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					                           LAC 2000




                          Draft Proposals for a
    Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages
      (English, French, German, Italian, Korean, Russian, Spanish)




                          TEMPUS 13533-98

                              Sofia, 2000




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages     1
A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of
Modern Foreign Languages

Table of Contents

1. Framework Curriculum: Level                                   page 3
2. Framework Curriculum: Structure and Content                   page 4
3. Hypertext Planning Environment                                page 10
4. Draft 1 of a Linguistic Component Proposal                    page 11




1. Framework Curriculum: Level
The framework curriculum targets the independent language user (B1/B2) as
defined in the Common European Framework (CEF) and the European
Language Portfolio (ELP). At this target level, the learner

 Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar
  matters, rgularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.

 Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area
  where the language is spoken.

 Can produce simple connected text on topics, which are familiar or of
  personal interest.

 Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and
  briefly give reasons and expectations for opinions and plans.

The framework curriculum is designed for university undergraduate
students. The age group concerned extends from 18 to 22 years.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages               2
2. Framework Curriculum: Structure and
Content
The framework curriculum is organised on the basis of a programme of
study (Part 1) and a specification of attainment targets (Part 2). Part 1 sets
out what students should be taught and Part 2 defines the expected standard
of students’ performance.

Part 1 – Programme of Study

This part of the curriculum consists of two sections (learning and using the
target language and areas of experience) which should be taught together.

 Learning and using the target language

This section of Part 1 covers the skills and understanding, which should be
developed through activities in the target language (the language being
studied).

 Areas of experience

This section of Part 1 lists the broad topic areas, which should be explored
through the target language. This section provides contexts for learning and
using the target language.

The areas of experience are the personal domain, the public domain, the
educational domain and the occupational domain.

Part 2 – Attainment Targets

This part of the framework curriculum sets out the expected standard of
students’ performance. It describes the type and range of performance that
students should characteristically demonstrate.

The four attainment targets are presented in a specific order. It is related to
the statement of the framework curriculum level (cf. supra) and indicates the
priority of the receptive over the productive language skills established.


A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                 3
Students should be given opportunities to take part in activities in the target
language that, where appropriate, combine two or more language skills.


 Attainment target 1 - Reading and responding

 Attainment target 2 - Listening and responding

 Attainment target 3 - Speaking and interacting

 Attainment target 4 - Writing




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                  4
Part 1 – Programme of Study

1.1. Learning and using the target language

This section is subdivided into three further sections which, nevertheless, are
interrelated.

1.1.1. Communicating in the target language – communicative competence
(linguistic component, socio-linguistic component and pragmatic
component) and use of language for real purposes (communicating in direct
contact or by telephone, electronic mail, letters, etc.).

1.1.2. Language skills – reception, production, interaction and mediation in
oral or written form or both.

Language accuracy: Students can generally correct slips and mistakes if they
become conscious of them or if the yhave led to misunderstandings.
Students can use reasonably accurately a repertoire of frequently used
‘routines’ and patterns that the have learnt to associate with more predictable
situations.

Discourse coherence: Students can use a number of cohesive devices to link
sentences into a clear, connected discourse.

1.1.3. Cultural awareness – knowing how to discover ‘otherness’ working
with authentic materials, including newspapers, magazines, books, films,
radio, television from the countries of the target language, communicating
with native speakers, using the Internet and knowing poems, songs, jokes,
sayings, etc.



1.2. Areas of experience

This section too is subdivided into several further sections.

1.2.1. Personal domain – everyday activities, including the language of the
classroom, home life and school, food, health and fitness, and personal and
social life, including self, family and personal relationships, pets and



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages               5
domestic animals, free time and social activities, penfriends, hobbies,
holidays and special occasions (personal, local, national, religious, etc.)

1.2.2. Public domain – the world around us, including home, town and local
area, the natural and made environment, people, places, customs, and the
international world, including tourism at home and abroad, life in other
countries and communities, world events and issues, etc.

1.2.3. Educational domain – the world of school and university, including
education and training, school and university subjects and disciplines,
sciences and arts, careers and employment.

1.2.4. Occupational domain – the world of work, including professional
opportunities and communication in the workplace.



Part 2 – Attainment Targets

2.1. Attainment target 1 – Reading and responding

Students show understanding of a variety of types of written material taken
from a range of sources, such as newspapers, books, the Internet. When
reading for personal interest and for information, they consult a range of
reference sources as appropriate. They cope with unfamiliar topics involving
more complex language and recognise attitudes and emotions.

2.2. Attainment target 2 – Listening and responding

Students show understanding of a variety of types of spoken material taken
from a range of sources (including a range of regional and national accents)
such as news items, interviews, documentaries, films and plays. When
listening, they draw inferences, recognise attitudes and emotions.

2.3. Attainment target 3 – Speaking and interacting

Students present descriptions on a range of subjects related to their fields of
interests. They narrate a story or relate the plot of a book or film and
describe their reactions.



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                  6
As they progress through their studies, students will increasingly show
confidence in dealing with unpredictable elements in conversations and with
people whose accent may be unfamiliar. They discuss facts, ideas and
experiences using a range of vocabulary and structures.

2.4 Attainment target 4 – Writing

As they progress through their studies, students will increasingly show
confidence in expressing ideas, opinions or personal points of view and in
seeking the views of others. They develop the content of what they have
read, seen or heard. They write letters highlighting the personal significance
of events and experiences. They produce sequences in which spelling and
grammar are generally accurate, logical progress and paragraphing are
acceptable, and style is appropriate to the context. They increasingly use
reference materials to extend their range of language and improve accuracy.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages             7
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Attainment targets ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


                                                                          Personal
                                                                          domain

                            Pragmati
                            c
                            compone
                            nt



                                                                                Receptio
                                                                                n
                                 Educatio              Linguisti
                                 nal                   c
                                 domain                compone
     Socioling
                                                       nt
     uistic
     compone
     nt



                                                                                Productio
                                            Empty                               n
                                            because
                                            model is
                                            open



                                                                      Public
                                                                      domain
                   Interactio
                   n




                      Occupati                                 Mediatio
                      onal                                     n
                      domain



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Attainment targets ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Figure 1: The HTPE model, including the nodes and links of communicative language
competence, language activities, domains, etc.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                            8
3. Hypertext Planning Environment
The framework curriculum is organised on the basis of the Hypertext
Planning Environment (HTPE). HTPE is a non-linear and non-sequential
network model in which each element is related to all other elements. HTPE
consists of nodes and links. A node stores information (linguistic,
experiential, etc.) and a link represents semantic relations between nodes.
The structure and content of the HTPE, which includes all curriculum
components, is shown in Figure 1.

