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									                   PHD ONLINE JOURNAL

                                       VOL.          3
            (Edited by Attila Ágh, Beatrix Futák-Campbell, Veronika Szemere)

EU-CONSENT – a Network of Excellence – is financially supported by the
                 European Union’s 6th Framework Programme

                                  I. EDITORS’ COLUMN

                                   II.   PHD SCHOOLS




I. EDITORS’ COLUMN                                 would like congratulate the winners of
        The EU-CONSENT can look back               the this year’s PhD Award.
on three successfully organised PhD                        The best papers were selected by
Schools     in   Budapest,    Dublin    and        the academic supervisors of the Schools
Cambridge and is currently organising              This short Editorial note has no intention
the fourth School in Spetses, Greece               to summarize, let alone to evaluate,
(July 2007). The first Budapest PhD                these     papers.       They      speak    for
School (for details see 1st issue of               themselves. It is however very important
Consent for Europe) was followed                   to draw attention to the diversity of
between 18 and 23 February 2007 in                 these six papers. Not only do they
Dublin by the second one titled “The               display variety in their research interests
Dynamics of European Integration:                  and approaches but also in their
Trends and Turns in the theoretical                institutional affiliations. Participants of
acquis académique”. The third EU-                  the three PhD Schools have come from
Consent PhD School took place in                   almost all member states of EU-
Cambridge between 23 and 26 April                  CONSENT with a proper gender balance,
2007 on the topic of “The CFSP/ESDP:               better to say with a slight majority of the
Effective Multilateralism?”. Given the             female PhD students.
multidimensional and multidisciplinary                     This diversity is also reflected in
research agenda, EU-CONSENT PhD-                   this year’s PhD Awards selected by EU-
Schools are organised according to the             CONSENT Steering Group. Serena Ciani
structure of the network’s thematic Work           was awarded First Prize for her paper
Packages: the Budapest School has been             titled ‘Power in the Enlarged EU: Game
connected with the WP IV ‘Institutions             Theoretical Insights’ which she presented
and Political Actors‘, the Dublin School           in Dublin. Her paper is also included in
with the WP II/III ‘Approaches and Sets            this edition. The Second Prize was
of Expectations‘ and the Cambridge                 granted to Edith Drieskens for her piece
School with the WP VII ‘Internal and               on ‘EU representation in the UN Security
External Security’.                                Council: A Principle Agent Perspective’.
        In July 2007 the next School will          Finally, Florian Trauner received Third
be organized in Spetses (Greece)                   Prize for his paper on ‘EU Justice and
connected with the WP V ‘Democratic                Home       Affairs     in      the    Western
Life‘. The fifth School related to the WP          Balkans: The Politics of Exclusion and
VI ‘Economic and Social Policies‘ is               Inclusion’.
foreseen for 2008. In order to close the                   The thematic focus of this edition
EU-CONSENT PhD School cycle there will             is two-fold representing the topics of the
be a final PhD-School integrating all four         Dublin and Cambridge PhD Schools. The
thematic Work Packages presumably                  former has aimed at dealing with the
organised in Cologne or Brussels at the            basic theoretical issues of the European
end of EU-CONSENT’s project lifetime               Studies, therefore these three papers
(2009).        These     events      clearly       can be read as theoretical introductions
demonstrate that the PhD Schools of EU-            focusing on the deepening-widening
CONSENT cover a wide range of topics in            perspectives from different directions.
the European Studies and they allow for            The latter PhD School has turned to a
the PhD students to join the PhD Schools           very timely and sensitive issue in
according to their research interests.             European      Studies,       concerning   the
Evaluations provided so far by both                different aspects of EU foreign policy.
academic supervisors and participating             The three best papers convey the most
PhD students’ prove these PhD Schools              important messages from this research
to be already quite efficient and feed into        field: the specificity of the EU foreign
suggestions for future improvements. .             policy proper as the ESDP, the EU
        This issue of the PhD online               “effective multilateralism” as its relation
Journal ‘Consent for Europe’ aims at               to the UN, and the civic or human
providing an insight in the different              security, in which external and internal
research topics discussed at the Schools           security issues meet.
in Dublin and Cambridge by publishing                      So far the three PhD Schools have
the abstracts of the best papers                   contributed to       fulfilling EU-Consent’s
presented. Also within this issue, we              mission as indicated in its name: Wider
                                                   Europe,       Deeper         Integration     –

Constructing Europe Network. These PhD
Schools have been successful in creating
an all-European network of PhD students
from many EU member states as well as
third states. PhD students were provided
the opportunity to present and discuss
their     research   and   to    establish
sustainable contacts with both experts in
the field and fellow PhD students. The
PhD      Schools   can   certainly   offer
assistance those who strive for an
academic career. Furthermore, these
activities demonstrate EU-CONSENT’s
contributes to the formation of the
Common European Research Space.

