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					School Online Curriculum Content
Initiative




School Learning Information Architectures
Project




Project Report


Prepared by:

Tony Lightman
Principal Consultant, Quadrant Group

Linley Kemeny
Project Director, Information Systems Brokering
School Online Curriculum Content Initiative


6 August 2001
Version 1.0
Quadrant Group                                                                                                                        education.au limited
                                                                                                                                      Learning Information Architectures
                                                                                                                                      Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                                                                                      6 August 2001




Table of Contents

Preface ........................................................................................................................................................................ iii

1.         INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ 1

     1.1        Background .................................................................................................................................................. 1

     1.2        Project Objective ......................................................................................................................................... 1

     1.3        Scope .............................................................................................................................................................. 1

     1.4        Approach...................................................................................................................................................... 2

2.         FUTURE SCENARIOS .................................................................................................................................. 4

3.         LEARNING ACTIVITY MODEL .................................................................................................................5

4.         INFORMATION COMPONENTS ............................................................................................................. 6

5.         INFORMATION USAGE & RELATIONSHIPS ......................................................................................8

     5.1        Creation & Usage by Information Subjects ..........................................................................................8

     5.2        Creation & Usage by Teaching/Learning Process .............................................................................. 9

     5.3        Summary of Creation & Usage ...............................................................................................................11

6.         FINDINGS ....................................................................................................................................................... 13

     6.1        The nature of teaching and learning ..................................................................................................... 13

     6.2        The information model ............................................................................................................................ 13

     6.3        Learning resources .................................................................................................................................... 13

     6.4 Information systems ................................................................................................................................. 14

     6.5        Business drivers ......................................................................................................................................... 14

7.         CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................... 15

     7.1        Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................ 15

     7.2        Recommendations .................................................................................................................................... 15

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1                       Workshop participants




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Quadrant Group                                                          education.au limited
                                                                        Learning Information Architectures
                                                                        Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                        6 August 2001



Document Approval

Lead Consultant –                             education.au.limited Project Director –
Tony Lightman                                 Linley Kemeny

Signed                                        Signed


Executive Sponsor –
Peter Croger

Signed



Document Control

Version   No.   Primary Author(s)   Description of Version                  Date Completed

Draft     0.1   Tony Lightman       First draft                             3 July 2001
Draft     0.2   Tony Lightman       Expansion of information subjects       4 July 2001
Draft     0.3   Linley Kemeny       Scenarios, findings and                 13 July 2001
                                    recommendations
Draft     0.4   Tony Lightman       Review of scenarios, findings &         18 July 2001
                                    recommendations
Draft     0.5   Linley Kemeny       Review of recommendations and           20 July 2001
                                    other elements based on feedback
                                    from Steering Committee
Draft     0.6   Tony Lightman       Quality Review                          6 August 2001
Final     1.0   Linley Kemeny       Preface                                 6 August 2001




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Quadrant Group                                                            education.au limited
                                                                          Learning Information Architectures
                                                                          Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                          6 August 2001




Preface

The purpose of this document is to foreshadow the issues involved in the task of developing generic
architectures which will depict, or represent, the key teaching and learning processes, information
requirements and information exchanges that take place in the school learning environment, with
particular reference to online learning.

The challenges in achieving this goal are formidable. There is a great diversity of views about the
scope of such an exercise and a ready acknowledgement that little is yet known about the potential
impact of large scale online learning environments. The conceptual and practical development of
models representing the teaching and learning processes and related information processes are
inextricably linked to the building of technical architectures reflecting varying degrees of
interoperability.

It is important, therefore, that the recently completed document on Interoperability Standards is
informed by the processes recommended in this document and that, the standards agenda helps to
define new scenarios for online teaching and learning.

The document concludes with a plea for a more holistic approach to the planning exercise but it is
acknowledged that this can only occur if robust planning processes are put in place, along with high
level architectures and models that accommodate the inevitable complexities inherent in the task.

