global federation of discovery
metadata repositories focused on cataloging content. Similarly, commercial standards
such as the Universal Discovery Description and Integration (UDDI) and the LDAP
(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) will provide a basis for federating other sectors
of Enterprise Discovery.

The foundational NCES Discovery services provide information directly or indirectly to
all DOD‘s policy makers, warriors, business people, and intelligence specialists. The
services are also available for software capabilities via the GIG. This basic, DOD
Enterprise level suite of Discovery Services includes:

       Service Discovery, which involves interacting with registry instances that comply
        with service oriented specifications such as the UDDI specification directory to
        obtain basic information on Web service offerings.
       Content Discovery, which involves GIG crawling and indexing of exposed web
        content as well as interacting with a range of registries, directories, and catalogs
        that, in DOD, should comply with the DoD Discovery Metadata Specification
        (DDMS) to locate and understand the contents of available information resources
        pertaining to user-specified subjects.
       Structural Metadata Discovery, which involves interacting with DOD Metadata
        Registry instances, as well as selected other metadata registries, to obtain
        descriptive information on various resources in various formalisms.
       Person Discovery, which facilitates finding one or more people in organization-
        oriented directory services such as LDAP to obtain basic ―non-privacy-act‖
        identity or contact information about individuals.

 DDMS is also published as "Intelligence Information Sharing Standard for Resource Metadata:
Application Profile for Discovery" (IISSRM:APD) in support of Executive Order (EO) 13356"

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2.5 COI Discovery Services
Specialized capabilities fielded and operated to support Community of Interest missions
frequently include Discovery functions. For example, powerful discovery functionality is
resident in Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) and a wide variety of
other imagery, text and audio file management arrangements. The Net-Centric Data
Strategy calls for NCES to engage (vice supplant) these resources, enabling large
federated search functions with Department-wide reach. COIs are collaborative groups of
users who must exchange information in pursuit of shared goals, interests, missions, or
business processes, and who therefore must have shared definitions, formats and other
common attributes for the information they exchange. NCES and COI discovery services
must meet at well-defined public interfaces that are in effect between COIs and
Enterprise infrastructure. There are two categories of COI Discovery Services: (1) those
designed expressly to span the Enterprise; and (2) those that are limited to a specific COI
or COIs. COI Discovery Services designed to span the Enterprise are built on top of or
federated with the NCES CES for Discovery. Any discovery service capable of
federation may potentially reference down layers or across community boundaries to any
other component (COI and Enterprise Services, GIG communications) directly. However,
NCES CES for Discovery products shall not depend on the presence of a COI-specific
service. This would violate the CES Discovery service requirement for CES to be COI-

3 Initial NCES Discovery Offerings
Beginning in late FY05/early FY06, NCES will provide a set of foundational Discovery
services for exploratory and ultimately operational use by warriors, business users,
intelligence analysts, systems developers and other GIG players. These services, known
as CES for Discovery, are intended to link GIG information producers and consumers
from organizationally and physically remote COIs. However, some COIs may find them
sufficient for intra-community requirements. As described above, near term CES for
Discovery capabilities are meant to facilitate the Enterprise-wide advertising of and
search for information content, services, people, resources, and metadata. The specific
near term NCES service offerings have been loosely categorized as follows: Service
Publishing and Discovery, Federated Search and Remote Catalog Interface, Structural
Metadata Registration, and Person Discovery. Federated Search and the Remote Catalog
Interface are Content Discovery capabilities.

Each of these NCES Discovery capabilities will ultimately have ―advertising‖ or
discovery metadata posting services as well as searching services, and each of the CES
may have multiple interfaces to handle these functions. Additionally, a general-purpose
human user interface to these capabilities is provided via the GES Portal (sometimes
referred to at the Defense Online Portal). These various interfaces should allow COI
developers to access the CES in a manner appropriate to the particular problem(s) they
are trying to solve. The NCES Program is responsible for managing and governing
Enterprise Discovery service interfaces and other technical definitions using open
processes in which COI representatives can participate. This Enterprise capability
interface management and governance regime will include research, design, definition,

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development, testing, deployment, maintenance, and continuous improvement of CES for

This initial suite of NCES Discovery Service offerings arranged by the previously
discussed categories includes the following.