Curriculum planners and users are advised to construct the programmes of
study and areas of experience (Part 1 of the framework curriculum) to suit
their particular educational environments, on the basis of the HTPE, and to
apply them in the pedagogical process for achieving the attainment target
(Part 2 of the framework curriculum).

Teachers may interpret, develop or supplement the HTPE in conjunction
with the students. Students should be given opportunities to take part in
activities in the target language that, where appropriate, combine two or
more language skills. Teachers should consider the best interests of students
when planning their coverage of the HTPE to ensure that all students are
suitably challenged.

HTPE promotes the development of self-aware, self-reliant and responsible
citizens. It advocates diversity of cultures, languages and ways of life and
raises awareness of and tolerance to ‘otherness’.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages               9
4. Draft 1 of a Linguistic Component
Proposal


Target Language



English                                                         page 13

French                                                          page 22

German                                                          page 27

Italian                                                         page 33

Korean                                                          page 36

Russian                                                         page 37

Spanish                                                         page 41




The following specification of language functions and their exponents for, in
alphabetical order, English, French, German, Italian, Korean, Russian and
Spanish is based on the Project Documents and the FLT tradition in this
country. It defines the linguistic component of the curriculum with regard to
language functions. This subject area is structured into a number of broad
categories, e.g. imparting and seeking factual information, expressing and
finding attitudes and emotions, deciding on a course of action, socialising,
structuring discourse, communication repair.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages          10
The linguistic component is also constituted by the grammatical, lexical and
pronunciation aspects of the target language. It has been developed for
English. The grammatical, lexical and pronunciation inventories, presented
as exponents of the language functions specified, are not intended to be
exhaustive; they only represent the proficiency level defined. Their structure
includes:

 Grammar – sentence patterns, syntax, morphology, stylistic problems,
  punctuation;
 Vocabulary – general and specific lexis, lexical phrase discourse
  organisers;
 Pronunciation – basic model, performance target, speech sounds,
  intonation and stress.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages            11
English

The following specification of language functions and their exponents is based on the
Project Documents and the ELT tradition in this country. It defines the linguistic
component in 4 subject areas: language functions, grammar, vocabulary and
pronunciation. The inventories are not intended to be exhaustive; they are only
representative of the communicative competence level defined.

Language Functions

This subject area is structured into 6 broad categories: imparting and seeking factual
information, expressing and finding attitudes and emotions, deciding on a course of
action, socialising, structuring discourse, communication repair.

Imparting and Seeking Factual Information
Identifying (defining)
Reporting (describing and narrating)
Correcting
Asking and answering for confirmation or for information

Expressing and Finding Attitudes and Emotions
Factual
Expressing agreement and disagreement
Enquiring about agreement and disagreement statement
Denying something
Stating whether one knows or does not know a person, thing, fact or action
Enquiring whether one remembers or has forgotten a person, thing, fact or action
Expressing degrees of probability or certainty
Expressing/denying necessity, obligation, inability to do something
Enquiring about ability/inability to do something
Expressing/enquiring whether something is or is not permitted or permissible
Granting and withholding permission
Volitional
Expressing/enquiring about wants/desires
Expressing/enquiring about intentions
Expressing/enquiring about preference
Emotional
Expressing/enquiring about pleasure/happiness or displeasure/unhappiness
Expressing/enquiring about liking/disliking
Expressing/enquiring about satisfaction/dissatisfaction
Expressing/enquiring about interest/lack of interest
Expressing surprise/lack of surprise
Expressing love, hope, fear, worrying, disappointment
Expressing humour
Expressing gratitude
Reacting to an expression of gratitude


A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                         12
Moral
Offering and accepting an apology
Expressing/enquiring about moral obligation
Expressing/enquiring about approval/disapproval
Expressing regret, sympathy, indifference

Deciding on a Course of Action
Suggesting a course of action (involving both speaker and addressee)
Agreeing to a suggestion
Requesting someone to do something
Advising someone to do something
Warning others to do something or to refrain from doing something
Instructing or directing someone to do something
Inviting someone to do something
Requesting/offering assistance
Accepting/declining an offer or invitation
Enquiring whether an offer or invitation is accepted or declined

Socialising
Attracting attention
Greeting people (formal or informal)
Replying to greetings
Addressing a friend or a stranger
Introducing someone to someone else (formal or informal)
Reacting to being introduced (formal or informal)
Congratulating someone
Taking leave

Structuring Discourse
Opening (formal or informal)
Hesitating, e.g. looking for words, for forgotten name
Correcting oneself
Introducing a theme
Changing a theme
Enumerating
Exemplifying
Emphasising
Expressing an opinion
Summarising
Showing that one is following a person’s words
Indicating a wish/encouraging someone to continue
Interrupting
Asking someone to be silent
Indicating that one is coming to an end
Closing
Giving over the floor



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages       13
Telephoning:
Opening (on answering a call or when initiating a call)
Asking for a person
Asking someone to wait
Asking whether you are heard/understood
Giving signals that you are hearing/understanding
Letter-writing:
Opening (if the name is known or unknown)
Closing

Communication Repair
Signalling non-understanding
Asking for repetition of a sentence/word/phrase
Asking for confirmation of understanding
Asking for clarification
Asking someone to spell something
Asking for something to be written down
Expressing ignorance of a word/phrase
Appealing for assistance
Asking someone to speak more slowly
Paraphrasing
Repeating what one has said (simply repeating as spoken or ‘he/she said that’ + indirect
speech form)
Spelling out/supplying a word or phrase

Grammar

The learner should be familiar with and be able to use the following aspects of grammar
of oral and written English. The grammatical inventory is not exhaustive; it is only
representative of the communicative competence level defined.