                                                  Sozialforschung, Antonia Ruiz-Jimenez,
II.PHD SCHOOLS                                    UNED,       Madrid,      Constantine     A.
                                                  Stephanou,      Panteion    University   of
                                                  Athens,      Vice-President    of     ECSA-
                                                  Europe/World, EKEME, Greece, George
                                                  Pagoulatos,      Athens     University   of
                                                  Economics and Business, Greece, Gert-
                                                  Rüdiger     Wegmarshaus,       EuroCollege,
The Fourth EU-CONSENT PhD School will
                                                  Tartu and Lucia Serena Rossi, University
be organized in Greece jointly by
                                                  of Bologna.
Foundation for European Studies -
                                                  All participants are expected to present a
European     Institute,   Lodz,     Poland,
                                                  paper directly based on their doctoral
Hellenic    University   Association    for
                                                  research thesis that is either an
European Studies (ECSA-Greece), Greek
                                                  analytical/findings,      theoretical    or
Centre of European Studies & Research
                                                  methodological chapter as one of the
(EKEME), Athens, Greece, and Corvinus
                                                  main objectives of the PhD School is to
University of Budapest.
                                                  assist    the    development      of   each
Date of the School: From 2 July 2007 to
                                                  participants’ doctoral thesis. In addition
6 July 2007
                                                  to presenting a paper based on the
Location: European Summer Academy,
                                                  doctoral research carried out, each
Greece Anargyrios College, Spetses
                                                  participant will also be expected to act as
Theme of the PhD School
                                                  a discussant to another presentation,
The EU-CONSENT Fourth PhD School is
                                                  and to contribute to the general
devoted to the theme of democracy,
                                                  discussion     of    paper    presentations
legitimacy and identities in the context
                                                  throughout the school.
of the enlarging and deepening Union.
These issues will be presented and
discussed within the multidisciplinary
                                                  SECOND EU-CONSENT PHD SCHOOL AND
framework, combining legal, political and
                                                  EXPERT WORKSHOP, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
cultural approaches. The week of the
                                                  DUBLIN, 19-23 FEBRUARY 2007
PhD School will consist in equal parts of
lectures from leading senior researchers,
and of participants presenting and                The PhD School was an outstanding
discussing their own research.                    experience in three different ways,
The main area to be discussed during              academic, social, and cultural. First,
this Summer School is the role of                 academically the PhD school was a great
citizens in the process of European               opportunity       to    enhance      one’s
integration and especially the issue of           understanding of a plethora of EU issues.
transforming of the EU from democracies           Several renowned EU experts gave
to European democracy. What form of               brilliant input on a great assortment of
democracy is appropriate for a polity             EU topics, such as EU legislation, foreign
beyond the nation state? It is assumed            policy, political economy and the future
that support of democratic values and             of the EU. Each participant had the
active political participation constitute         opportunity to present a paper. At least
major elements in building a wider and            two     academics     provided   valuable
deeper European Union. This assumption            feedback on the students’ presentation
will be discussed using various concepts          which was followed by an open
and types of democracy, through the               discussion. It was very constructive to
analysis of the role of Charter for Human         interact with distinguished academics in
Rights, through debate on European                such a friendly and relaxed environment.
demos and political identity and via
discussion on factors influencing the             Second, socially it was amazing to meet
public discourse on European matters.             a bunch of bright and passionate PhD
Invited speakers are leading scholars in          students from all across Europe. Hearing
the study of these issues: Dimitris N.            about a wide range of subjects within the
Chryssochoou,     University    of   Crete,       discipline of European Studies ardently
Christian Franck, Universite Catholique           presented provided a great deal of
de Louvain, Dieter Fuchs, University of           inspiration. Moreover, it was important
Stuttgart,    Maria    Karasinska-Fendler,        to see how people from different
European Institute, Lodz, Poland, Hans-           geographic and cultural backgrounds
Dieter                        Klingemann,         share the same academic interests.
Wissenschaftszentrum         Berlin     fur       Spending some time together outside

the academic programme enabled the                 opportunity to debate their ideas with
participants to get to know each other a           their ‘fellow sufferers’ and on the other
little better in a more personal setting           hand their papers and their research
and to lead conversations stretching               outline     were   commented     by   the
beyond EU matters.                                 respective expert in the field in great
Finally, culturally the PhD School enabled
to become acquainted with Dublin and               The discussion of the various research
Ireland. This constituted an important             ranged within the triangle of research
part of the week. The social programme             question, theory and methods. As a
supplemented the academic agenda                   central theme, the challenge of an
nicely and made it possible to see some            analytical conceptionalisation in the field
pretty corners of Dublin, taste the Irish          of CFSP/ESDP was emphasized due to
cuisine (yes, there is one!), learn more           the complexity of correlated pillars,
about     the   historical   and   political       overlapping     internal   and     external
environment of Ireland, and experience             dimensions and a multitude of actors at
Irish pub culture and music. To sum up,            European and national level in Europe’s
the Second EU Consent PhD School in                foreign policy. Thus, the different
Dublin provided an excellent blend of              approaches      of    participants    were
academic,       social     and,    cultural        particularly interesting and inspiring for
impressions that certainly will be                 all of the PhD School’s attendees.
reflected in improved and enriched
research of the participants.                      Alongside the demanding program, an
                                                   afternoon of punting on the river Cam
                        Matthias M. Mayer          provided relaxation and impressive
                                                   insights in the hidden spaces of some of
THIRD EU-CONSENT PHD SCHOOL                        the oldest colleges of Cambridge. A few
“THE      CFSP/ESDP:       EFFECTIVE               of them hosted the participants for the
MULTILATERALISM”, CAMBRIDGE 23 – 26                traditional college dinners (“Formal
APRIL 2007                                         Hall”) which helped to get rid of several
                                                   prejudices towards British cuisine.
The Third EU-CONSENT PhD School
organized by the Centre of International           The Cambridge PhD School was an
Studies (Cambridge University) took                excellent networking opportunity for the
place in the remarkable atmosphere of              young scientists by providing sufficient
Cambridge with its long standing                   time to interact in scientific, professional
university    history    and    its    well-       and personal terms with both other PhD-
established    colleges.    The     intense        students    and    established     scholars.
sessions at the School as well as the              Further more, the majority of the
supporting program were seen as a                  School’s participants also took advantage
success by the participants coming from            of attending the subsequent two day EU-
across Europe currently involved in                CONSENT       Conference       “Issues    of
different stages of their PhD research.            Representation and Responsibility” that
                                                   provided other interesting insights into
Introductory lectures of acknowledged              current research activities in the field of
researchers in the field of CFSP/ESDP              European foreign policy.
marked the beginning of each session of
the PhD School. They helped to conceive                                              Julia Lieb
from a multidisciplinary perspective the
state of affairs and underlying research
questions in particular domains ranging
from the institutional and legal setting of
European foreign policy to the Union’s
appearance and action towards third
parties. Each introductory lecture was
succeeded by PhD-presentations and
discussions of one or two papers related
to the topic at hand. This actually formed
the heart of the PhD School as the
benefit for the participants was twofold:
on the one hand they had the