3.1 Service Publishing and Discovery
Net-Centric services are meaningful only if potential users know that they exist and how
to use them. Service Discovery facilitates finding services by providing an Enterprise-
wide virtual meeting place for service producers to advertise their products and for
service consumers to find what they need or might need. In the Net-Centric environment
services can be reused, accelerating creation of new services, improving productivity, and
reducing future development and maintenance costs. In the end, Service Discovery is an
essential facet of getting the right information for the users. The following capabilities are
being provided:

The Service Publishing Service (SPS) – This Web Service provides operations for
publishing, ―un-publishing,‖ and updating service-related entities in the NCES-sponsored
Service Registry or other service registries in the GIG ES Discovery federation. It acts as
a ―one-stop shop‖ for service publishers, bundling processing steps from parsing Web
Service Description Language (WSDL) schema to categorizing services with required

The Service Inquiry Service (SIS) – This service provides simple, yet powerful, search
interfaces for capabilities using simple XML constructs. It shields inquirers from highly
technical service registry terminology and query semantics (e.g., within UDDI: tModel
keys, category bags, bindingTemplates), and in some cases also optimizes search by
combining what would otherwise be several registry queries into a single inquiry.

A Set of User-Oriented Service Discovery Portlets – These portlets are provided to help
COI users or developers who are not familiar with service registry technology perform
build-time service publishing and inquiry tasks.

Figure 3 presents a very high-level illustration of the service discovery architecture, and
reflects the following operational concepts. Service consumers and providers (shown on
the left side of Figure 3) exchange discovery-related information (e.g., service
descriptions) with the Service Discovery CES through open industry standards such as
WSDL and UDDI, as well as through potential DOD-wide information standards such as
the DDMS.

Although the architecture exposes straight UDDI APIs to service publishers and
inquirers, other ―value-added‖ discovery services are defined to provide streamlined
service publishing, business user-friendly inquiries, and advanced features such as DOD-
specific taxonomy management. These component interfaces together constitute a
platform-independent abstraction layer called Service Discovery CES (shown in the
middle section of Figure 3 below). The discovery services leverage existing NCES

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infrastructure (shown on the right side of Figure 3), such as the Metadata Registry and the
Security CES through an integration back plane.

                           Figure 3. Service Discovery Architecture

The discovery architecture provides truly loose coupling among applications that both
enhance agility and overall system stability. As seen in Figure 3, this is reflected in the
―plug and play‖ capability for both discovery consumers and discovery infrastructure
providers: on the left side of the figure, service providers and consumers can easily plug
in to the discovery framework because all interfaces are fully standards based. The right
side of the figure illustrates how developers can swap registry implementations without
affecting the Web services and end users. This is made possible because the discovery
service interfaces (in the middle) remain the same.

The service interfaces defined by this architecture are specifications, not implementations
(See Task 2). The actual implementations may utilize combinations of COTS and GOTS
technologies and may vary in different IT environments, but the NCES-governed
specifications, although evolutionary, will remain relatively stable and interoperable.
Also, several versions may be operated concurrently and potentially federated at selected

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3.2 Content Discovery
Net-Centric products and services are far more valuable to potential users if details of
their specific content can be easily determined. Indeed, advertisers want to expose the
special characteristics of their products in order to boost usage. Content Discovery
facilitates describing information products and services by providing ways to express the
substance of information holdings and publish it Enterprise-wide. The following Content
Discovery capabilities are resident in the initial NCES Core Enterprise Services for
Discovery offering:

A Set of Content Discovery Interface Specifications has been defined for publishing to
and searching the GIG for information. These specifications, Federated Search Web
Service (FSWS) and Remote Catalog Interface Web Service (RCIWS), were created as a
joint effort between DIA, DISA and Horizontal Fusion (HF) portfolio members, and they
have been implemented extensively in HF, Network Centric Capabilities Pilot (NCCP)
and other NCES-related Piloting.

Content Discovery, as implemented by the FSWS, is a powerful next-generation
knowledge discovery framework that permits authorized users and organizations on the
GIG to search a vast array of indexed, non-indexed, structured and unstructured data in a
federated manner (Figure 4). This is designed to isolate the end user from the task of
querying multiple sources and from having to correlate information from those sources.
All data is exposed in a uniform manner, allowing the query to be intelligently routed to
only those data providers that are relevant to a given query. In addition, Federated Search
supports role-based access control (RBAC), allowing or blocking data or providers based
upon the authorization credentials of the user. The user may also customize query
normalization and query routing by defining a search profile. This allows for User biases
and a priori knowledge to be incorporated in the search.