Sentence patterns in English
Subject
Verb
Complement
Modifier
Word-order (basic and derived patterns)
The noun phrase
Count and non-count nouns
Determiners
Nouns – number, case, gender (pronominalisation of animate nouns –
he/she/who/somebody, pronominalisation of inanimate nouns – it/which/something)
Plural expressions in compound adjectives (a ten-pound note)
Nouns – word-formation (derivation, conversion)
Compound nouns (photocopy, letter-box, coffee cup)
The verb phrase



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                       14
Tenses and aspects
Narrative tenses (past simple, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect continuous,
future-in-the-past)
Future forms (will, going to, present continuous, present simple, future continuous, future
perfect)
Phrasal verbs
Adjective + preposition
Noun + preposition
Verb + preposition
Subject-verb agreement
Modal auxiliary verbs (will, must, should, may, might, could, would, can, need, etc.)
Conditional sentences
Type 1 (based on fact in real time)
Type 2 (unreal conditions in the present or the future)
Type 3 (unreal conditions in the past)
Verb patterns in reported speech
Verb + object + infinitive
Verb + that + clause
Verb + -ing
Verb + infinitive
Relative clauses
Defining/non-defining clauses
Optional relative clause reduction
Passive voice
Present subjunctive (‘she insisted that she help him’)
Past subjunctive (‘I wish she were here now’)
Adjectives and adverbs
Common stylistic problems
Sequence of tenses
Say/tell
Antecedents of pronouns
The pronouns ‘one’ and ‘you’
Participles as adjectives
Redundancy
Parallel structures
Transformation of direct and indirect objects
Adverbial modifiers at the beginning of the sentence
Punctuation
Commas
Direct speech
Apostrophes
Semicolon
Colon
Brackets
Hyphen




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                        15
Vocabulary

The vocabulary component is to be determined on the basis of the content specification of
the communicative competence level defined. The concrete learning environments should
offer alternative exponents of the language functions. Therefore, this document does not
include a specific vocabulary inventory. For a model word-list, the user of the curriculum
is referred to the Threshold Level 1990 document of the Council of Europe.

The learner should be familiar with and be able to use specific lexical phrase discourse
organisers:

   Global Discourse Organisers

Topic Markers
To begin with,
Let me start with...
The first thing is...
Let us first deal with…
First of all,
One thing about all of this...
I would like to mention...

Topic Shifters
On the other hand,
Besides that,
Despite this,
In addition,
Furthermore,
Let us look at...
Back to...
This leads to...
That points the way to...
By contrast,

Summarisers
To summarise,
All this says is...
In short,
In conclusion,
Finally,
One final point is...
So this seems to be...
My point is that...
My own belief is that...
In fact, in my opinion,




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                           16
   Local Discourse Organisers

Exemplifiers
For example/instance, [do not use e.g.]
One of the ways this can be seen is...
One way is…
Take X, for instance,
We can see this if we look at...
One of them is...
We should see this in...
X is what I mean by Y.
Consider examples from two quite different domains.

Relaters
That is, [do not use i.e.]
In other words,
For this reason,
In consequence,
As a result,
In this respect,
In fact,
This ties in with...
It has to do with...
That goes not only for X but also for Y.
The other thing X is Y.
Along the same lines,
We should think of this not so much as X but as Y.
To return to the point,
Aside from this,
Whichever way it is,
In the same way,
Put another way,
With respect to X,
The question naturally arises whether...
The surprising thing is that...
Seen from this point of view,
Here an analogy may be drawn to...

Evaluators
And that is really the key to...
We should be careful not to...
But as a matter of fact,
The X I would offer is Y.
It depends on how we define...
So far as I know,
As far as I can tell,



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   17
That is true, but...
It does not mean that...
It is only in X that Y.
It would be misleading to suggest, however, that...
To my knowledge,
It is worth noting that...

Problem vocabulary and prepositions
Commonly misused words
Confusingly related words
Verbal idioms
Use of prepositions (nouns + prepositions, verbs + prepositions, adjectives +
prepositions)

Pronunciation

Basic model
The recommended language norm is British RP. It has wide currency in the European
context, is readily understood, is adequately described in textbooks and dictionaries and
has ample recorded material available for the learner. Furthermore, that choice of basic
model is made in accordance with the pedagogic tradition in this country.

Performance target
The required performance level is defined as high acceptability, i.e. one which in
production is as readily intelligible as that of a native speaker. The performance target
allows the learner to understand without difficulty the important forms of English (British
and American pronunciation) in reception. In production, the learner is expected to be
able to use British RP. The learner may be permitted certain tolerances in his or her
pronunciation, provided that speech retains its intelligibility and internal consistency, i.e.
it is not a mixture of regional varieties and styles. The performance target is to be
achieved at the end of the instruction period. Standard American pronunciation
(provided, cf. supra, it is consistent) is also acceptable.