In adopting this approach the sector as a whole can proceed with some confidence in what will be
an evolutionary process, knowing that the needs of teachers students and administrators are being
systematically reviewed and modelled in a manner which will optimise existing and future
investments in technology and course content.

We commend the document, therefore, to all stakeholders in the belief that it lays some important
foundations for the development of enriched online learning environments.




Linley Kemeny and Tony Lightman
6 August 2001




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Quadrant Group                                                                         education.au limited
                                                                                       Learning Information Architectures
                                                                                       Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                                       6 August 2001




1. INTRODUCTION


1.1     Background
education.au.limited is an active participant in the School On-line Curriculum Content Initiative
(SOCCI), whose goal is to ‘collaboratively develop and provide to Australian education systems a
continuing supply of high quality digital education content, in priority areas agreed by CESCEO, so
Australian learners gain maximum educational benefits from the online revolution’.

Working closely with the Curriculum Corporation, which is responsible for the coordination of
content development, education.au.limited is responsible for establishing the delivery environment
and, particularly, for addressing interoperability between the various digital resources.
Consideration also has to be given to information exchange with the systems that operate in the
school environment, including administration, curriculum, library and e-learning systems.

The March 2001 meeting of the Schools Advisory Group supported the study that would serve to
provide a school information architecture context for SOCCI interoperability standards
consideration as well as inform education systems about school information requirements.


1.2     Project Objective
The prime purpose of this project is:

      “To develop a generic architecture that illustrates the processes and information used in the school learning
      environment.”


1.3     Scope
In the context of the objective, the information used in the school learning environment is
considered to be ‘the data and resources used by teachers to plan, implement, monitor and report on
student learning’.

The project covers all information used to support learning in the school environment, including:

     e-learning management systems, eg: learning experiences, learning resources

     library management systems, eg: curriculum resources

     curriculum systems, eg: student outcomes

     administration systems, eg: student records

     personnel systems, eg: teacher details

     online curriculum resource services

     copyright management systems

744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                                         Page 1
Quadrant Group                                                             education.au limited
                                                                           Learning Information Architectures
                                                                           Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                           6 August 2001



     distance education systems

The project collected information at the education system level, rather than individual school levels,
and will focus on the future, not the current environment.


1.4     Approach

1.4.1 Project management

The project was overseen by a Steering Committee comprising:

     Peter Croger (Chair)

     Greg Curtis, Tasmanian Education Dept

     Susan Atkins, Curriculum Corporation

     Carol McKenny, Schools Advisory Project Manager (until resignation)

     Louise Tucker, ACT (following resignation of Carol McKenny)

     Linley Kemeny, Project Director, SOCCI, education.au limited

1.4.2 Methodology

1.4.2.1 Plan the project/review the business environment

This stage defined the desired outcomes, identified the key participants and confirmed expectations
of the project.


1.4.2.2 Define the Information & Knowledge Environment

To commence this stage, generic models of the teaching and learning processes key activities,
information requirements and information exchanges were developed to test the concepts. Along
with this, assumptions were developed for the future teaching and learning scenario.

These models and the workshop process were tested through a sample workshop with participants
from the W.A. Department of Education. The models and workshop processes were amended based
on the workshop experience.

The models were expanded through workshops in six (6) other education systems/sectors.
Members of the EdNA Schools Advisory Group were invited to nominate their systems/sector for
participation in workshops. The participating states, territories and systems were: Northern
Territory, Queensland, ACT, Victoria, Tasmania and NSW Catholic Education. Approximately 100
participants came from different aspects of teaching and learning: curriculum, learning technologies,
distance education, copyright, libraries, online services, professional development. Workshop
participants are listed in Appendix 1.

The workshops involved each system group in the following activities:


744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                            Page 2
Quadrant Group                                                             education.au limited
                                                                           Learning Information Architectures
                                                                           Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                           6 August 2001



    Individually conceptualising their perceptions of the future teaching/ learning environment.

    Discussing the generic process and information models to each nominated system/sector.