                                                    Date: Ljubljana, 3-4 December 2007
III. UPCOMING        EU-CONSENT        AND          Organized by: Conference organized by
OTHER EVENTS                                        the Centre of International Relations
                                                    (Faculty of Social Sciences, University of
                                                    Ljubljana), in cooperation with the Trans
                                                    European Policy Studies Association
                                                    (TEPSA), and EU-CONSENT
Date: Lisbon, 27 June 2007
                                                    Title:            Enhancing            the
Organized by: Seminar organized by
                                                    Competitiveness of the EU by
the Instituto de EstudosEstratégicos e
                                                    Engaging Globalisation and Social
Internacionais (IEEI), in cooperation
                                                    Cohesion: Priorities of the Slovenian
with the Trans European Policy Studies
                                                    EU Presidency
Association (TEPSA), and EU-CONSENT
                                                    The conference will be organized on the
Title: Overcoming the Impasse:
                                                    occasion of the launching of the
Challenges       for    the     Portuguese
                                                    Slovenian Presidency of the EU. The aim
Presidency of the EU
                                                    of the conference is to present to the
On the eve of the third Portuguese
                                                    diplomatic and academic community, to
Presidency of the European Union, the
                                                    media and wider public the priorities of
IEEI in Lisbon is organizing a seminar on
                                                    the Slovenian government as well as to
some of the main current issues of the
                                                    reflect upon the challenges that lie
European debate.
                                                    ahead of the Slovenian Presidency.
Draft programme:
                                                    Draft programme:
I. Session: Constitution, Institutional
                                                    I. Session: Priorities and Challenges of
Reform and the Future of the EU:
                                                    the Slovenian
breaking the deadlock?
                                                    Marjan Svetlicic, Chair (Centre of
Maria      Karasinska      Fendler,     Chair
                                                    International Relations,
(European Institute, Poland); Andrew
                                                    Slovenia); Wolfgang Wessels (University
Duff     (MEP, United Kingdom); Jill
                                                    of Cologne); Dimitrii Rupel (Slovenian
Donoghue       (Institute    for    European
                                                    MFA);      Alvaro    Vasconcelos     (IEEI,
Affairs,    Ireland);    Jap     de   Zwaan
                                                    Portugal);     Feri   Horvat    (Slovenian
(Clingendael, the Netherlands).
                                                    National Assembly); Gabriela Konevska
II. Session: Tracing the Union’s horizon:
                                                    Trajkovska (Deputy Prime Minister,
Enlargement and neighbourhood
                                                    Macedonia); Geoffrey Edwards (Centre
Marjan Svetlicic, Chair (Centre of
                                                    of International Relations, UK); Visnja
International Relations, Slovenia); Jacek
                                                    Samardzija (Institute for International
Saryusz-Wolski (MEP, Poland); Gianni
                                                    Relations, Croatia).
Bonvicini (IAI, Italy); Atila Eralp (METU,
                                                    II. Session: Enhancing Competitiveness
                                                    by Enlarging the EU: Integrating South
III. Session: The EU’s external action:
                                                    Eastern Europe
already a foreign policy?
                                                    Andres     Kasekamp, Chair (Estonian
Hanna Ojanen, Chair (UPI-FIIA, Finland);
                                                    Foreign       Policy    Institute);     Jan
Martin Ortega (ISS/EU, Paris); Andres
                                                    Truszczynski (European Commission);
Kasekamp (Estonian Foreign Policy
                                                    Maria     Karasinska-Fendler     (European
Institute);      Matthias      Jopp     (IEP,
                                                    Institute, Lodz); Osman Topcagic (Office
                                                    of European Affairs, Sarajevo); Goran
IV. Session: Continuity at the helm: are
                                                    Svilanovic (Stability Pact); Mathias Jopp
team presidencies the way forward for
                                                    (Institut fur Europäische Politik, Berlin);
the EU? - Evaluation of the German
                                                    Nikos Frangakis (Greek Centre of
                                                    European Studies and Research).
Officials from Germany, Portugal and
                                                    III. Session: Enhancing Competitiveness
Slovenia. In addition, Manuel Lobo
                                                    by Engaging Globalisation: Investing in
Antunes, the Portuguese Secretary of
                                                    Education and R&D
State for European Affairs, will give a
                                                    Iain Begg, Chair (LSE, UK); Janez
keynote address on the priorities of the
                                                    Potocnik (European Commission); André
Portuguese Presidency. Gunilla Herolf
                                                    Sapir (Université Libre de Bruxelles);
will also present the EUCONSENT/ TEPSA
                                                    Franjo Bobinac (Gorenje, Velenje); Janez
‘Recommendations for the Portuguese
                                                    Sustersic (Institute of Macroeconomic
Presidency,’ a follow-up of the points
                                                    Analysis and Development, Slovenia);
                                                    Bostjan Zeks (Slovenian Academy of
                                                    Sciences and Arts).