Speech sounds
The learner should master the phonetic (allophonic) realisation of the phonemes of the
language norm selected (e.g. British RP): monophthongs, diphthongs, semivowels and
consonants. He or she is allowed some latitude in the pronunciation of the segmental
phonemes, i.e. the choice of allophonic variants and in particular those of vowels. The
learner should master the following characteristics of sounds in context:
(a) Elision of alveolar stops occurring medially in clusters of three consonants brought
    together at word boundaries, e.g. left turn, mashed potatoes, jogged by.
(b) Assimilation of sounds usually resulting from the inevitable accommodation, which
    takes place between two articulations in the speech continuum.
The learner should be able to receive the highly elided and assimilated speech produced
by native speakers.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                           18
Intonation and stress
The learner should master the following aspects of intonation and stress in connected
speech:
(a) Tones (the types of pitch-change, which takes place on the nucleus of the tone-
    group). The falling tone in statements, special questions and question-tags expecting
    confirmation of a statement. The rising tone in general questions and question-tags
    requesting information. The learner should be aware of the following attitudinal
    meaning of the general pitch level of the speech segment preceding the nucleus of the
    tone-group: a high level usually indicates enthusiasm, interest, liveliness; a low level
    usually gives an impression of a perfunctory, uninterested, surly or suspicious
    attitude.
(b) Stressed syllables. One-syllable words of major word-classes (nouns, verbs,
    adjectives, adverbs). The accented syllables of words of more that one syllable of
    major word-classes.
(c) Unstressed syllables of prepositions, pronouns, articles and the unstressed syllables of
    words of more than one syllable. The learner should be able to produce the correct
    reduction of the unaccented grammatical items.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                         19
A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   20
French

Francais

Actes de parole

Donner et demander des informations
Faire l’hypothese qu’un fait est vrai
Hypothese simple
Eventuel
Irreel
Poser un fait comme:
Vrai
Necessaire
Certain
Apparent
Probable
Possible
Contingent
Improbable
Impossible
Faux
Insister sur un fait (emphase)
Emphase intensive
Emphase oppositive
Annoncer,informer d’un fait
Signaler, avertir, prevenir, mettre en garde
Rappeler, repeter
Donner son opinion sur la verite d’un fait
Savoir, se souvenir, se rappeler
Conviction
Opinion
Doute
Ignorance
Presupposer qu’un fait est vrai
Demander information factuelle
Demander si un fait est vrai (question totale)
Demander information sur un fait (question partielle)
Demander opinion sur la verite d’un fait
Demander accord sur la verite d’un fait

Prendre position
Reagir aux faits et aux evenements
Se feliciter
Feliciter
Se plaindre



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   21
Plaindre
Juger l’action accomplie par autrui
Approuver
Accuser
Excuser, pardonner
Critiquer
Disapprouver, reprocher, protester
Juger l’action accomplie par sol-meme
Se feliciter
S’accuser, avouer
S’excuser
Juger enonciation
Approuver/disapprouver enonciation
Critiquer enonciation
Demander jugement sur une action accomplie par sol-meme
Demander avis
Demander d’approuver
Demander de desapprouver
Demander de reagir par rapport a une action accomplie
Demander de demander pardon
Demander de remercier
Demander de pardonner

Faire des projets d’action
Proposer a autrai de faire de faire soi-meme
Proposer, offrir
Promettre
Demander a autrai de faire soi-meme
Demander la parole
Demander permission
Demander dispense
Proposer a autrui de faire ensemble
Proposer, suggerer
Inviter
Proposer a autrui de faire lui-meme
Suggerer
Proposer
Conseiller
Recommander
Deconseiller
Permettre, autoriser
Dispenser
Demander a autrui de faire lui-meme
Demander
Inviter, ecourager
Menacer d’une sanction



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   22
Promettre une recompense
Ordonner
Defendre, interdire
Prier, supplier
Interpeller
En champ libre
Au telephone
Correspondance
Appeler a l’aide
Demander de parler
Demander propositions d’action
Demander de (ne pas) transmettre

Exprimer des attitudes et des sentiments
Faisabilite/infaisabillite
Facilite/difficulte
Utilite/inutilite
Indispensabilite
Devoir
Obligation
Interdiction
Permission
Volition
Indecision
Indifference
Desir
Crainte
Intention
Volonte
Competence/incompetence
Capacite/incapacite
Motivation
But
Echec, reussite
Dispositions subjectives
Dispositions objectives
Responsabilite
Affectivite
Interet, appreciation, preference, admiration
Sympathie, amitie, amour
Pitie
Antipathie, hostilite, haine, dedain, mepris
Confiance, mefiance
Gratitude/ingratitude
Rancune, ressentiment
Fierte, honneur, honte, deshonneur



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   23
Surprise, etonnement, indifference
Satisfaction, contentement, plaisir, bonheur, joie, fascination
Insatisfaction, deception, regret, depit, deplaisir
Souci, tristesse, chagrin, desespoir, malheur
Envie, jalousie
Irritation, indignation
Ennui, embarras, inquietude, angoisse
Bonne et mauvaise humeur

Realiser des actes sociaux
Saluer
Prendre conge
A l’oral
Correspondance
Presenter quelqu’un
Se presenter
Presenter sa sympathie, ses condoleances
Souhaiter quelque chose a quelqu’un
Remercier
S’excuser
Trinquer

Effectuer des operations discursives
Illustrer, donner des exemples
Preciser
Citer
(S’)expliquer
Nommer
Comparer
Argumenter
Prouver, demontrer
Juger, evaluer, apprecir
Decrire
Enumererraconter
Rapporter discours
Resumer
Effeurer
Evoquer, faire allusion a
S’etendre sur
Epeler, dicter
Syllaber
Gloser
Paraphraser, explicitertraduire
Se reprendre
Se corriger
Corriger autrui



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   24
Engager conversation
Prendre la paroleannoncer plan, points
Marquer e debut d’un point
Conclure
Faire une transition
Faire une digression
Poursuivre
Demander de se taire
Demander de repeter
Demander de paraphraser, d’expliciter
Demander de preciser
Demander raisons
Demander consequences
Demander intentions enonciatives
Interpreter enonciation




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   25
German

Deutsch

Sprechakte

Informationsaustausch
Mitteilung
Identifizieren, benennen
Feststellen, behaupten (als gegeben darstellen, als nicht gegeben darstellen, als
sebstverstandlich darstellen, als sicher darstellen, als offenbar darstellen, als
wahrscheinlich darstellen, als moglich darstellen, als unsicher darstellen, als
unwahrscheinlich darstellen, als unmoglich darstellen)
Verallgemeinern, generalisieren
Beschreiben
Erklaren
Auf etwas aufmerksam machen
An etwas erinnern
Bericten
Auserungen wiedergeben
Ankundigen
Hypothetisch sprechen (von Eventualfallen sprechen, von irrealen Sachverhalen
sprechen)
Versichern, beteuern
Frage
Informationen erfragen
Sich vergewissern
Antwort
Bejahen
Verneinen
Auskunft geben
Nichtwissen ausdrucken
Antwort verweigern
Ausdruck kognitiver Einstellungen
Wissen ausdrucken
Uberzeugung ausdrucken
Glauben ausdrucken
Vermutungen ausdrucken
Zweifel ausdrucken
Frage nach kognitiver Einstellung
Nach Wissen fragen
Nach Uberzeugung, Glauben, Vermutungen fragen