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                                 Figure 4. Content Discovery

A DOD and Intelligence Community capability called Intelligent Federated Index Search
(IFIS) implements a network-centric information querying system that understands the
military's use of short: hand expressions, representations, and acronyms. This language
usage understanding allows IFIS to semantically enhance a query according to its context
and smartly route the enhanced query to its data sources depending on their coverage and
product type. It takes advantage of the large set of data already available in existing DoD
data stores. Much information is often obscured because different organizations give the
same concept different names. Acronyms can further complicate effective querying. IFIS
employs a large set of semantic ontologies to accurately cast terms into a common

The Remote Catalog Interface (previously known as Enterprise Search) form of Content
Discovery provides a standard mechanism for supporting event-driven updates to
discovery metadata held in remote catalogs. This empowers intermittently connected
users and others to update catalogs, and advertise holdings without the investment or
resources required to respond directly to Federated Searches. This also enables the
creation of scalable, enterprise search catalogs for efficient discovery of content
throughout the GIG.

Information resources with existing catalogs, or sources that must filter their results based
on the identity or role of the user, implement the Federated Search specification. Data
sources that lack a catalog, or are intermittently connected to the GIG, utilize the Remote
Catalog Interface specification to update their remotely held metadata in an Enterprise
Catalog. Enterprise Catalog providers implement both the Remote Catalog Interface
specification and the Federated Search specifications. Finally, search engines
(aggregators), may implement the Federated Search specification, allowing them to

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receive queries submitted by other search engines or end-users. The search engines then
optionally refine the query and submit queries to one or more data sources implementing
the Federated Search specification. The aggregators combine the results for the individual
data sources, and return the aggregated results to the end-user.

In addition to the specifications provided in Task 2, the initial NCES Discovery package
includes a number of reference Content Discovery service implementations (See Task 3)
to include Content Staging (CS), a net-centric capability to discover, retrieve, store, and
pull raw, refined, and finished information products. It is operational at combatant
commands, component organizations, and joint task forces, as well as national
information sources. CS encompasses several Discovery services to include: performing
local cataloging, providing federated and enterprise searching, and integrating portal
interfaces for users to access selected content.

3.3 Structural Metadata Registration
To address semantic issues found when federating information from various COIs,
information product and service advertisers need to expose characteristics of the metadata
associated with their products. This goes to the ―understandability‖ objective set forth in
the DOD Net-Centric Data Strategy. By DOD directive, the Department‘s structural
metadata must be published as early as possible in its life cycle, versioned and
maintained for use in both the development and operation of information services. The
following Metadata Discovery capabilities are resident in the initial NCES offering:

The DOD Metadata Registry and Clearinghouse is a structural metadata artifact registry
available today on the GIG. Instances of the registry are operating on NIPRNet, SIPRNet
and JWICS networks. This metadata registry is one of several capabilities essential to
attacking the GIG‘s semantic and syntactic interoperability challenges. By making
standard data representations visible to the Enterprise, it enables human user-builders and
programs to discover how others are representing data (Figure 5). This metadata visibility
in turn fosters the establishment of COIs that share common goals, data requirements,
and representations. At build-time, users-developers can discover how others are
representing data for various business objects and potentially leverage their work. The
DOD Metadata Registry and Clearinghouse can be thought of as a data-design
collaboration tool for the Department‘s developers, architects and business analysts. Data
artifacts such as XML schemas, style sheets, taxonomies and ontologies can be easily
published, discovered, and made available to the enterprise via Metadata registries once
they are published in the registry.

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                              Figure 5. Metadata Registry Roles

A web-based user interface provides discovery capability to support publishing, finding
and accessing artifacts within the DOD Metadata Registry and Clearinghouse.
Specification of relationships among registered artifacts is also possible during metadata
publishing. These relationships are exploited by the user interface to discovery related
data products. This interface supports direct user interaction with the metadata registry
and does not directly support programmatic access mechanisms. On-line help and support
links are provided to support feedback and comments. The user interface is portal-based
and is organized with separate galleries for managing different types of metadata.

The DOD Metadata Registry and Clearinghouse also provides SOAP-based web services
for discovery and access to metadata artifacts within the XML Gallery. Two separate
SOAP services are available. A generic search service oriented toward discovery of
arbitrary metadata artifacts and a service referred to as the query web service for finding
XML style sheets and related schemas typically used for capabilities like translation and
mediation services.

A representational state transfer or REST-based interface is also provided. REST is
described as an architectural style based on http, not as an interface standard and follows
the principals of hyper linking used within the World Wide Web. The DOD Metadata
Registry and Clearinghouse service offering for this interface is very similar to the SOAP
based search interface described above, and it supports the discovery of and access to
registered artifacts from DoD, the Intelligence Community, other U.S. government
activities and allies such as NATO.