    Identifying the information requirements and products to support each phase of the teaching
     and learning process in the future scenario.

    Identifying issues that would impact on moving forward to provide the information
     environment to support the teaching and learning scenario.

Participating systems and sectors received a summary of these results for their future use.


1.4.2.3 Develop a Generic Architecture for the Teaching/Learning Process

Based on the results of the seven (7) workshops common future scenarios, a learning activities model
and related information components, usage and relationships were able to be identified. These form
the basis of an information architecture to support the teaching and learning process.


1.4.2.4 Develop Strategies and Recommendations

Analysis of the workshop results and generic architecture informed the findings and
recommendations which appear in this report.




744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                             Page 3
Quadrant Group                                                             education.au limited
                                                                           Learning Information Architectures
                                                                           Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                           6 August 2001




2. FUTURE SCENARIOS

Throughout the workshop series there was commonality in the future scenarios for best practice in
learning and teaching.

The common aim was for the learning and teaching process to involve constant communication
between all members of the school learning community: students, parents and teachers. All will see
themselves as learners and part of a global learning community not bound by local learning offerings.
The school will still be a coordinating learning hub for learning but its physical presence would
diminish.

The learning environment throughout the community will be resource rich with all learners having
ready access to technology, content and services. All will also be skilled at appropriate integration
into learning.

Learning experiences will be outcomes based and encompass the wider community outside the
school. Students will be active participants in planning their learning which will reflect their
individual learning needs. Learning experiences will be authentic, purposeful and problem based
and feature non-threatening, supportive learning that encourages risk taking, questioning and
independent learning.
Teachers will take a number of roles to facilitate individualised outcomes based learning. They will
need to be flexible and open to new ideas, able to handle rapid change and see themselves as learners
who constantly model learning strategies. They will be collaborative, knowledge literate,
understand learning processes and be confident users of learning technologies.




744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                            Page 4
 Quadrant Group                                                                education.au limited
                                                                               Learning Information Architectures
                                                                               Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                               6 August 2001




 3. LEARNING ACTIVITY MODEL

 The following diagram represents a generic Teaching/Learning Activity Model and its environment,
 as articulated by the workshop participants. The School Learning Community comprises all
 members of the total school learning community (learners, teachers, parents, community) who are
 involved in a school learning community. Within each school learning community numerous
 learning groups operate.




Wider Community
                                                   School
Educa tion syste m /                      Learning Com m unity (SLC)
se ctor le gisla tion,
policie s a nd
prioritie s


Sta te
com m unity                                    Develop SLC
e x pe cta tions,                           curriculum delivery
opportunitie s                                  framework
a nd prioritie s




                                                Learning Group
Note: The Learning Group
comprises Teachers,                                                  Plan
                                      Engage in
Students and Parents, all of
                                       learning                    learning
whom participate in v ary ing
                                     opportunity                 experiences
degrees in all activ ities.

                                                    Evaluate
                                                     learning
                                                   processes &
                                                    outcomes




                                                   Curriculum
                                                   Framew ork




 744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                               Page 5
Quadrant Group                                                                education.au limited
                                                                              Learning Information Architectures
                                                                              Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                              6 August 2001




4. INFORMATION COMPONENTS

The workshop process identified a diverse range of information items that are used and created
during the teaching/learning process. These have been summarised into the following major subject
areas to more easily represent the core information needs. Brief descriptions of the range of
information covered by each subject area are given. This information collection represents a broad
collection of traditional data and soft information. No weightings have been placed on the relative
importance of any of the components.