Bewertung; Kommentar
Meinungsauserung
Meinungen, Ansichten ausdrucken



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                    26
Partei nehmen
Beurteilung von Zustanden, Ereignissen, Handlungen
Loben, positiv bewerten
Billingen
Dankend anerkennen
Verzeihen
Sich entschuldigen
Kritisieren, negativ bewerten
Misbilligen
Vorwurfe machen, beschuldigen
Bedauern
Rechtfertigung
Begrunden, rechtfertigen
Zugeben, eingestehen
Sich entchuldigen
Bitte um Stellungnahme
Meinungen erfragen
Um Beurteilung bitten
Zustimmung suchen
Rechtfertigung verlangen
Kommentar za Behauptungen, Meinungen
Zustimmen, beipflichten
Widersprechen
Korrigieren
Einraumen
Einwenden, anzweifeln
Auf etwas beharren
Widerrufen
Ausdruck evaluativer Einstellungen, Werthaltungen
Interesse ausdrucken
Gefallen ausducken
Wunschvorstellungen ausdrucken
Vorliebe ausdrucken
Indifferenz zusdrucken
Musfallen ausdrucken
Desinteresse ausdrucken
Frage nach evaluativen Einstellungen, Werthaltungen
Nach Interesse fragen
Nach Wertschatzung fragen
Nach Wunschvorstellungen fragen
Nach Vorliebe fragen

Gefuhlsausdruck
Sympathie ausdrucken
Mitgefuhl ausdrucken
Antipathie ausdrucken



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   27
Begeisterung ausdrucken
Freude ausdrucken
Zufriedenheit ausdrucken
Uberraschung ausdrucken
Erleichterung ausdrucken
Enttauschung ausdrucken
Besturzung ausdrucken
Gelassenheit ausdrucken
Gleichguligkeit ausdrucken
Resignation ausdrucken
Ratlosigkeit ausdrucken
Angst ausdrucken
Kummer ausdrucken
Traurigkeit ausdrucken
Unzufriedenheit ausdrucken
Langeweile ausdrucken
Ungeduld ausdrucken
Verargerung ausdrucken
Abscheu ausdrucken
Schmerz ausdrucken

Handlungsregulierung
Aufforderung
Jemanden auffordern
Auffordern zu gemeinsamem Handeln
Bitten
Um Hilfe bitten
Wunsche ausern
Verlangen, kaufen
Bestellen
Auftrage geben
Gebieten
Anordnen, befehlen
Verbieten
Instruieren
Reklamieren
Drangen
Warnen
Drohen
Ermuntern
Vorschlagen
Raten
Erlaubnis-Erlaubnisverweigerung
Erlauben
Verpflichtungen aufheben
Erlaubnis verweigern



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   28
Konsultation
Um Erlaubnis bitten
Um Vorschlage bitten
Um Rat fragen
Um Instruktion bitten
Angebot
Nach Wunschen fragen
Dinge anbieten
Anbieten, etwas zu tun
Hilfe anbieten
Einladen
Versprechen
Einwilligung – Weigerung
Einwilligen
Vereinbaren
Angebote annehmen
Sich weigern
Angebote ablehnen
Zogern
Ausdruck handlungsbezogener Einstellungen und Voraussetzungen
Intention (Absicht ausdrucken, Entschlossenheit ausdrucken, Unentschlossenheit
ausdrucken, Absichtslosigkeit ausdrucken, Verzicht ausdrucken)
Motivation (Handlungswunsch ausdrucken, Praferenz ausdrucken, Handlungszweck
ausdrucken)
Realisierbarkeit (Fahigkeit ausdrucken, Zustandigkeit ausdrucken, Kompetenz
ausdrucken, Bereitsein ausdrucken, Mochbarkeit ausdrucken, Nichtmachbarkeit
ausdrucken, Verhindertsein ausdrucken, Nicht-Zustandigkeit ausdrucken, Unfahigkeit
ausdrucken)
Verpflichtung (auf Verpflichtung hinweisen, auf Verbote hinweisen, auf Erlaubtheit
hinweisen)
Frage nach handlungsbezogenen Einstellungen und Voraussetzungen
Intention (nach Absicht fragen, nach Entschlossenheit fragen)
Motivation (nach Handlungswunsch fragen, nach Praferenz fragen, nach
Handlungszweck fragen)
Realisierbarkeit (nach Fahigkeit fragen, nach Zustandigkeit fragen, nach Kometenz
fragen, nach Bereitsein fragen, nach Machbarkeit fragen)
Verpflichtung (nach Verpflichtung fragen, nach Erlaubtheit fragen)

Soziale Konventionen
Kontaktaufnahme
Jemaden begrusen
Zuruckgrusen
Nach dem Befinden fragen
Auf Frage nach dem Befinden reagieren
Sich vorstellen
Jemanden vorstellen



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                     29
Reagieren, wenn sich jemand vorstellt ode vorgestellt wird
Jemanden ansprechen
Reagieren, wenn man angesrochen wird
Um Erlaubnis bitten einzutreten
Jemanden hereinbitten
Sich als Anrufender am Telefon vorstellen
Sich als Angerufener am Telefon melden
Anrede in Briefen
Kontaktbeendigung
Sich verabschieden
Abschiedsgrus erwidern
Jemandem Grusse auftragen
Versprechen, Grusse auszurichten
Sich am Telefon verabschieden
Abschiedsgrus am Telefon erwidern
Schlus, Grusformeln in Briefen
Stabilisierung von Kontakten
Sich entschuldigen
Auf Entschuldigungen reagieren
Sich bedanken
Auf Dank readieren
Komplimente machen
Auf Komplimente reagieren
Gratulieren
Auf Gratulation reagieren
Gute Wunsche aussprechen
Auf gute Wunsche reagieren
Jemandem zutrinken
Auf Zutrunk reagieren