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3.4 Person Discovery
Person Discovery, as distinguished from personal information as a form of content,
provides the specific, globally required ability to discover the identity and network
location of individuals as well as selected security attributes. NCES Security solutions
will depend on the existence of Identity attributes for both persons and machines.
Discovery solutions will evolve to enable a federated search of identity data. Existing
and emerging repositories will evolve to provide interfaces to a federated search
capability. Within DoD, much work is needed to define the required identity attributes
and to develop policy to assign responsibility for implementing and maintaining identity
repositories; however, initial Person Discovery offerings are available based on the
following capabilities.

The Global Directory Service (GDS) and Federated Search (see above) have
incorporated an initial Person Discovery CES based on the Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol (LDAP), mainly to provide support for a complete and fully integrated
collaboration capability. The LDAP directory has been extended to allow for integration
with GDS as well as to contain all of the following additional information: expert
attributes, roles, groups, and clearance information. This LDAP directory is initially
loaded with data exported from the GDS directory and subsequently updated via an
automatic process as changes occur in GDS. This Person Discovery Service
implementation insulates all person discovery service consumers from LDAP
connectivity issues and LDAP schema changes. It leverages WS-Security to allow users
access to only the discovery services that they are entitled to use. The current Person
Discovery Specification supports the needs of all HF portal expert visualization portlets,
including Intelligence Community expert registration and expert search.

                            Figure 6. Person Discovery Overview

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Of note, the Person Discovery Service has been used to support three primary functions
in the initial array of Discovery services: expert knowledge sharing, integration with
Content Discovery, and the Role Base Access Control (RBAC)-enabling of applications
and services (Figure 7). The RBAC is important because it illustrates how user roles,
clearances, and citizenship attributes must be maintained within directories so that
applications and services can retrieve this information for the purpose of authorizing
access to data and operations. RBAC is another globally required capability that must be
supported by NCES in some fashion.

                               Figure 7. RBAC Support Process

3.5 Integration with Security Services
Of the CES categories defined to date, the two selected for initial NCES focus are
Discovery and Security; Security because the requirement to protect existing and
developing DOD information resources is immediate and ubiquitous, and Discovery
because effective management of GIG evolutionary directions is impossible without
visibility. Moreover, Security and Discovery work together, emphasizing and
demonstrating the nature of CES interdependence. For example, the foregoing description
of Person Discovery Services explains how LDAP and WS-Security are leveraged to
restrict user access to what is authorized. Initial Security capabilities are also closely tied
to Service Discovery.

4 NCES CES for Discovery Implementation
4.1 Increment 1 Schedule
The NCES Program will be delivered through a series of incremental builds. NCES will
routinely post an evolving schedule of these builds so that user communities, planners,
resource sponsors, developers, and system operators can factor planned CES availability
into their near-term resource, technical and procedural decisions. As currently planned,
the first NCES increment will consist of three spirals, and is outlined in Figure 8.

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                    Figure 8. NCES Increment 1 Implementation Roadmap

This high-level schedule is subject to change as the NCES Program evolves, but
represents the overall intent to develop and deliver new NCES capability in an annual

The NCES Program selected a spiral development methodology for three reasons:

      First: By dividing an NCES Increment into multiple development spirals,
       capability can be delivered more rapidly (i.e., incrementally) than with a
       traditional ―waterfall‖ development methodology (i.e., ―nothing or all at once‖).
       As the notional schedule in Figure 8 shows, NCES Increment 1 is expected to
       take approximately three years to complete. Yet within that time frame, capability
       will be enhanced through three spiral releases that provide new or improved
      Second: Technology, standards, and DOD user requirements are evolving while
       development is proceeding. By using a spiral methodology, the NCES Program
       can accommodate advances in technology, evolution of standards, and changing
       user requirements to avoid delivering a system that is obsolete before it is
       completed. This is important for achieving net-centric transformation goals
       because as the GIG population is enriched, there may be a geometrically
       increasing demand for timelier, higher-quality information presented and
       processed in new ways. This, in turn, will stretch the limits of resource
       programming, current technology, and standards, and will necessitate more
       frequent technology refreshments to stay abreast of demands.

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      Third: The spiral development methodology provides a mechanism for early user
       feedback before components go into full-scale production. The NCES Program
       also includes a series of pilot programs that provide early demonstrations of spiral
       capabilities, which encourages feedback and early testing.