    Curriculum Framework
      Learning outcomes, standards, guidelines, exemplars, best practice, support documentation
    External requirements
      Standards, policies, legal, accountabilities, national, state, system, sector, intellectual property
      rights/Copyright, occupational health and safety, duty of care
    Community
      Community/industry expectations, participation opportunities
    School Learning Community (SLC)
      priorities, curriculum delivery framework, performance data, timetable
    Teacher/Learning Team
      profiles - Teacher, Support staff, Specialist
    Learner (Student)
      background, needs, ambitions, capabilities, interests, learning style, previous learning
      experiences, assessments, product portfolio, attendance, billing
    Parents/family
      background, interests/skills, participation
    Learning resources (on-/off-line)
      people, professional networks/materials, community, parents
      curriculum materials/learning objects
      learning experiences - physical/virtual
      equipment, electronic tools/networks, communication channels
    Learning delivery environment
      physical, virtual, external/home




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Quadrant Group                                                            education.au limited
                                                                          Learning Information Architectures
                                                                          Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                          6 August 2001




    Teaching/learning strategies
     guidelines, exemplars, best practice, research, sharing, monitoring and assessment techniques
     & tools
    Learning programs/plans/pathway
     Learners, target outcomes, tasks and activities, learning resources, evaluation strategy
    Learning products (outputs)
     objects, works created by learners during learning activities
    Learner outcomes/achievements
     Monitoring and evaluation records by learners, teachers and community of learner movement
     along the development continuum, with specific achievements recorded and reported as
     appropriate




744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                            Page 7
Quadrant Group                                                                               education.au limited
                                                                                             Learning Information Architectures
                                                                                             Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                                             6 August 2001




5. INFORMATION USAGE & RELATIONSHIPS


5.1      Creation & Usage by Information Subjects
The following table demonstrates where Information Subject components are created and used. For
the purpose of the project, learning resources is shown in more detail. Wider community
encompasses items that are created and brought into the school learning community such as state
and system policies and requirements.

Legend: Cr = Create/Collect; U/d = Updated. Participants: T = Teacher; L = Learner; P = Parent
         SLC = School Learning Community

                                    Info Source              Teaching/Learning Process                         Participants
Information Subject/            Wider       SLC         Planning     Engaging      Evaluating           T           L             P
Area/Activity                   Comm.

Curriculum Framework               Cr                      Use           Use            Use            Use          -              -

External requirements              Cr                      Use           Use            Use            Use          -             Use

Community                           -          Cr          Use           Use            Use            Use         Use            Use

School Learning Community                      Cr          Use           Use            U/d            U/d         Use            Use
(SLC)

Teacher/Learning team               -          Cr        Use/u/d         Use            Use            Use         Use            Use

Learner (Student)                              Cr        Use/u/d      Use/U/d        Use/U/d         Use/u/d       Cr             U/d

Parents/family                      -          Cr        Use/u/d       Use/u/d        Use/u/d        Use/u/d        -             U/d

Learning resources
    people, networks              Cr          Cr        Use/Cr        Use/Cr           Use          Use/Cr         -
    curriculum                    Cr          Cr        Use/Cr        Use/Cr           U/d          Use/Cr        Use             -
     materials/learning
     objects
    learning experiences           -          Cr        Use/u/d         Use            U/d          Use/Cr        Use            Use
    equipment                     Cr          Cr        Use/u/d         Use             -             Use         Use             -

Learning delivery                   -          Cr          Use           Use             -             Use         Use            Use
environment

Teaching/learning strategies       Cr          Cr        Use/Cr        Use/Cr         Use/u/d        Use/u/d       Use            Use

Learning programs/plans/            -          Cr          Cr            Use            Use             Cr         Use            Use
pathways

Learning products (outputs)         -          Cr          Use           Cr             Use            Use         Cr             Use

Learner                             -          Cr          Use           Use            Cr           Use/Cr        Cr             Use
outcomes/achievements




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Quadrant Group                                                                      education.au limited
                                                                                    Learning Information Architectures
                                                                                    Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                                    6 August 2001




5.2      Creation & Usage by Teaching/Learning Process
The following tables view the Teaching/Learning Processes and shows how the Information Subjects
are used and created/updated.