IV. Session: A Constitution for the EU: A        answer the four following questions:
Way Forward                                      1. Which contribution has the discipline
Gunilla     Herolf,    Chair   (Stockholm        of Political Science made to the
International Peace Research Institute);         understanding of EMU?
Janez Lenarcic (State Secretary for              2. Which assumptions, hypotheses,
European Affairs, Slovenia); Andrew              predictions are proving right or wrong?
Duff (MEP); Alain Lamassoure (MEP);              3. What has the discipline of Political
Lojze Peterle (MEP); Graham Avery                Science learned from EMU?
(TEPSA, Brussels); Andrej Nabergoj               Participants are requested to register by
(Parsek, Slovenia); Matja Gnahtigal              sending an email to Lucian Leustean
(Convention 2002).                               (l.n.leustean@lse.ac.uk) no later than
V. Session: From Words to Deeds! New             Friday 8 June, including their name, title
Financial Perspective’s Priorities and           and affiliation
Challenges                                       Place: London School of Economic
Alan Dukes, Chair (Institute of European         Title: Religion and Politics in the
Affairs, Dublin); Iztok Jarc (Ministry of        Construction of the European Union
Agriculture,     Forestry    and     Food,       More information: www.lse.ac.uk
Slovenia); Reimer Böge (MEP); Mojmir              ______________________________
Mrak (Faculty of Economics, Slovenia);
Iain Begg (LSE, UK); Daniel Gros (Centre         Date: 3-5 September 2007
for European Policy Studies, Brussels);          Place: Portsmouth, UK
Milan Cvikl (National Assembly,                  Event: 37th UACES Annual Conference
Slovenia).                                       Title: Exchanging Ideas on Europe 2007
VI. Session: Expectations and Realities          More: Does your research have an
Bojko Bucar (Centre of International             emphasis on Europe? The 37th UACES
Relations, Slovenia); Janez Lenarcic             Annual Conference is an opportunity to
(State Secretary for European Affairs,           present a paper to an audience from a
Slovenia); Wolfgang Wessels (University          broad     range     of    European-related
of Cologne and EU-CONSENT); Renaud               disciplines.The conference will be hosted
Dehousse (Centre européen de Sciences            by    the    Centre    for   European    &
Po,    Paris);   Attila   Ágh    (Corvinus       International Studies Research at the
University, Hungary); Mojka Drcar-               University of Portsmouth.
Murko (MEP).                                     More information: www.uaces.org
For further information, please contact           ______________________________
marjan.svetlicic@fdv.uni-lj.si                   Call for papers:
                                                 All selected candidates will be expected
OTHER EVENTS                                     to submit their paper of 6-8,000 words.
                                                 The deadline for applications is 22 June
Call for Papers: Please submit detailed          2007. Expressions of interest should be
suggestions for papers (1-2 pages) to            addressed to the organisers of the
Henrik     Enderlein     enderlein@hertie-       workshop,     Anke     Schmidt-Felzmann
school.org, enderlein@hertie-school.org)         (a.schmidt-
and Amy Verdun averdun@uvic.ca,                  felzmann.1@research.gla.ac.uk)       and
averdun@uvic.ca)                                 Valentina                     Feklyunina
Call for papers deadline: 1 July 2007            (v.feklyunina.1@research.gla.ac.uk).
Date: 16 June 2007                               Date: 19-20 September 2007
Place: Berlin                                    Title: Security of Energy Supply in the
Title: EMU after 10 years: What have             New Europe: A Challenge for the EU's
we learned in Political Science?                 Neighbourhood Policy
More: On 1 January 2009, the start of            Place: Glasgow
the third stage of Economic and                  More: Energy security has become one
Monetary Union (EMU) in the European             of the most salient issues on the EU’s
Union (EU) will celebrate its tenth              agenda, with one of the main concerns
anniversary. Research in political science       being the dependency on Russian
was very active during the run-up to             supplies. The European Neighbourhood
EMU and its early years in assessing its         Policy (ENP) sets out to reduce the risks
possible consequences.                           of this dependency by ‘enhancing [the
The end of the first decade marks an             EU’s] strategic energy partnership with
excellent opportunity to take stock of the       neighbouring countries’, such as with the
research in political science and to             Southern Caucasus, or other neighbours

of importance both for the production              formulation,      implementation,     and
and the transit of energy. The workshop            outcomes. Moreover, because of the
aims at exploring the energy security              range of concrete challenges that the
related aspects of the ENP in respect to           ENP is meant to address, the study of
(i) the potential of and limits to creating        the ENP must also be contextualised in
strategic     energy  partnerships     with        particular sub-fields of academic inquiry,
neighbouring states and                            such     as   conflict    resolution  and
(ii) the divergent geopolitical interests          democratisation/democracy promotion.
of Russia and the EU in the ‘near abroad’          Against this background, the organisers
as a serious challenge for the successful          of this workshop invite paper proposals
implementation of the ENP Action Plans,            in three broad areas:
(iii) possible scenarios to resolve the            (1)  What are the appropriate methods
EU’s energy supply ‘dilemma’.                      and theories for the study of the
 ______________________________                    ENP?

Call for papers: Proposals (to include a           (2)       How does the ENP fit into the
paper title and a 250 abstract of the              broader framework of the EU's external
proposed                                           relations and foreign and security
paper) should be submitted via email as            policies?
MS     Word    attachment     to    Richard
Whitman (r.g.whitman@bath.ac.uk) and               (3)   What are the achievements of the
Stefan                                 Wolff       ENP to date, and how can we explain
(stefan.wolff@nottingham.ac.uk)                    successes and failures in individual cases
Call for papers deadline: 30 June2007              and of the policy more generally?
Date: 25-26 October
Place: Nottingham                                  Papers can be theoretical/conceptual in
Title: Much ado about nothing? The                 nature, and/or focus on one or more
European Neighbourhood Policy since                case studies. It is envisaged that
2003                                               selected papers will be published in an
More: The European Union's European                edited volume and/or special issue of a
Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) has been in             relevant journal.
existence since 2003 seeking to offer a             ______________________________
deeper      political    and      economic
relationship to the EU's neighbours - but
without    an     accession    perspective.        Date: 26-27 November 2007
After more than four years, it is time for         Event: ERA Conference
a      stock-taking       exercise      and        Title: The Fight Against Discrimination:
assess to which extent the ENP has                 The Equal Treatment Directives of 2000
achieved its objectives, what the                  More: Certain key subjects essential to
strengths    and      weaknesses    in   its       the understanding of the two directives
implementation are, and whether it has             will be reprised from the earlier
a future as an EU policy area distinct             seminars, but topical issues of particular
from, but closely related to CFSP, ESDP            use in the training of legal practitioners
and enlargement.                                   will also be addressed. How have the
                                                   directives been transposed in the states
The study of the ENP thus intersects               parties   to   the     community      action
conceptually with a number of existing             programme       against     discrimination?
disciplines and sub-disciplines, including         Which problems of interpretation have
International Relations (especially the            been encountered? Is it possible to refer
study of international organisations) and          directly to the provisions of the
Foreign    Policy    Analysis    (especially       directives? The seminar will include an
European/EU FPA), as well as, of course,           analysis of the first preliminary rulings at
the study of the EU itself and its internal        the European Court of Justice.
policy processes. ENP must also be                 More information: www.era.int
considered in the light of ongoing                  ______________________________
broader     theoretical    debates    about
realist,   liberal    and     constructivist       Call for Papers: The conference is for
approaches to the study of international           PhD students, and young scholars.
relations and their value in describing,           Candidates must send an abstract of
explaining,     and     predicting   policy        around 500 words, a short biography of