Based on current NCES Program tempo, Milestone B could be achieved by FY05 Quarter
4 or early in FY06. Initial Spiral 1 software capability can formally start development at
this time. Prior to this, the NCES PMO will continue to develop software Evaluation
Capability Modules (ECMs) that will be deployed in a piloting and limited production
environment to an ‗alpha‘ user base that has been identified to help initially evaluate
NCES capability for requirements and service level objective refinement. NCES
Program Milestone C is targeted for FY06, Quarter 4. Upon completion of Milestone C,
the NCES Spiral 1 capability will target a formal production release. It is envisioned that
this initial, full-production release of NCES will occur during FY07, Quarter 1.

Figure 9 shows the expected feature content for each of the three Increment 1 spirals. The
feature content for Increment 1 was determined by analyzing what capabilities are
required from each of the CES areas to support a real-world Strike mission scenario.
Situational Awareness and Global Strike scenarios were tested as part of the Oktoberfest
04 Pilot (NCCP) and helped refine capability for Increment 1. These scenarios were
selected because reducing the time required to identify targets, collaborate to prioritize
and select targets, and then execute the mission is an important, immediate need for
Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Such a scenario also serves
to demonstrate the potential for net-centric warfare concepts while providing valuable
data for Department leaders who are formulating DoD transformation policies and

                       Figure 9. NCES Increment 1 Development Spirals

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The NCES Program uses real-world use cases to drive and prioritize development to
ensure that product capability is focused on problems that are of immediate value to the
warrior. This does not imply that a particular spiral or NCES Increment is optimized or
limited to a specific COI. Indeed, the CES Service areas required to support Strike
mission scenarios are directly applicable to and usable by other COIs. For example, the
Discovery service area in Increment 1 provides fundamental publish/subscribe services
germane to all COIs, not just those involved in Strike missions. The following Discovery
capabilities are projected for delivery in forthcoming NCES Spirals (Note: Detailed
engineering descriptions, interfaces and other specifications provided for Spiral 1
capabilities under separate cover – Task 2).

4.1.1      Service Discovery Capabilities
Spiral 1:
    Enterprise Service Registry: Support for industry standards (UDDI v2+); Service
        Discovery Specification; Security Service Integration; Messaging Integration;
        User-facing portlets for discovery and publishing; Administration portlets for
        registry management
    Port to current version of Linux and current COTS versions; Upgrade standards
        versions, if required; Integrated DDMS Support; COI-Enterprise Deployment
        Architecture; COI-Enterprise service federation

Spiral 2:
    Governance Integration; Service Registry Lifecycle Management; Web
        Component Discovery; Enterprise Service Management Integration; Automatic
        Taxonomy Generation; Enterprise taxonomy management

Spiral 3:
    Support for Multiple Trust Domains; Metadata Registry Integration; Unified
        Discovery Mechanism Support; Adoption of Spontaneous Discovery Standards

4.1.2      Content Discovery Capabilities
Spiral 1
    Federated Search Service – Aggregator that can send search requests to multiple
        sources and aggregate results
    Initial Federated Search Web Service API; Support query federation to Federated
        Search enabled Data Sources; Aggregation/De-duplication of results from remote
        data sources; Initial NCES Security integration; Portlet user interfaces to
        Federated Search API; Initial Administration and Monitoring interfaces
    Standardize/Maintain Federated Search Web Service API; Integration of
        Federated Search Service with NCES Security, Service Discovery, and ESM
        services; Authentication and authorization for Federated Search clients delegated
        to NCES security services; Additional portlet/web user interface development;
    Enterprise Service – Allows disadvantaged users to join Federated Search
        network by registering metadata with Enterprise catalog(s)

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       Initial Remote Catalog Interface Web Service API; Initial metadata publish
        capability; Initial NCES Security Integration; Initial Administration and
        Monitoring interfaces
       Standardize/Maintain Remote Catalog Interface Web Service API; Expose
        Enterprise catalog via Federated Search API; Integration of Remote Catalog
        Interface Service with NCES Security, Service Discovery, and ESM services;
        Authentication and authorization of Remote Catalog Interface clients delegated to
        NCES security services
       Data Source Integration – Increasing breadth of searchable content through
        affirmative action to integrate high payoff information resources
       Expose crawled web content via Federated Search API through integration of
        COTS/GOTS web crawlers (e.g. Google Appliance); Provide Federated Search
        Web Service API to COIs to support migration of COI-specific data sources to
        NCES Federated Search
       Initial GES Portal capability; front end for information retrieval and posting and
        content management

