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Setting the Stage for Revolution

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					Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies
World History B Seminar 1

Warm Up: Define 1. divine right 2. absolute monarch

Definitions
1. Divine Right: Belief that a ruler’s authority comes directly from God.
2. Absolute Monarch:

Ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs.

Absolute Monarchies in Europe 1550-1800
Spain
France England Austria

Prussia
Russia

Absolute Monarchies in Europe 1550-1800

From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648 (page 427)
 1640: Holy Roman Empire has broken down into several Prussian (German) principalities.  Electors from the 7 major German states elect the Holy Roman emperor. Many other German states no longer recognize the power of the Holy Roman emperor.  1641: Ferdinand of Bohemia (Hapsburg king) elected emperor. He is Anti – Protestant. Tried to return Prussia (Germany) to Catholicism. Spain, Poland supported Ferdinand. Protestant countries – Sweden, Netherlands – sent troops into Prussia to protect Protestants. France comes in on side of Sweden to protect Alsace from Prussian control.  Over thirty years alliances continually changed.  War led to starvation, famine and disease. Area severely depopulated.  1648: Peace of Westphalia signed. France is clear winner, gains territory from Spain and Prussia, including Alsace. Prussia remains fragmented and Hapsburgs lose much power.

From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

The Philosopher Behind the Age
• Thomas Hobbes • 1660 – Wrote the Leviathan (Giant) • Discussed the perfect government • People first lived in anarchy • Needed a “social contract” • Required an absolute monarch to maintain order • People retained the right only to maintain their lives.

England - Pathway to Revolution 1603-1689
• Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603) – Absolute ruler of England. • Kept Parliament on her side. • Stabilized the nation and expanded British territory. • Died without an heir. • Country had to decide who would replace her.

England - Pathway to Revolution 1603-1689

England – James I (1603 – 1625)
• James VI of Scotland • Became James I of England when Elizabeth I died. • Believed in Divine Right of Kings. (page 435) “Kings are called gods because they sit upon God’s throne on earth. • Ran up a huge debt in England. • Had Bible translated from Latin into English

England – Charles I 1625 - 1649
• Charles I of England • Absolute monarch - had no problem with putting his enemies in prison without trial • Ran up a huge debt • Dissolved Parliament in 1629 • Touched off a massive English Civil War between supporters of Charles and supporters of Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell. • Charles I beheaded in 1649.

England – Oliver Cromwell 1649 - 1658
• Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector – England • Ruled through the army • Exiled Catholics to Ireland • Strict Puritan laws passed – theaters closed, Sunday set aside for worship, no lewd dancing, taverns or gambling • Religious freedom for everyone else • When Cromwell died, Restoration began.

England – Charles II The Restoration 1660 - 1685
• Charles II - Popular ruler • Monarchy restored – Hence: Restoration • Bowed to the wishes of Parliament • Restored the Church of England • Stabilized government

England – James II 1685 - 1688
• • • • • James II - Absolute Ruler Antagonized Parliament Ran up a huge debt Openly Catholic Forced from throne in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution. • Glorious Revolution

England – William and Mary English Bill of Rights 1689
• William and Mary were given the throne after the English Bill of Rights was passed. • Guaranteed supremacy of Parliament over the monarchy. • Parliament had to meet on a regular basis • Monarchy could neither make nor suspend laws • Trial by jury reinstated. • Abolished fines and cruel and unusual punishment. • Affirmed “writ of habeas corpus” – no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime. Due process of laws. • Laid groundwork for American system of laws.

The Philosophy Advances
• John Locke
• • • • 1690 People first lived in anarchy Needed a “social contract” People gave up only SOME of their individual rights. • Kept the right to: - Live - Enjoy Liberty - Own Property • Rulers who violated these rights broke the social contract and could be overthrown.

France – Louis XIV Ruled 1643 - 1715
 Called himself the Sun King  Believed in divine right. “L’etat, c’est moi.” I am the state. (page 417)  Made French army the strongest in Europe  France was the wealthiest country in Europe under Louis XIV  Louis XIV spent huge amounts of money  Built Versailles. (page 419)  War of Spanish Succession (page 420)

France – Louis XIV Versailles
 Expanded from a hunting lodge in 1669.  Became the symbol to European monarchs of the wealth and power of the king of France.  Seat of French government for nearly over 100 years.  Its upkeep consumed as much as 25% of the income of France.

France – Louis XIV Versailles
 Expanded from a hunting lodge in 1669.  Became the symbol to European monarchs of the wealth and power of the king of France.  Seat of French government for over 100 years.  Its upkeep consumed as much as 25% of the income of France.

Hall of Mirrors

Spain – Philip II Ruled 1556-1598
• Philip II - Sought to expand Spanish influence – ruled Spain when the empire was at its height. Included the Spanish New World (page 414) • Devout: tried to strengthen Catholic church • Centralized royal power • Married Mary I of England – returned England to Catholicism • Invaded England with Spanish Armada against Elizabeth I – He lost most of the Armada.

Spain – Philip II Ruled 1556-1598

Russia – Peter the Great Ruled 1682-1725
• Peter the Great of Russia • Goal was to westernize Russia. Forced powerful boyars to bow to his will. • Built modern Western city for Russian capital – St. Petersburg. • Spread serfdom. • Studied Western technology. Worked in a shipyard • Extended Russian territory – to Pacific Ocean. • 1700: Fought Sweden for control of Baltic. Gained several Baltic ports

Russia – Peter the Great

From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

Austria – Maria Theresa ruled 1740 - 1780
 Absolute monarch of Austria  Fought Frederick II of Prussia for control of Hungary and Silesia  Reorganized the government  Enlightened Despot  Eased tax burden on her people  Gave more rights to her subjects  Gave birth to 16 children while in power

Prussia – Frederick II Ruled 1740-1786
Absolute ruler of Prussia (Germany) Attacked Austria, sparking the War of Austrian Succession Unified Prussia, part of the Holy Roman Empire, into one nation

Absolutism Summary Chart Textbook page 436

From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003


				
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