200 words, as well as a summary of                   states, a federal Europe and a Europe
their thesis or main research project in             of regions.
200 words. Only the proposals that
include those three elements will be                4. Europe as a Power – Europe as a tool
taken into consideration. Applications                 of Power
can be written in French or in English,                In this session, we will analyse cases
and must be sent by email (word, rtf or                that take into consideration the
pdf format) to colloquerichie@yahoo.com                dichotomy of a Europe as a power
Call for papers deadline: 30 June                      versus a Europe instrumentalised by
Date: 14-15 December 2007                              the member states or by an external
Title: The two Europes                                 power. We find this dichotomy, for
Place: Naples                                          example, in the field of the EEC’s
Theme: The theme will be analysed in 4                 external relations, during the Cold
sessions that will focus on:                           War with the partition of Europe,
                                                       then with the attempts to overcome
1. The two Europes : Continuity and                    the division of Europe. Papers can
   breaks in the 19th and 20th Century.                thus examine this problematic from
   The first theme will enable us to                   the perspective of the internal or
   analyse Europe’s major historical                   external perception of Europe as a
   divisions, such as Catholic and                     power and as a tool of power.
   Protestant Europe, agrarian and
   industrialised Europe, Eastern and               More: Selected candidates will be
   Western Europe. Papers that adopt a              contacted on 30th September 2007. They
   long-term perspective are particularly           must send the final version of their
   welcome.                                         papers by 15th November at the latest, in
                                                    order for those to be distributed to the
2. Europe as a dream - Europe as a                  other participants before the start of the
   reality.                                         conference.
   In this session, we will analyse the             Presentations should last about 20
   opposition between the idea of                   minutes, and can be given in French or
   Europe, and its actual achievements.             in English.
   Papers       can     mention       the
   representations of Europe, as well as            We are thinking about publishing the
   the European projects since the 19th             papers, and if this happened, they could
   Century and how they matched up in               be written in French, English or Italian.
   reality. The papers can deal, for
   example, with the hopes raised by                The University Suor Orsola Benincasa
   the Hague conference in 1948, and                will cover accommodation costs and the
   the    achievements     of   European            registration    fee  for    the selected
   cooperation since 1948. They can                 candidates. However, transport costs will
   take into consideration the opposition           not be covered. For students who do not
   between a Europe of elites, and a                have enough funds to cover transport
   Europe     of    the   people.    The            costs, RICHIE will help to seek
   contributions can also analyse the               alternative funding.
   role played by the dichotomy Europe              More        info:     http://www.europe-
   as a dream-Europe as a reality in the            richie.org/Naples2007/index-en.html
   enlargement process from the 1970s
   to this day.

3. Political   Europe(s)    –    Economic
  Europe witnessed several economic
  and political projects during the 20th
  Century. Papers can thus study the
  dichotomy between political Europe
  economic Europe. In the economic
  sphere, they could focus, for example,
  on the opposition between integrated
  and liberal Europe, while in the political
  sphere,    they   can    consider     the
  opposition between a Europe of nation-

IV. ABSTRACTS                                        The European Union has faced the
                                                     “deepening v. widening” dilemma since
                                                     its origins. At the beginning of the
                                                     European construction the major focus
                                                     was on deepening: the European
                                                     Community was established in 1957 as a
                                                     tariff union mainly concerned with
           Serena Ciani
                                                     economic      and     trade     issues   and
                                                     progressively added several areas of
                                                     competences and common policies, from
                                                     environmental and consumer policy with
Drawing on the contraposition between
                                                     the Single European Act, to citizenship
spatial analysis and power index
                                                     and CSFP with the Maastricht Treaty.
analysis, respectively stemming from
                                                             During the same years, another
non-cooperative and cooperative game
                                                     sort of deepening was pursued: the EC
theory and characterising the literature
                                                     tried to increase its integration at a
on quantitative investigation of power,
                                                     constitutional level. This was attained
this paper reviews game theoretical
                                                     mainly with the contribution of the Court
approaches to power measurement and
                                                     of Justice that highlighted through its
evaluates their applications to the EU.
                                                     case law the founding principles of the
In particular it focuses on the EU
                                                     EC    and     also    through     the   deep
decision-making        framework,     whose
                                                     amendments of the treaties. Several
complex procedures complicate the
                                                     enlargements took place before 2004,
construction of meaningful models:
                                                     when the EU experienced its major
- speculating on the validity of
                                                     extension passing from twelve to twenty
    standard power index analysis in a
                                                     five States. Indeed, the two last
    constitutional perspective;
                                                     amendments of the founding treaties,
- reflecting upon the viability and
                                                     Amsterdam and Nice, did not introduce
    worth of a unified framework
                                                     many significant reforms, but were
    (explicitly accounting for players’
                                                     conceived to enable and facilitate this
    policy        preferences)      partially
                                                     process. The second phase of the
    combining spatial approaches with
                                                     European integration, with Romania and
    voting power analysis in an ex post
                                                     Bulgaria’s accession last January, seems
                                                     to    be    characterised     by    widening
Provided that grasping the locus of EU-
power requires considering the political
                                                             However, it is undeniable that the
character of governments, small vs.
                                                     way the first States joined the EC cannot
large states, new vs. old Europe, etc., it
                                                     be compared to the latest accessions.
is shown that political science, and
                                                     Throughout the EU developed a set of
purposely European studies, would
                                                     conditions to be applied to the candidate
benefit from using empirical power
                                                     for accession. These conditions, even if
indices taking such factors into account.
                                                     not enshrined in a single document nor
However,       from     the    constitutional
                                                     stated in a binding act, have become one
perspective of an enlarged and enlarging
                                                     of the most powerful instruments of EU
Union, the validity of a priori power
                                                     foreign     policy.     This     membership
indexes is confirmed.
                                                     conditionality is the utmost expression of
Accordingly the paper suggests that
                                                     the power of the EU towards foreign
game theoretical approaches give rise to
                                                     countries to impose its will and its
different power indexes fitting different
                                                     standards to a European State which
purposes and that there is a substantial
                                                     intends to become a member.
EU research agenda to develop and
                                                             This is in partial contradiction with
investigate by means of them.
                                                     the widening process experienced in the
Click here to download the whole
                                                     last years. On the one hand, the EU
                                                     declared its readiness and willingness to
                                                     welcome new members; on the other,
                                                     the conditions to be met become
            Luisa Ficchi
                                                     increasingly complex, making accession
                                                     more difficult. One of the most important
                                                     features of this model is embodied by
                                                     the rule of law. Law is not only a major
                                                     attribute of every democratic society,