Spiral 2:
    Port Spiral 1 to current version of Linux and current COTS versions
    Federated Search Service improvements to performance, relevancy, and
        scalability by adding intelligence to search query routing based on user, COI,
        ontology, or other parameters to be determined; Enhanced User Interfaces to
        incorporate new features; Continued integration with CES; Maintain Federated
        Search Web Service API; Identify and resolve performance and scalability issues
    Remote Catalog Interface Service performance and scalability issues to be
        identified and resolved
    Integrate Federated Search into Defense Online Portal; Enhanced scalability
    Data Source Integration through evaluation of existing metadata sources/catalogs
        on the GIG to expose new data sources to enterprise-wide use with the Federated
        Search API; Support COI migration to Federated Search through distribution of
        sample applications and Federated Search software development kits (SDKs)

Spiral 3:
    Federated Search and Remote Catalog Interface Service APIs maintained;
        Identify and resolve performance and scalability issues as required
    Additional information resource integration exposing further content via
        Federated Search API through intelligent crawling of databases, LDAP
        directories, and other storage protocols to be determined; Continue to evaluate
        and integrate existing data sources for inclusion in Federated Search network;
        Continue to support COI migration to Federated Search through example and
        SDK improvements

4.1.3      Metadata Discovery Capabilities
Spiral 1

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       Metadata Registry v. 5 (March 2005) capability: Symbology Gallery; Taxonomy
        Gallery; ebXML support
       Web services for search and retrieval of metadata artifacts in multiple formats
       Port to current version of Linux and current COTS versions; Upgrade standards
        versions, if required

Spiral 2:
    Ontology Gallery; Run-time metadata submissions; COI Registrations; Generate
        DDMS metacards for cataloging content stored in Metadata Registry

Spiral 3:
    Federation – distributed queries; ebXML browser plug-in for IDEs; MDR Portal
        plug-in interface

4.1.4      Person Discovery Capabilities
Spiral 1
    Web Service interface to information currently available in GDS: certificate
        information, organizational relationships, and email addresses
    GES Portal: Presence integration

Spiral 2:
    Expand ―white pages‖ information available; significantly expand non-person
        identity discovery information (e.g.; organizations, devices)
    Integration with initial Collaboration services expanding person discovery;
        enhanced scalability

Spiral 3:
    Analyze policy-based privilege management capability; Analyze Federated
        Attribute Discovery
    Enhanced scalability as required

5 Recommendations for COIs
Transitioning the Department from its long emphasis on bounded and relatively tight
systems integration (lately via conventional platform-centric software infrastructures) to a
far more agile and ubiquitous SOA approach is expected to consume the remainder of
this decade. Additionally, it is important to emphasize that the full range of engineering
approaches will co-exist on the GIG. This overall system-centric-to-net-centric
transformation in no way precludes selected communities from continuing to employ
common platform infrastructure and other tight coupling where appropriate.
Implementing the large-scale SOA required to expose most DOD information for general
use must happen in addition to (vice instead of) fielding various highly-tuned special
purpose arrangements, where required. From the standpoint of a given program or
portfolio manager, good first steps to execute the DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy would
include the following.

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Review your Portfolios/Programs/Projects and pick some popular high pay-off pathfinder
programs/systems. For each of these pathfinders determine what products or services they
can offer the Enterprise through current Web capabilities/Web Service implementation
plans, and the enhancements required to take advantage of Enterprise level Discovery
service offerings. Develop an operational approach that covers who will operate what
services, where and how. Determine whether implementations will be centralized at the
National level or distributed among COCOM organizations and below, or a hybrid. Cost
out required equipment, software, personnel billets, operations and maintenance and
program out-year dollars accordingly. Remember to leverage already programmed
dollars, personnel billets and other existing investments. In fact, executing net centricity
for these pathfinder programs should represent a marginal increase over costs previously
anticipated. Planned operational sites, equipment and personnel should provide a
substantial basis for initial service start-up. A number of major programs already have
modest Web Service capabilities. Jump-start piloting and take action to attain early
implementation with current program resources where possible.

Publish your information products or services as early and as widely as possible at the
lowest possible security classification with provisions to expose products within higher
classification enclaves. The widest possible publication regime will be browser
accessible advertisements via CES for Discovery that are open to all users on one or more
DoD intranets. As with any commercial media, the bigger your audience the better off
you are from the standpoint of demonstrable product or service value and therefore
program viability. Advertise your products‘ content and how users can gain physical
access to them. Ensure understandability of your information products through publishing
highly descriptive metadata in the DoD Metadata Registry and elsewhere if appropriate.

Post your information holdings in technical forms that enable widespread consumption;
i.e., forms that can be accommodated within most edge user devices, present and future
versions of Internet Protocol (IP), and common Internet-like bandwidth constraints.
Specialized COI formats and processes tuned to answer unique warrior, intelligence or
business user requirements should continue, but often content can be digested in one way
or another and made available to larger audiences.