                                           Teaching/Learning Process
Information Used                                    Planning                  Information Created/Updated

Curriculum Framework                  Understand:                             SLC

External requirements                      what students need to know,       Teaching/Learning Team
                                            understand and value to achieve
Community                                   outcomes.                         Learner (Student)

SLC                                        student abilities, interests,     Parents/family
                                            learning styles, preferences,
Teaching/Learning Team                      expectation, outcomes progress.   Learning resources
                                           local and wider policies,              people, networks
Learner (Student)
                                            legislative frameworks and
                                            values applying to the                 curriculum materials/learning
Parents/family                                                                      objects
                                            teaching/learning process.
Learning resources                         Teaching team profile                  learning experiences
     people, networks                                                             equipment
                                      Explore:
     curriculum materials/learning                                           Teaching/learning strategies
      objects                              teaching/learning strategies

     learning experiences                 learning resources                Learning programs/plans/pathways

     equipment                            demonstration, monitoring, and
                                            assessment options.
Learning delivery environment              delivery options.
Teaching/learning strategies          Establish dynamic learning package:
                                           an agreed learning plan
                                           access to learning resources
                                           assessment tools




744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                                     Page 9
Quadrant Group                                                                        education.au limited
                                                                                      Learning Information Architectures
                                                                                      Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                                      6 August 2001



                                            Teaching/Learning Process
Information Used                                    Engaging                    Information Created/Updated

Curriculum Framework                  Form: digital and non-digital             Learner (Student)

External requirements                 Delivery: face to face, local, global.    Parents/family

Community                             Communities, groups and individuals.      Learning resources

SLC                                   Construct own and others learning              people, networks
                                      experiences.                                   curriculum materials/learning
Teaching/Learning Team                                                                objects
                                      Connecting, communicating,
Learner (Student)                                                               Teaching/learning strategies
                                      networking and collaborating locally
Parents/family                        and globally.                             Learning products
Learning resources                    Range of experiences across a rubric,
     people, networks                cognitive/meta-cognitive,
                                      physical/sensory.
     curriculum materials/learning
      objects                         Present/publish/share, interact,
     learning experiences            evaluate.
     equipment                       Manage relationships.
Learning delivery environment

Teaching/learning strategies

Learning programs/plans/pathways

Learner outcomes/achievements


                                            Teaching/Learning Process
Information Used                                   Evaluating                   Information Created/Updated

Curriculum Framework                  Establish monitoring and evaluation       SLC
                                      recording system against agreed
External requirements                                                           Learner (Student)
                                      assessment criteria.
Community                                                                       Parents/family
                                      Apply range of tools and techniques
SLC                                   for authentic monitoring, evaluation      Learning resources
                                      and reporting of:                              curriculum materials/learning
Teaching/Learning Team
                                            student learning                         objects
Learner (Student)                                                                    learning experiences
                                            the learning plan
Parents/family                              evaluation tools                   Teaching/learning strategies
Learning resources                    Re negotiate the current learning plan.   Learner outcomes/achievements
     people, networks                Inform student outcome progress.
     curriculum materials/learning
      objects                         Feedback to future uses of the learning
                                      plan, teaching/learning strategies.
     learning experiences
     equipment                       Report on student progress and
                                      achievement.
Teaching/learning strategies

Learning programs/plans/pathways

Learning products

Learner outcomes/achievements




744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                                       Page 10
Quadrant Group                                                               education.au limited
                                                                             Learning Information Architectures
                                                                             Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                             6 August 2001



5.3     Summary of Creation & Usage

5.3.1 Information from outside the school learning community

The teaching and learning process requires access to information created by the system and wider
environment about: curriculum framework, external requirements, learning resources and
teaching/learning strategies.

For the Initiative, this illustrates that curriculum materials/learning objects will be used in
conjunction with a full range of other information elements during the learning process.

For information systems provision this illustrates the need for full access to a range of information
and tools throughout the learning process rather than isolated information being available at
different parts of the process. The provision of collaborative tools for participation within the school
learning community and the wider community is an important part of these requirements.