but it also represents one of the                  normative consideration that might
foundations of the internal structure of           dominate with regard to refugee policy.
the EU and one of the directives of its            Fourth, EU measures on economic
external actions. The rule of law, being           migration are unlikely to follow a solely
imposed as one of the membership                   restrictive pattern. This poses doubts on
conditions, deserves particular attention          the applicability of the venue-shopping
when analysing the dynamics of EU                  concept that suggests the outcome of
enlargement.                                       restrictive policies on the EU level.
       In the first part of this paper, I          Concerning promising theoretical paths
will deal with the notion of European              to follow, the paper suggests that the
Union as a Community based on the rule             power of member states’ preferences
of law, in the way it has been developed           needs to be given priority. Nonetheless,
by the European Court of Justice case              it might be necessary to supplement the
law. In the second part, I will explore the        insights    of   such     a   state-centric
scope of the membership conditions                 framework with premises established by
throughout their evolution in the light of         neo-functionalism. These are namely
the rule of law. In the last part, I will          functional spill-overs from the Single
consider the means used by the EU to               Market     coupled with     influence of
ensure compliance with the rule of law in          supranational actors, such as the
the event of a pre-accession strategy.             European Commission or the European
Click here to download the whole                   Court of Justice. Finally, the paper
paper                                              suggests three empirical factors that
 ______________________________                    influence EU policy developments on
                                                   legal economic migration: first EU
         Matthias M. Mayer                         enlargement, second the organisation of
   CAN THE EXISTING CONCEPTS                       member states’ economies, and third
     DEVISED TO EXPLAIN THE                        and finally competition between member
    DEVELOPMENTS TOWARDS A                         states for the most highly skilled
COMMON EUROPEAN UNION POLICY                       migrants.
    ON ASYLUM, REFUGEES AND                        Click here to download the whole
 ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION ACCOUNT                       paper _________________________
          MIGRATION?                               SCHOOL

Since the establishment of the Single                       Xymena Kurowska
Market Programme in 1986, there have                THE TRANSFORMATIVE EUROPEAN
been a number of fragmented EU                      SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY:
measures on legal economic migration.                  BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL
This paper assesses the applicability of             REFASHIONING AND DOMESTIC
existing theories that have been devised                   RISE OF POLITICS
for related fields, such as asylum and
illegal migration, to explain these
                                                           The period since 2003 when the
developments. The paper presents four
                                                   first ESDP operation was deployed has
concepts. It argues while they establish
                                                   witnessed an impressive proliferation of
useful     premises   there    are    also
                                                   ESDP missions. Seen against the
deficiencies and neither concept alone is
                                                   backdrop of the EU project at large, the
able to provide a full explanation. First,
                                                   ESDP expansion clearly disrupts the
neo-functionalism    has    problems    to
                                                   received wisdom about the protracted
explain the incremental nature of the
                                                   and reactive nature of the EU enterprise.
policy    developments     on    economic
                                                   The neat picture of the EU as an
migration.    Second,   principal   agent
                                                   economic giant but a political dwarf and
theory seems to be the most promising
                                                   a military worm has similarly ceased to
concept. However, it might need to be
                                                   reflect the EU posture.
supplemented with ideas from different
                                                           The paper makes an argument
theoretical strands, most notably neo-
                                                   about strategic moulding of the ESDP
functionalism.      Third,      ideational
                                                   and a twofold transformative impact
institutions seem to underestimate the
                                                   thereof, namely refashioning the EU role
degree to which national preferences on
                                                   internationally and fostering the EU
economic migration are determined by
                                                   intra-politics domestically. The process
materialistic interests, as opposed to
                                                   of deploying missions reveals to be a