In summary, Portfolio managers, PMs, and operators should move immediately to make
their information resources technically visible across DoD via CES for Discovery or a
combination of Enterprise-level and community-specific infrastructure and as easy to
access as possible. Clearly indicate product quality, reliability and limitations.
Information providers should offer Service Level Agreements (SLAs) where appropriate,
and they should actively seek feedback to rapidly improve their offerings. As the GIG‘s
data asset population becomes increasingly rich, providers may pull whatever
information resources are helpful to their effort, regardless of their primary or intended
purpose, to improve product offerings. Hard-wired point-to-point arrangements can be
gradually replaced with SLAs and Enterprise standard service delivery set-ups. New-start
programs may soon be able to choreograph, chain, combine information resources as
required to perform many mission functions. When new products or services are created

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in this manner, they should publish in accordance with the foregoing information
provider guidance. Consumers should feedback gripes or praises to providers ASAP to
guide development going forward.

Nominal starting points for migration of available IT systems to engage CES for
Discovery Services have been characterized as follows:

      Systems that have not yet implemented discovery capabilities
           o Most DoD ―systems of record‖ built in the client-server architecture using
              point-to-point interfaces fit this modality
           o Some DoD ―systems of record‖ may internally have services (Web
              Services, common services) utilized within the confines of the ―System‖
              but do not discover or advertise these services at all, much less beyond the
              confines of their system.
      Systems that have implemented COI-unique discovery capabilities
           o Many web-enabled systems may be service-oriented within their single
              capability, but are only capable of discovering or advertising services
              internal to a particular system or community
      Systems that have implemented COI discovery capabilities that are DDMS –
           o Only a few of these exist, and they are in early stages of development.
      Systems that are engaging selected Enterprise (NCES-provided) Discovery
           o Some systems that have participated in the Net-Centric Capabilities
              Prototype (NCCP), and the Intelligence COI‘s Horizontal Fusion
              demonstrations, have begun moving to the Enterprise/DDMS mandate.
      IT Programs/systems intending to federate with Enterprise Discovery capabilities.

Technical guidance, specifications and reference implementations to move from these
starting points toward net-centric operations are provided via a CES Discovery Services
Web Page within the GES Portal ( Enterprise Services
for Discovery/Shared Documents/VisibilityMatrix_v0.2.html). NCES-related piloting and
experimentation to date suggests that, regardless of starting point, the costs associated
with initial, high payoff steps toward Enterprise-wide visibility for a nominal program‘s
information products and services will be a small percentage of currently programmed

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Appendix A. Acronym List
C&A          Certification and Accreditation
CDD          Capabilities Development Document
CES          Core Enterprise Service
CIO          Chief Information Officer
COI          Community Of Interest
CONUS        Continental United States
COOP         Continuity of Operations
COTS         Commercial off-the-shelf
CPU          Central Processing Unit
CS           Content Staging

DAA          Designated Approving Authority
DDMS         DoD Discovery Metadata Specification
DECC         Defense Engineering Computing Center
DISA         Defense Information Systems Agency
DoD          Department of Defense

ECM          Evaluation Capability Module
EIE          Enterprise Information Environnent
EIEMA        EIE Mission Area
ESM          Enterprise Service Management

FSWS         Federated Search Web Service

GDS          Global Directory Service
GIG          Global Information Grid
GIG ES       Global Information Grid Enterprise Service

HF           Horizontal Fusion

IA           Information Assurance
IFIS         Intelligent Federated Index Search
IISSRM:APD   Intelligence Information Sharing Standard for Resource Metadata:
             Application Profile for Discovery
IOT&E        Initial Operational Test & Evaluation
IP           Internet Protocol
IT           Information Technology

JTRS         Joint Tactical Radio System

LDAP         Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

MAIS         Major Automated Information System

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MOU       Memorandum of Understanding

NCCP      Net-Centric Capability Pilot
NCES      Net-Centric Enterprise Service

O&M       Operations & Maintenance
OCONUS    Outside of the Continental United States

PDA       Personal Data Assistants
PDF       Portable Document Format
PMO       Program Management Office

QoS       Quality of Service

RBAC      Role-based Access Control
RCIWS     Remote Catalog InterfaceWeb Service
RDBMS     Relational Database Management System
RFI       Request for Information

SDK       Software Development Kit
SIPRNet   Secret Internet Protocol Router Network
SIS       Service Inquiry Service
SLA       Service Level Agreements
SOA       Service-Oriented Architecture
SOAP      Simple Object Access Protocol
SPS       Service Publishing Service
SRR       Software Readiness Reviews

T&I       Test & Integration

UDDI      Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
URL       Uniform Resource Locator

WAN       Wide Area Network
WSDL      Web Service Description Language

XML       eXtensible Markup Language

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Appendix B. Glossary
Core Enterprise Services (CES)—the subset of GIG Enterprise Services that is
minimally necessary to provide an Enterprise Information Environment (EIE)
infrastructure to maximize the global publication, reuse and interoperability of services,
and to facilitate sharing and interoperability of data within DoD's heterogeneous,
distributed network environment. The NCES Program is one example of a program that
is providing core services for the EIE.