5.3.2 Information created by the school learning community

The school learning community is the primary provider of information to support the teaching and
learning processes about: the community, school learning community, teacher/learning team, learner
(student), parents/family, learning resources (people/networks, curriculum materials/learning
objects, learning experiences and equipment).

For the Initiative, this illustrates that the curriculum materials/learning objects used by the school
learning community will include those created externally together with those created locally by the
school learning community. Consistent interoperability standards between these resources will be
required to support integrated access by the school.

For information systems provision this illustrates the need for integrated access by the school
learning community to the full range of information created externally and by themselves
throughout the learning process.


5.3.3 Use of information created during teaching and learning

During the teaching/learning process the school community is a creator of information that supports
a particular learning plan but becomes a significant information source for future learning plans.
This creation of information involves: school learning community, teacher/learning team, learner,
parents/family, learning resources, teaching/learning strategies, learning programs/plans/pathways,
learning products and learner outcomes/achievements.

For information systems provision this illustrates that information systems to support teaching and
learning need to allow for creation and updating of a range of information areas across the learning
environment.




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Quadrant Group                                                            education.au limited
                                                                          Learning Information Architectures
                                                                          Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                          6 August 2001



5.3.4 Participants and information access

In the teaching and learning process both learners and teachers will need increasing access to the
same information, as learners become active participants in designing, undertaking and evaluating
their learning experiences. Parents will largely be users rather than creators of information but
would be involved in updating learner and parent/family information. They will be involved
collaboration with teachers and learners throughout the learning process.

For information systems provision this illustrates that all members of the school learning community
require access to the full range of information and tools to create and participate throughout the
learning process.




744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                           Page 12
Quadrant Group                                                              education.au limited
                                                                            Learning Information Architectures
                                                                            Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                            6 August 2001




6. FINDINGS


6.1     The nature of teaching and learning
There was uniformity in the future scenario of teaching and learning from each of the school
education systems and sectors involved in the study. Underpinning this was recognition that the
strong common pedagogy could operate within different local contexts that are influenced by factors
such a curriculum frameworks, legal and policy.


6.2     The information model
The teaching and learning process is a complex, highly interactive and iterative process. There is no
easy segmentation between the planning, engaging and evaluation aspects. This means that the
desirable information access needs to be universal, constant and integrated throughout the teaching
and learning process.

This is accompanied by the need for constant correlation of all data from different sources with
simultaneous updating of some sources.

The requirement for increasing access to different aspects of the learning information by students,
parents, other teachers, mentors from different locations and different times highlights the
complexity of information provision for teaching and learning. It also highlights the need for
collaborative opportunities to use and create information.

The study emphasised the need for school education systems to have a holistic view of school
teaching and learning information architecture within a whole of system information architecture.


6.3     Learning resources
The study illustrated that a varied range of learning resources will be used in the learning process in
a variety of learning delivery environments. This includes people/networks, curriculum materials
(digital and non-digital), learning experiences and learning equipment. Within this range it is
recognised that digital materials will increase but effective learning will require simultaneous access
and use of digital and non-digital resources within an integrated learning process approach, rather
than a separate e-learning domain.

This highlights the need for increasing attention to be given to the establishment of interoperable
digital resource repositories that schools can access through a search engine based on their selection
of the most appropriate repository for their need. The learning resource repositories should be able
to be school based together with encompassing local, regional, professional, state and national
collections. This is the type of work that is being undertaken by the IMS Digital Repositories
Working Group and the DETYA funded higher education IMS digital repositories test bed project,
Collaborative Online Learning and Information Services (COLIS), based at Macquarie University.



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Quadrant Group                                                              education.au limited
                                                                            Learning Information Architectures
                                                                            Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                            6 August 2001



For the Initiative this means that consideration will need to be given to establishing interoperable
standards that work across a range of school, system, sector and Australian digital repositories.
Consideration should also be given to how the curriculum resources may interact with specific
learner profiles and how they might be linked to learning programs/plans/pathways, learning
products and learner outcomes/achievements.