strategic search for opportunities to              France, Germany and the United
convey an image of the EU as a unique              Kingdom, three dominant players in
crisis manager. Politics being the art of          CFSP, seems also particularly influential
the possible, however, ESDP decision-              in negotiations. Finally, the case study
makers and shapers do not act                      suggests that the involvement of NGOs
unconstrained, if only for the existence           at the domestic level can also have an
of other prominent conceptions of the EU           impact on the EU’s effectiveness.
as an international actor. Accordingly,            Click here to download the whole
the ESDP deployment decisions create               paper
useful     institutional precedents  and            ______________________________
evidence that can be used in internal
political struggles.                               Carmen Campo Fanlo and Miguel Medina
Click here to download the whole                                 Abellan
paper                                                 EUROPEAN FOREIGN POLICY
 ______________________________                      WITHOUT LEGAL PERSONALITY?
                                                   THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE FAILED
         Caroline Bouchard                             CONSTITUTIONAL TREATY
 UNITED NATIONS: THE CHALLENGE                     What are the possible directions for the
       OF HUMAN SECURITY                           European Union’s foreign policy with or
                                                   without legal personality? What are the
This paper explores the conditions under           real problems of not possessing an
which the EU is an effective actor at the          explicitly conferred legal personality? To
United Nations in the policy area of               what extent does this fact influence
international human security. Since the            European Foreign Policy? The purpose of
early      1990s,       human      security        the present Article is to analyse the issue
negotiations at the United Nations have            of legal personality of the EU and the
aimed to introduce stricter regulations            possible consequences of the failed
and to enhance the security of                     Constitutional    Treaty     for   European
individuals. The EU presents itself as a           Foreign Policy. The article starts off by
leader in the promotion of concrete                presenting what are the real problems
actions in this field. This paper examines         concerning this issue and why it is
whether the EU is truly an effective actor         important. The Introduction also includes
in human security negotiations at the UN           some words about how do International
and aims to identify conditions which              Relations     theories     conceive     legal
may influence the EU’s effectiveness.              personality. The first section moves on
The paper suggests that the analysis of            to the concept of legal personality and
the EU’s effectiveness at the UN in                compares the situation of the European
human security negotiations requires the           Communities and the Union under
understanding of the ways in which a               International Law, in order to establish
complex web of actors and institutions             what are the possible parameters of the
interact at three different levels (UN, EU         issue. The second section studies the
and domestic). This paper analyzes a               proposal to confer explicitly legal
specific    case    of    human    security        personality on the EU, proposed by the
negotiations: UN negotiations addressing           Convention      and    the     Constitutional
the proliferation of small arms and light          Treaty, and analyses the relevant
weapons (SALW). The analysis of the                provisions in this regard. The third
case study reveals that, at the UN level,          section presents a political analysis of
the degree of the EU’s commitment to               the possible implications of legal
multilateralism and the position of the            personality to European Foreign Policy
United States regarding a potential                and presents what would be the situation
agreement seem to have an effect on                if legal personality was introduced de
the EU’s effectiveness. At the EU level,           facto. The conclusions close the present
the case study shows that several key              articles.
EU member states channelled their                  The paper will be published in The
efforts to convince their EU partners to           International       Spectator,      2008/1
act on this human security issue. The
role of the EU presidency in coordinating
the position of all EU Member States
seems to have directly affected the EU’s
effectiveness at the UN. The support of

                                                   dominate on all grounds, so that the
V.NEWS       RELATED    TO    EU-CONSENT           choice would have to weigh pros and
ACTIVITIES                                         cons.
Notre Europe
The full articles are available at:                Centre for European Reform
www.notre-europe.eu                                The full articles are available at:
Funding the EU Budget with a                       com
Genuine Own Resource: The case for
a European Tax                                     What is wrong with Lisbon?
by Jacques Le Cacheux                              by Aurore Wanlin

                                                   The Lisbon agenda embodies a paradox.
Amounting to approximately bn. 120 € in            Progress made by the member-states
2007, i.e. a little more than 1% of                has been slow and patchy. The German
European GDP, the EU budget is almost              presidency in the first half of 2007 is
exclusively       funded     by    national        playing down Lisbon, fearing that the
contributions      based    on   GNI.    In        process has been discredited by the EU’s
preparation for the mid-term review                failure   to    meet      its    targets.
called for by both the EU Council of               Commentators often cite Lisbon as an
December 2005 and the EU Parliament,               example of the mismatch between the
this paper offers a broad reflection on            EU’s grand ambitions and lack of
possible instruments for funding the EU            delivery.
budget with genuine own resources,                  ______________________________
specifically on the possible EU tax
instruments. It first briefly recalls the          Divided World:      The    struggle   for
history of the EU budget and a number              primacy in 2020
of important flaws and drawbacks in the            by Mark Leonard
decision-making procedures over the
medium term financial framework that               The world in 2020 will not see a new
currently      defines    the    path    of        world order, but a competition between
expenditures for seven years. In the               four ideas of how the world should be
second section, we review the major                run: an American world striving for a
criteria to be considered when choosing            balance    of    power     that    favours
amongst various financing instruments;             democracy;     a   'Eurosphere'     whose
some such criteria are of general                  support for democracy is coupled with a
application in any democratic public               belief in international institutions; an
finance context, others are more specific          'axis of sovereignty' led by China and
to decentralized or federal contexts.              Russia that sees multilateral institutions
Major candidates for an EU tax are then            as protection from western interference;
analyzed in more detail, and assessed              and a Middle Eastern 'faith zone', defined
according these various criteria: first,           neither by democracy nor the rule of
the most frequently quoted ones, a                 law. This essay sketches the outlines of
European VAT or an excise duty or eco-             the 'quadripolar world' that is awaiting
tax; then the corporate income tax, also           us.
an obvious candidate in a single market;            ______________________________
finally a number of other tax instruments
sometimes mentioned here or there. A               The     Lisbon      Scorecard     VII
very rough estimation of the potential             globalisation leave Europe stranded?
yield of each of these instruments is              by Katinka Barysch, Simon Tilford and
then attempted, based on existing                  Aurore Wanlin
aggregate data, in order to provide
orders of magnitude. Section 5 is                  Globalisation and the rapid integration of
dedicated to discussing some practical             China and India into the international
difficulties related to the implementation         economy present huge opportunities for
of a European tax. We then conclude                the European Union. But only those
that an eco-tax or a corporate income              member-states       with     a     strong
tax would seem to fare quite well with             comparative advantage in knowledge-
regard to the majority of criteria                 based goods and services will benefit.
discussed, but that none appears to                The CER’s seventh Lisbon scorecard