Communities of Interest (COI)—collaboration groups of users, who must exchange
information in pursuit of their shared goals, interests, missions, or business processes, and
who, therefore must have shared vocabulary for the information they exchange.

Global Information Grid (GIG)—a globally interconnected, end-to-end set of
information capabilities, associated processes, and personnel for collecting, processing,
storing, disseminating, and managing information on demand to warfighters, policy
makers, and support personnel.

GIG Enterprise Services—all services on the GIG are considered GIG Enterprise
Services. An example of a GIG Enterprise Service can be a service that returns weather
data by location or a multi-intelligence sensor fusion service that provides correlated red
force position information. In the past, GIG Enterprise Services have been referred to as
COI Services.

Net-Centric—exploitation of advancing technology that moves from an application
centric to a data-centric paradigm—that is, providing users the ability to access
applications and services through Web services—an information environment comprised
of interoperable computing and communication components.

Net-Centricity—an information superiority-enabled concept of operations that generates
increased combat power by networking sensors, decision-makers, and shooters to achieve
shared awareness, increased speed of command, higher tempo of operations, greater
lethality, increased survivability, and a degree of self-synchronization. In essence, (net-
centricity) translates information superiority into combat power by effectively linking
knowledgeable entities in the battlespace.

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)—an SOA is a design style for creating shared,
reusable, distributed services. Services interact in such a way as to enable one entity to
perform a unit of work on behalf of another. There are three key design principles or best
practices for building SOAs:

      Loose coupling;
      Capture the largest segment of business process that is usable by other business
       processes as a service; and
      Standards based service infrastructures.

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SOAs differ from traditional distributed object computing environments that tightly
couple services to various platforms and/or each other. This loose coupling is achieved
through service definitions that are abstract from the services‘ internal platform
implementation. The service definition uses selected metadata that describes the
message/document schemas and flow patterns that characterize the services‘ external

In an SOA, the distinction between services and applications is blurred. For
completeness, a definition of an application is provided below:

       Application—a particular technology, system, product, service, or a combination
       thereof, to perform a specific function and deliver it to the GIG user. An
       application may be created by combining or threading services to deliver a
       specific function. Note that applications may also expose internal functionality or
       data through services.

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Appendix C. Core Enterprise Service (CES) Categorization
The following core enterprise service areas have been identified to characterize NCES
capability offerings. This selection is assumed to be an approximation, in no respect a
complete and final listing of CES, and these categories do not represent individual
―boxes‖ or, for that matter, individual services. It is expected that each category will
cover multiple services and that the array of services will be interdependent so that, for
example, IA/Security has a dependency on one or more ―People Discovery‖ capabilities.

Services that enable the formulation and execution of processes to advertise (make
visible) and locate data assets (e.g., files, databases, services, directories, web pages,
streams) by exploiting metadata descriptions stored in and or generated by IT repositories
(e.g., directories, registries, catalogs, repositories, other shared metadata storage) and
other exposed product or service attributes.

Services that enable the life cycle management of the information environment and
support the performance of NetOps activities necessary to operationally manage
information flows in the GIG.

Services that support synchronous and asynchronous information exchange. Selected
capabilities to exchange information among users or applications on the enterprise

Services that enable transformation processing (translation, aggregation, integration),
situational awareness support (correlation and fusion), negotiation (brokering, trading,
and auctioning services) and publishing.

Services that allow users to work together and jointly use selected capabilities on the
network (i.e., chat, online meetings, work group software etc.)

User Assistant
Automated capabilities that learn and apply user preferences and patterns to assist users
to efficiently and effectively utilize GIG resources in the performance of tasks.

The set of services that provide a layer of Defense-in-Depth to enable the protection,
defense, integrity, and continuity of the information environment and the information it
stores, processes, maintains, uses, shares, disseminates, disposes, displays, or transmits.

Services necessary to provide on-demand posting, storage and retrieval of data.

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Services necessary to provision, host, operate and manage the GIG ES assured computing


Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma MS
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