6.4     Information systems
The provision of e-learning tools is a relatively new requirement in the school sector that is currently
being highlighted through the School Online Curriculum Content Initiative. The dynamic
integrated information model, which needs to underpin all teaching and learning, illustrates the
need for a holistic approach to integrated information systems and tools to effectively support the
teaching and learning process.

There is a risk that the addition of e-learning systems to the collection of existing school systems
such as online curriculum resource portals, administration, curriculum and library will perpetuate a
silos approach. The silos approach will be counter productive to providing seamless access and
usage of the information required to fully support teaching and learning.

To achieve this dynamically integrated teaching and learning information services functional
architectures will need to be developed. These would reflect the functions required to support the
teaching and learning information and activities and would then inform the development of
information systems.

The lack of holistic information and functional architectures for the teaching and learning from a
school level perspective is hindering the commercial providers in understanding and responding to
the full requirements of the school education sector, limiting interoperability and the capacity to
move to a flexible integrated environment.


6.5     Business drivers
Through the workshops it became apparent the teaching and learning process does not seem to have
been adopted as a strong business driver in the provision of information and online services.
Generally there was a lack of communication and understanding between the different players
involved in providing teaching and learning support for schools within school education systems.
This was evidenced by the fact that in most cases, this series of workshops provided a unique
meeting of the participants. This was surprising as due to their common interests in teaching and
learning it would be reasonable to expect communication and networking. Where communication
and understanding were evident, they seemed largely directed to a single business driver such as e-
learning and did not appear to be occurring on a holistic basis.




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Quadrant Group                                                             education.au limited
                                                                           Learning Information Architectures
                                                                           Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                           6 August 2001




7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

There is sufficient congruence between future scenarios drawn by systems across Australia to draw
some conclusions about steps that can be taken to develop a learning architecture within the
schooling sector in order to position it well to serve Australia’s future as a knowledge society. The
issues of interoperability and flexibility are fundamental to education in such a future and these
cannot be achieved without extensive collaboration.


7.1     Conclusions
There would be long term benefit to Australia as well as medium term efficiencies if systems
collaborated to develop:

     an information and functional/application architecture for teaching and learning;

     a prototype; and

     an information awareness strategy.

There appears to be sufficient commonality and agreement from this study to suggest that holistic
management and communications approaches are required for information systems for teaching and
learning.

Elements such as specific learner profiles linked to learning programs/plans/pathways, learning
products and learner outcomes/achievements are critical to the success of a learning system.


7.2     Recommendations

7.2.1 School education systems and sectors

It is recommended that school education systems and sectors:

     focus on a single holistic approach to teaching and learning systems, rather than separate
      approaches to different aspects of teaching and learning, such as e-learning, curriculum,
      administration, assessment and reporting.

     use the generic information architecture from this study to establish their own learning and
      teaching information architectures (and subsequent functional architectures) to inform the
      future provision of information systems.




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Quadrant Group                                                            education.au limited
                                                                          Learning Information Architectures
                                                                          Project Report, version 1.0
                                                                          6 August 2001




    Collaborate through EdNA SAG to:

      develop a functional architecture, including interoperability architectures, for teaching and
       learning systems linked to the Schools Online Curriculum Content Initiative work;

      seek ways to develop a prototype which demonstrates the functional requirements and
       application of interoperable standards for the whole teaching and learning process; and

      develop an information awareness strategy with commercial providers of school sector
       systems to make them aware of the changing requirements of the sector.