paints a mixed picture of the EU’s                  economic competitiveness of the EU and
prospects. While some member states                 the risks posed by its ageing population.
are well-placed, others are not and must             ______________________________
invest much more in human capital and
research and development.                           Neighbourhood Policy
CEPS                                                The full articles are available at:
The full articles are available at:                 www.epc.eu
                                                    Balkans in Europe: Why, When and
Integration: An Ever-Closer                         How?
Challenge                                           by: Graham Avery, Judy Batt
by Stefano Bertozzi
                                                    In 2003, EU leaders promised the
This article argues for closer integration          countries of the Western Balkans that
to be a key part of the EU's migration              their future lay within the Union.
policy. It accepts that migration is                However, several Member States have
necessary for a prosperous Europe and               since    succumbed   to   ‘enlargement
looks at the role of the EU and how best            fatigue’ and this has fuelled doubts
to integrate immigrants. Countries'                 about the EU’s commitment to the
experiences and the need for better                 process. This Policy Brief by Graham
aligned policies among member states                Avery and Judy Batt argues that the
are     examined.       The        European         Union has a moral and political
Commission's role in sharing experiences            responsibility to keep its promise,
and best practices is considered, as well           considers the likely timeframe for
as the need for the many stakeholders               membership and assesses how to move
involved to work together. Integration is           the process forward.
a complex and delicate process, and                  ______________________________
ultimately the EU must be bolder in its
promotion of integration if it is to benefit        IFIMES
from migration.                                     The full articles are available at:
 ______________________________                     www.ifimes.org

Legal Migration - Time for Europe to                Does Bosnia and Herzegovina Need
Play Its Hand                                       the Institution of the High
by Stefano Bertozzi                                 Representative (OHR)

The European Commission has recently                After four years of war and destruction
rekindled the debate about a possible               of the social, demographic and state
future ruling on economic immigration,              structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a
including the conditions and procedures             more determined approach by the
for entry and residence, the principle of           international community aroused hope
Community preference and the rights of              for   peace   and    European  political
third-country workers. The purpose of               prospects for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
this paper is to recapitulate the main              The basis of the political solution for
phases of Community action in the area              peace and end of the war was formed in
of legal migration for economic reasons,            1994 and 1995 within the Contact Group
starting with the political mandate given           composed of the leading world powers:
to the European Commission by the                   the USA, the Russian Federation, Great
Tampere European Council. It moves on               Britain, France and Germany. The key
to outline the EU’s current legislative             role in the formation of the peace
programme       to      introduce   policy          solution known as the Dayton Peace
instruments in 2007–09 for regulating               Agreement during 1995 was played by
the migration of specific categories of             the USA administration.
workers, some of which are aimed at                  ______________________________
easing the entry of highly skilled
workers. It underscores the case for
cohesive EU action in this controversial
area in view of the need to improve the

The European Union in the Fight                      without a coherent foreign policy has
Against Terrorism                                    lacked a foreign minister since January
by Dr. Mihael Brejc                                  2007; Boris Tarasyuk, the western-
                                                     leaning foreign minister and Yushchenko
One of my fellow MEP's recently said to              ally, resigned after a particularly nasty
me:     "After    9/11     everything    has         campaign by the Yanukovich camp.
changed." The world is not safer than                 ______________________________
before, just the opposite. Terrorist
attacks are occurring everywhere, not                CEPS
only in Western democracies. Many                    The full articles are available at:
innocent people are dying in the process,            www.ceps.be
the material damage is enormous and
fear is slowly creeping into people.                 European Neighbourhood Policy Two
What was the response of the US and                  Years on: Time indeed for an ‘ENP
the EU to such attacks? We implemented               plus’
justified      anti-terrorist    measures;           by    Michael     Emerson, Gergana
however, they have hindered the                      Noutcheva, Nicu Popescu
mobility of our citizens, limited economic
cooperation, forced us to increase                   Conceived in 2003 and 2004, the
budgetary and private funds for security             European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)
and worsened inter-personal relations                has now had two years of operational
within       multi-cultural        societies.        experience. This initial experience has
Life in the EU is less safe and less                 seen a sorting out of the partner states,
pleasant today than it was a decade ago.             with Action Plans drawn up for five
We are increasingly aware of the                     Eastern and seven Southern partner
growing     terrorist    threat   and     are        states. We would distinguish among
continuously trying to find suitable                 these 12 states between the ‘willing’ and
methods and means to fight it.                       the ‘passive’; and among the other
 ______________________________                      partner states without Action Plans
                                                     between      the   ‘reluctant’  and    the
CER                                                  ‘excluded’. These groupings should be
The full articles are available at:                  the basis for stronger differentiation in
www.cer.org.uk                                       the policy packages offered by the EU. In
                                                     general the political context now calls for
Ukraine's Real Problem                               a strong reinforcement of the ENP, since
by Tomas Valasek                                     the benign situation of 2004 has given
                                                     way now to a more menacing one, given
A marriage of convenience is probably                threats to European values bearing down
too charitable a description of the                  on the EU from all sides. The EU
relationship between Ukraine's president,            institutions recognise these needs in
Viktor Yushchenko, and its prime                     principle, and last December the
minister, Viktor Yanukovich. Even taking             Commission advanced many valuable
account of their bitter struggle for power           proposals. ‘ENP plus’ is a term being
in 2004, few could have imagined that                used by the current German Presidency,
they would make such a mess of                       without this yet being defined in a public
Ukraine's ties with the outside world.               document in operational detail. In our
Since the 2006 elections led to their                view, ‘ENP plus’ could mean:
improbable and awkward power-sharing                 o Plus an advanced association model for
agreement, Ukraine's relations with                  the able and willing partner states,
NATO have been chaotic. Visiting                     o Plus a strengthening of regional-
Brussels last September, Yanukovich (in              multilateral schemes,
opposition to his foreign ministry) in               o Plus an upgrading of the standard
effect removed his country from a NATO               instruments being deployed, and
membership path. At the EU he                        o Plus the offer of an ‘ENP light’ model
reaffirmed Ukraine's strategic goal of               for difficult states or non-recognised
integrating with it. Yet in the same                 entities. More precisely we suggest a 15-
month he railed against the EU for                   point programme for achieving a
treating Ukraine as a "beggar" and called            qualitative upgrading of the ENP, to give
for    a    "restoration    of    mutually           it strategic leverage, rather than
advantageous good neighbourhood" with                allowing it to be seen as a poor cousin of
Russia. It is only fitting that a country            the enlargement process.


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