Redeorganisation und Verstandigungssicherung
Wechselrede
Ums Wort bitten
Jemanden unterbrechen
Anzeigen, das man weiter sprechen will
Aufmerksamkeitdes Horers suchen
Das Wort uberlassen, ubergeben
Zum Sprechen auffordern
Zur Kenntnis nehmen
Zum Schweigen auffordern
Verstandigungssicherung
Ruckfragen
Um Wiedererholung bitten
Bitten zu buchstabieren
Nicht-Verstehen signalisieren
Um sprachliche Erklarungen zu Auserungen bitten



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   30
Um Explizierung, Kommentierung bitten
Buchstabieren
Verstehen signalisieren
Kontrollieren, ob man akustisch verstanden wird
Kontrollieren, ob Inhalt/Zweck eigner Auserungen verstanden werden
Eigene Auserungen explizieren, kommentieren
Redestrukturierung
Auserung einleiten
Zogern, nach Worten suchen
Um Ausdruckshilfe bitten
Sich korrigieren
Umschreiben
Aufzahlen
Bispiel geben
Thema wechseln
Zusammenfassen
Betonen, hervorheben
Auserung abschliesen




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages     31
Italian

Italiano

Atti comunicativi

Dare e cercare informazione effettiva
Identificare, definire
Asserire che si e/non si e verificato qualcosa
Riportare, raccontare, descrivere
Annunciare, informare di un fatto
Chiedere informazioni su dei fatti
Rispondere per dar informazioni su dei fatti

Esprimere, indagare atteggiamenti e opinioni
Esprimere un atteggiamento, conoscenza
Esprimere d’accordo/disaccordo
Sapere/non sapere
Credere/non credere
Ricordare/dimenticare
Chiedere opinioni
Formulare opinioni
Ipotesi di eventualita
Opotesi di irrealta
Esprimere e indagare sul carattere di un fatto
Porre un fatto come vero/falso
Domandare accordo sulla verita di un fatto
Porre un fatto come conseguenza inevitabile di un altro innegabile in se
Porre un fatto come certo
Porre un fatto come apparente
Porre un fatto come possibile/impossibile
Porre un fatto come probabile/improbabile
Porre un fatto come necessario/non necessario
Porre un fatto come facile/difficile
Esprimere che qualcuno e/non e capace di fare un’azione
Esprimere stati emotivi, sentimenti, morale
Interesse, simpatia
Approvazione, d’accordo
Piacere, ammirazione
Gioia, felicita
Amicizia, amore
Preferenza
Pieta, partecipazione
Speranza
Sollievo
Sorpresa



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages           32
Indifferenza, pazienza, rassegnazione
Antipatia
Disapprovazione
Incredulita
Noiainsoddisfazione, delusione, rimpianto
Preoccupazione
Dispiacere
Tristezza, infelicita, disperazione
Diffidenza, sfiducia
Irritazione, rabbia
Timore, paura
Cattivo umore, depressione

Progetti di azione
Azioni che riguardano noi stessi
Offrire di fare qualcosa
Promettere di fare qualcosa
Esprimere intenzione/mancanza di intenzione, desiderio, volonta, decisione di fare
Rinunciare a fare
Proporre di fare insieme ad altri
Invitare qualcuno, incitare
Esprimere obbligo, dovere, impegno
Azioni che riguardano gli altri
Suggerire, consigliare che gli altri facciano qualcosa, esigere
Raccomandare, incoraggiare
Avvertire, segnalare
Dare/chiedere instruzioni, reclamare
Permettre ad altri di fare/negare il permesso
Dispensare di fare
Invitare a fare
Pregare, chiedere, ordinare
Chiedere di non fare

Convenzioni sociali
Attirare l’attenzione
Iniziare un contatto
Salutare e rispondere al saluto
Esprimere auguri e rispondere
Presentarsi, presentare qualcuno, reazioni
Ringraziare e rispondere al ringraziamento
Scusari e rispondere alle scuse
Presentare le simpatie, le condoglianza
Invitare qualcuno e rispondere all’invito
Chiedere il permesso di fare qualcosa e concedere il permesso
Chiamare per telefono e rispondere al telefono, formule di chiusurarivolgersi a persone
per mezzo di’lettre



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                          33
Congratularsi e rispondere alle congratulazioni
Fare auguri e rispondere
Formule di chiusura di lettre
Congedarsi, mandare dei saluti a qualcuno
Chiedere un favore e rispondere
Brindare
Tecniche della comunicazione
Chiedere e dare la parola, interrompere l’interlocutore
Invitare a parlare, a tacere
Nominare
Illustrare, portare esempi, prendere nota di qualcosa
Spiegar/si
Assicurarsi che ci si e spiegati
Segnalare di aver/non aver sentito
Enumerare
Raccontare, riassumere, descrivere
Demonstrare, provare
Paragonare
Definire
Analizzare
Classificare
Correggersi
Fare una digressione
Soffermarsi
Enfasi sull’atto di asserire qualcosa
Concludere
Strategie di correzione
Segnalare di non aver capito
Chiedere di ripetere, di sillabare
Chiedere un chiarimento
Dire di non conoscere
Chiedere di parlare piu lentamente
Chiedere di perifrasare
Chiedere di descrivere con particolarita
Chiedere di identificare mostrando
Ricorrere al soccorso di un’altra persona, di un dizionario, ecc.
Cambiare discorso
Sintetizzare, rilevare, sottolineare, concludere il discorso




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages    34
Korean

This section has been published separately with the support of the Korea Foundation: A.
Fedotoff, G.J. Choi, T. Shopov, 2000, Making the Grade, Sofia: Exel-M Publishers.