7.2.2 School Online Curriculum Content Initiative

It is recommended that School Online Curriculum Content Initiative:

    expands the information architecture from this study to show the more detailed content of and
     the relationship between information components, to facilitate the development of holistic
     information systems by the school education systems and sectors;

    examines the requirements for interoperability standards for the learning objects related to
     specific learner profiles (including accessibility) and how they might be linked to learning
     programs/plans/pathways, learning products and learner outcomes/achievements;

    establishes a digital repositories project which:

      develops functional architecture, including interoperability standards, for digital
       repositories which would be based on the IMS Digital Repositories work;

      collaborates with the IMS Digital Repositories Working Group and the Australian higher
       education IMS digital repositories test bed project, COLIS on behalf of the school sector;

      demonstrates a prototype for a school interoperable digital repositories approach. This
       would involve the Initiative’s test repository system, EdNA Online resources and a school
       based curriculum repository. It would utilise EdNA Online tools such as metadata
       creation, search and collaboration and the School Online Thesaurus (the online SCIS Subject
       Headings); and

      makes the e-learning vendor community aware of the broader school requirements for
       teaching and learning by providing access to architectures and prototypes, disseminating
       this and other reports and regular communication.




744c5288-f762-4fa6-9a48-554c32977bcc.doc                                                           Page 16
Quadrant Group                                               education.au limited
                                                             Learning Information Architectures
                                                             Project Report, version 1.0
                                                             6 August 2001




APPENDIX 1 Workshop participants
                                           Michael Sisley
Western Australia                          Thea van Os
                                           Sister Betty Brown RSJ
Adele Bradley                              Vicki Sheriff
Phillipa Ryan                              Peter Brown
Margaret Phillips                          Paul Meldrum
John Gougoulas                             Lynne Shields
Julian Summers                             Anthony Camillos
Bev Blackwell                              Helen Christou
Sue Scott                                  Gary Brown
Chris Yates                                Adrian Brown
Keryl Gorton                               Tony McArthur
Murray Willis

ACT                                        Victoria
Louise Tucker                              Matthew Aston
Louise Hanlon                              Danuta Baran0Tait
Karen Carlton                              Deb Barnes
Gordon White                               Katrina Beard
Jeanine Catton                             Sharon Berry
Mike Battenally                            Teresa Bossio
Kate Sutherland                            Janet Buzza
Mary Beattie                               Bill Coppinger
Di Ballantyne                              Denise Curran
Lorraine Nicol                             Darralyn Cusack
Else Rogers                                Ian Dawes
Pam Rosser                                 Nikki Deighton
Irene Foxon                                Rick Ellis
Coralie Daniels                            Rita Ellul
                                           Carol Ford
Tasmania                                   Fiona Gordon
                                           Ann Grieve
Mitchell Knevett                           Andrew Hocking
Heather Woods                              Lorella Matasini
Newton Sigrist                             Christine Morgan
Judy Travers                               Mark Nugent
Cecilie Murray                             Belinda Peterson
Judith Timbs                               Greg Powell
Mick Chalmers                              Darrell Reid
Greg Curtis                                Nicki Smith
Andrew Hawkey                              Charmaine Taylor
Margot Patten                              Muriel Wells
John Annells                               Colleen Wood
                                           Christine Ekinsmyth


Catholic Education Office,                 Northern Territory
NSW                                        Vicki Stokes
Paul Davis                                 Cindy McGarry
Jenny Fawbert                              John Sarev
Gerard Say                                 Judith Evans


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Quadrant Group                                             education.au limited
                                                           Learning Information Architectures
                                                           Project Report, version 1.0
                                                           6 August 2001



Rex Symonds                                Laurie Campbell
Ken Brodie                                 Gwenda Gills
Debbie Efthymiades                         Zoe Wilkins
                                           Jeffrey Payne
                                           Jane Carr
                                           Peggy Hebblethwaite
                                           Di Taylor
                                           Jan Richardson
                                           Robert Tomaschewski
                                           Paula Anderson
                                           Paul Clarke
                                           Bruce Cifuentes
                                           Ken Capps
                                           D Pedwell
                                           Dolor Milford
                                           Aidan McCarthy
                                           Sheryl Marsland
                                           Karen Chalmers
                                           Rhonda Eggerling
                                           Amanda Woollam
                                           Paul Herschell
                                           Tony Barry

Queensland
Jason Callaghan
Cath O’Hara




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