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                     35
Russian

Русский язык

Речевые действия

Выражение и поиск фактической информации
Идентификация
Сообщение (описание, повествование)
Коррекция, уточнение
Выяснение информации
Ответы на вопросы

Выражение интеллектуальных отношений
Выражение согласия/несогласия
Выяснение согласия/несогласия
Негативное утверждение как несогласие
Знание
Утверждение о знании
Вопрос о знании
Припоминание
Выяснение о чем помнит собеседник
Субективная модальност
Выражение вероятности
Выяснение степени вероятности
Выражение и отрицание необходимости, включая логическое заключение
Выяснение необходимости
Выражение/выяснение степени неопределенности
Объективная модальность
Обязятельность
Выяснение обязательности
Компетентность
Способность/неспособность что-либо сделать
Выяснение способности/неспособности
Разрешение/неразрешение
Выяснение возможности разрешения
Предоставление разрешения
Отказ о тразрешении
Неразрешение
Запрещение
Волеизъявление
Выражение желания, потребности
Выяснение желания, потребности
Выражение/выяснение намерения
Выражение/выяснение предпочтения




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages     36
Эмоциональная оценка
Выражение радости, удовольствия
Выражение неудовольствия, огорчения
Вопрос об удовольствия, неудовольствии, радости
Выражение/выяснение симпатии, расположения
Выражение/выяснение антипатии
Выражение удовлетворения/неудовлетвоения
Вопрос об удовлетворенности/неудовлетворености
Выражение интереса/отсуствия интереса
Выражение заинтересованности в чем-то/безразличия
Выражение удивления
Реакция на удивление
Отсуствие удивления
Вопрос по поводу удивления
Выражение надежды
Выражение разочарования, досады
Выражение растерянности
Выражение боязни, страха, беспокойства
Успокаивание
Вопрос по поводу страха, боязни
Выражение моральных обязятельств
Выражение одобрения/неодобрения
Вопрос об одобрении/неодобрении
Выражение раскаяния
Выражение сожаления
Выражение сочувствия

Воздействие, убеждение
Предложение действия
Согласие с предложением
Просьба сделать что-либо
Совет
Предостержение, побуждение к отказу
Побуждение, поощрение к действию
Инструкции, реководства
Презложение помощи
Ответ на предложение помощи
Приглашение к действию
Принятие приглашения
Отказ от приглашения, предложения
Вопрос о принятии предложения или отказе от предложения
Просьба о конкретной вещи
Уклончивые ответы

Социализация, речевой етикет
Привлечение внимания



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   37
Приветствие
Вторая этикетная реплика
Ответ на вторую этикетную реплику
Обращение
Ответ на официальное обращение
Знакомство, представление
Ответ на представление
Прощание
Извинение
Принятие извинений
Благодарность
Ответ на благодарность, любезность, признательность
Комплимент
Ответ на комплимент
Любезность
Поздравление
Ответ на поздравление
Вручение подарка
Ответ при получении подарка
Сочувствие
Соболезнование
Ответ на соболезнование
Тосты

Структурирование речи
Начало
Хезитация
Самокорекция
Введение темы
Выражение собственного мнения
Некатегоричность, допущение вариантов
Реаранжирование речи
Приведение примера
Выделение, подчеркивание
Обобщение, выводы, суммирование
Изменение темы
Просьба к собеседнику об изменении темы
Вопрос о чьем-либо мнении
Игнорирование речи собеседника
Показатели внимания к речи собеседника
Прерывание собеседника, беседы
Просьба соблюдать тишину
Уступить место следующему дикладчику
Указание на желание продолжать
Поощрение продолжать
Указание на то, что речь подходит к концу



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   38
Завершение речи
Завершение разгоора, беседы
Стереотипы телефонных разговоров
Стереотипные формулы дружеских писем

Восстановление коммуникации
Сигнал о непонимании
Просьба повторить сказанное
Просьба о повторении слова или фразы, просьба об уточнении, потверждении
часты фразы
Вопрос при непонимании или уточнении
Просьба о разъяснении чего-либо
Просьба расшифровать слово по буквам
Просьба написать что-либо
Сообщение о незнании слова или выражения
Просьба, призыв о помощи в речи
Просьба говорить медленнее
Перифразирование, объяснение другими словами
Повторение того, что сказал собеседник
Выяснение, понял ли вас собеседник
Называние слова, имени, фамилии по буквам
Уточнение значения слова или выражения




A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages           39
Spanish

Espanol

Funciones linguisticas

Informacion
Pedir/dar informacion
Pedir informacion sobre un heco
Manifestar interes/curiosidad por algo
Preguntar sobre lo ocurrido
Responder la pedida de informacion
Respuesta afirmativa
Respuesta negativa
Respuesta dubitativa
Pedir/dar informacion sobre una persona
Identificar/se
Relatar
Anunciar
Explicar
Describir
Narrar
Resumir
Comentar
Transmitir do dicho
Corregir
Preguntar/responder acerca de correcto/incorrecto
Preguntar si es correcto
Decir que es correcto
Decir que no es correcto (argumentos, explicaciones)
Preguntar/respondir (distntos tipos de preguntas y su respuesta)

Actitudes intelectuales y su comprobacion
Expresar acuerdo/desacuerdo
Preguntar acerca de acuerdo/desacuerdo
Responder acerca de acuerdo/desacuerdo
Estar/ponerse de acuerdo (argumentos, condiciones)
No estar de acuerdo (motivos, explicaciones)
Oponerse/contradir (argumentos, motivos)
Aceptar/declinar una oferta o una invitacion
Preguntar acerca de aceptacion o rechazo
Responder acerca de aceptacion o rechazo
Respuesta afirmativa (condiciones, posibilidades)
Respuesta negativa (argumentos, motivos)
Ofrecimiento para hacer algo
Proponer un favor o ayuda a alguien



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages   40
Pedir favor o ayuda
Decir que uno se acuerda o se ha olvidado de algo o de alguien
Preguntar si uno se acuerda o se ha olvidado
Responder que se acuerda o no se acuerda
Recordar algo a alguien
Expresar posibilidad/imposibilidad
Considerar un hecho posible o imposible
Preguntar si algo se considera posible o imposible
Responder que es posible (condiciones)
Responder que no es posible (explicaciones, argumentos)
Expresar capacidad/incapacidad
Preguntar acerca de capacidad/incapacidad
Responder acerca de capacidad/incapacidad
Decir que uno puede hacer o no hacer algo (argumentos)
Decir a alguien que puede o no puede hacer algo (argumentos)
Animar a algien a hacer algo (argumentos)
Expresar conclusion logica
Preguntar si algo se considera como conclusion logica y ‘por que’
Hacer conclusion logca, deducir
Considerar algo como conclusion logica (explicaciones, argumentos, motivos)
Expresar seguridad/inseguridad
Preguntar si uno esta seguro o no
Preguntar acerca del grado de seguridad o inseguridad
Responder acerca de seguridad o inseguridad
Decir que esta seguro y ‘por que’
Decir que no esta seguro y ‘por que’
Definir el grado de seguridad o inseguridad (argumentos)
Expresar obligacion/no obligacion
Preguntar si uno esta obligado a hacer algo o no
Responder que esta obligado o no obligado a hacer algo (condiciones, motivos)
Decir a alguien que esta obligado o no obligado a hacer algo (cndiciones, motivos)
Obligar a alguien a hacer algo (explicar ‘por que’, poner condiciones)
Hacer callar
Autorizar y pedir permiso
Expresar autorizacion/falta de autorizacion (condiciones, motivos)
Pedir/solicitar permiso (argumentos)
Conceder permiso (condiciones)
Denegar permiso, prohibir (motivos)
Consultar/expresar opinion
Pedir la opinion a alguien
Expresar opinion
Dar la opinion
Abstenerse a dar la opinion
Caracterizar, calificar, comparar
Aprobar/desaprobar
Rechazar algo



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages                     41
Criticar/elogiar
Protestar
Exponer las razones
Considerar un hecho:cierto/falso, bueno/malo, facil/dificil, hermoso/feo,
necesario/innecesario, probable)
Expresar duda o suposicion
Preguntar sobre hechos dudosos o supuestos
Considerar un hecho dudoso o supuesto
Formular hipotesis
Preguntar sobre hipotesis eventuales o irreales
Formular hipotesis eventuales
Formular hipotesis irreales

Actitudes emocionales, sentimientos y su comprobacion
Expresar buen/mal humor
Preguntar acerca del estado de animo
Expresar buen humor, buen estado de animo
Expresar mal humor, mal estado de animo
Expresar dolor fiscio, lamentarse, quejarse
Expresar gusto, placer, agrado/falta de gusto, disgusto, desagrado
Preguntar sobre gustos, placeres
Expresar lo que a uno le gusta, le agrada
Expresar lo que a uno no le gusta, no le agrada
Expresar preferencias
Preguntar a alguien por sus preferencias
Exponer sus preferencial
Expresar interes/falta de interes por algo
Preguntar a alguien si esta interesado por algo
Expresar interes
Expresar falta de interes, indiferencia, aburriemiento
Expresar simpatia, amistad, amor/antipatia, odio
Preguntar acerca de las aficiones por algo o alguien
Expresar aficiones
Expresar alergia, satisfaccion/tristeza, insatisfaccion, descontendo
Preguntar acerca de los sentimientos
Expresar sentimientos
Expresar optimismo, entusiasmo/pesimismo, desilusion, decepcion, depresion
Expresar confianza/disconfianza
Expresar gratitud/ingratitud
Expresar deseo, voluntad
Preguntar acerca de los deseos de alguien
Desear, querer, anhelar algo
Expresar necesidades
Preguntar acerca de necesidades
Expresar necesidades o falta de algo
Expresar impaciencia, preocupacion, temor, miedo, angustia



A Knowledge Strategy for Acquisition of Modern Foreign Languages             42
Expresar enfado, indignacion, irritacion, horror
Expresar
Orgullo
Sorpresa
Esperanza
Pena
Lastima
Arrepentimiento
Alivio
Repulsion, asco

Actitudes morales y su comprobacion
Disculparse, pedir perdon
Pedir perdon o disculpa
Responder a una disculpa
Apreciar
Pedir aprecio, aprobacion
Expresar aprecio, aprobacion
Expresar disaprobacion
Prometer
Pedir promesa
Dar una promesa
Expresar responsibilidad

Persuasion
Solicitar/proponer, sugerir actividades
Solicitar activades de otro
Proponer, sugerir actividades con la participacion del hablante
Aconsejar
Pedir consejos
Dar consejos
Avisar, prevenir
Avisar
Prevenir, aconsejar a alguien que no haga ciertas cosas
Instruir, dirigir
Insistir

Usos sociales de la lengua
Saludar, establecer contactos
Modos de saludar
Recibir a alguien
Iniciar/concluir una conversacion
Informar/se acerca del estado de salud o de animo
Preguntar acerca de la salud o del estado de animo
Modos de responder
Presentarse, presentar a alguien



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Modos de presentarse
Modos de presentar a orta persona
Responder a una presentacion
Despedirse, despedir a alguienexpresiones de despedida
Modos de responder
Desear buena suertemodos de desear buena suerte
Corresponder al deseo
Atraer atencion
Reclamar la atencion de alguien
Manifestar atencion
Agradecer
Dar las gracias
Devolver las gracias
Reprochar algo a alguienexpresar irritacion y enfado
Insultar
Amenazar
Felicitar
Modos de felicitar
Responder las felicitaciones
Brindar
Hacer un brindis
Desear buen provecho
Ofrecer algo
Expresiones usadas a la entrega de una cosa
Modos de responder
Hablar por telefono
Llamar por telefono
Contestar una llamada telefonica
Escribir una carta
Redactar una carta personal (formulas, expresiones)
Redactar una carta oficial (formulas, expresiones)




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